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A currency (from Middle English: curraunt, "in circulation", from Latin: currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any

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For other uses, see Currency (disambiguation).

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A currency (from Middle English: curraunt, "in circulation", from Latin: currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.[1][2] A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money (monetary units) in common use, especially in a nation.[3] Under this definition, US dollars, British pounds, Australian dollars, European euros and Russian ruble are examples of currency. These various currencies are recognized stores of value and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies.[4] Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, and each type has limited boundaries of acceptance.

Other definitions of the term "currency" are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote, coin, and money. The latter definition, pertaining to the currency systems of nations, is the topic of this article. Currencies can be classified into two monetary systems: fiat money and commodity money, depending on what guarantees the value (the economy at large vs. the government's physical metal reserves). Some currencies are legal tender in certain political jurisdictions. Others are simply traded for their economic value. Digital currency has arisen with the popularity of computers and the Internet.

  • 1 History
    • 1.1 Early currency
    • 1.2 Coinage
    • 1.3 Paper money
    • 1.4 Banknote era
  • 2 Modern currencies
  • 3 Alternative currencies
  • 4 Control and production
  • 5 Currency convertibility
  • 6 Local currencies
  • 7 List of major world payment currencies
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
History Early currency This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Cowry shells being used as money by an Arab trader.

Originally money was a form of receipt, representing grain stored in temple granaries in Sumer in ancient Mesopotamia and later in Ancient Egypt.

In this first stage of currency, metals were used as symbols to represent value stored in the form of commodities. This formed the basis of trade in the Fertile Crescent for over 1500 years. However, the collapse of the Near Eastern trading system pointed to a flaw: in an era where there was no place that was safe to store value, the value of a circulating medium could only be as sound as the forces that defended that store. Trade could only reach as far as the credibility of that military. By the late Bronze Age, however, a series of treaties had established safe passage for merchants around the Eastern Mediterranean, spreading from Minoan Crete and Mycenae in the northwest to Elam and Bahrain in the southeast. It is not known what was used as a currency for these exchanges, but it is thought that ox-hide shaped ingots of copper, produced in Cyprus, may have functioned as a currency.

It is thought that the increase in piracy and raiding associated with the Bronze Age collapse, possibly produced by the Peoples of the Sea, brought the trading system of oxhide ingots to an end. It was only with the recovery of Phoenician trade in the 10th and 9th centuries BC that saw a return to prosperity, and the appearance of real coinage, possibly first in Anatolia with Croesus of Lydia and subsequently with the Greeks and Persians. In Africa, many forms of value store have been used, including beads, ingots, ivory, various forms of weapons, livestock, the manilla currency, and ochre and other earth oxides. The manilla rings of West Africa were one of the currencies used from the 15th century onwards to sell slaves. African currency is still notable for its variety, and in many places various forms of barter still apply.

Coinage This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Main article: Coin

These factors led to the metal itself being the store of value: first silver, then both silver and gold, and at one point also bronze. Now we have copper coins and other non-precious metals as coins. Metals were mined, weighed, and stamped into coins. This was to assure the individual taking the coin that he was getting a certain known weight of precious metal. Coins could be counterfeited, but they also created a new unit of account, which helped lead to banking. Archimedes' principle provided the next link: coins could now be easily tested for their fine weight of metal, and thus the value of a coin could be determined, even if it had been shaved, debased or otherwise tampered with (see Numismatics).

Most major economies using coinage had several tiers of coins, using a mix of copper, silver and gold. Gold coins were used for large purchases, payment of the military and backing of state activities; they were more often used as measures of account than physical coins. Silver coins were used for midsized transactions, and as a unit of account for taxes, dues, contracts and fealty, while coins of copper, silver, or some mixture thereof (see debasement), were used for everyday transactions. This system had been used in ancient India since the time of the Mahajanapadas. The exact ratio in value of the three metals varied greatly in different eras and places; for example, the opening of silver mines in the Harz mountains of central Europe made silver relatively less valuable, as did the flood of New World silver after the Spanish conquests. However, the rarity of gold consistently made it more valuable than silver, and likewise silver was consistently worth more than copper.

Paper money Main article: Banknote

In premodern China, the need for credit and for a medium of exchange that was less physically cumbersome than large numbers of copper coins led to the introduction of paper money, i.e. banknotes. Their introduction was a gradual process which lasted from the late Tang dynasty (618–907) into the Song dynasty (960–1279). It began as a means for merchants to exchange heavy coinage for receipts of deposit issued as promissory notes by wholesalers' shops. These notes were valid for temporary use in a small regional territory. In the 10th century, the Song dynasty government began to circulate these notes amongst the traders in its monopolized salt industry. The Song government granted several shops the right to issue banknotes, and in the early 12th century the government finally took over these shops to produce state-issued currency. Yet the banknotes issued were still only locally and temporarily valid: it was not until the mid 13th century that a standard and uniform government issue of paper money became an acceptable nationwide currency. The already widespread methods of woodblock printing and then Pi Sheng's movable type printing by the 11th century were the impetus for the mass production of paper money in premodern China.

Song dynasty Jiaozi, the world's earliest paper money.

At around the same time in the medieval Islamic world, a vigorous monetary economy was created during the 7th–12th centuries on the basis of the expanding levels of circulation of a stable high-value currency (the dinar). Innovations introduced by Muslim economists, traders and merchants include the earliest uses of credit,[5] cheques, promissory notes,[6] savings accounts, transactional accounts, loaning, trusts, exchange rates, the transfer of credit and debt,[7] and banking institutions for loans and deposits.[7]

In Europe, paper money was first introduced on a regular basis in Sweden in 1661 (although Washington Irving records an earlier emergency use of it, by the Spanish in a siege during the Conquest of Granada). As Sweden was rich in copper, its low value necessitated extraordinarily big coins, often weighing several kilograms.

The advantages of paper currency were numerous: it reduced the need to transport gold and silver, which was risky; it facilitated loans of gold or silver at interest, since the underlying specie (gold or silver) never left the possession of the lender until someone else redeemed the note; and it allowed a division of currency into credit and specie backed forms. It enabled the sale of stock in joint-stock companies, and the redemption of those shares in paper.

But there were also disadvantages. First, since a note has no intrinsic value, there was nothing to stop issuing authorities from printing more notes than they had specie to back them with. Second, because it increased the money supply, it increased inflationary pressures, a fact observed by David Hume in the 18th century. Thus paper money would often lead to an inflationary bubble, which could collapse if people began demanding hard money, causing the demand for paper notes to fall to zero. The printing of paper money was also associated with wars, and financing of wars, and therefore regarded as part of maintaining a standing army. For these reasons, paper currency was held in suspicion and hostility in Europe and America. It was also addictive, since the speculative profits of trade and capital creation were quite large. Major nations established mints to print money and mint coins, and branches of their treasury to collect taxes and hold gold and silver stock.

At that time, both silver and gold were considered legal tender, and accepted by governments for taxes. However, the instability in the ratio between the two grew over the course of the 19th century, with the increases both in supply of these metals, particularly silver, and in trade. The parallel use of both metals is called bimetallism, and the attempt to create a bimetallic standard where both gold and silver backed currency remained in circulation occupied the efforts of inflationists. Governments at this point could use currency as an instrument of policy, printing paper currency such as the United States Greenback, to pay for military expenditures. They could also set the terms at which they would redeem notes for specie, by limiting the amount of purchase, or the minimum amount that could be redeemed.

By 1900, most of the industrializing nations were on some form of gold standard, with paper notes and silver coins constituting the circulating medium. Private banks and governments across the world followed Gresham's law: keeping the gold and silver they received, but paying out in notes. This did not happen all around the world at the same time, but occurred sporadically, generally in times of war or financial crisis, beginning in the early part of the 20th century and continuing across the world until the late 20th century, when the regime of floating fiat currencies came into force. One of the last countries to break away from the gold standard was the United States in 1971, an action known as the Nixon shock. No country has an enforceable gold standard or silver standard currency system.

Banknote era Main articles: Banknote and Fiat currency

A banknote (more commonly known as a bill in the United States and Canada) is a type of currency, and commonly used as legal tender in many jurisdictions. With coins, banknotes make up the cash form of all money. Banknotes are mostly paper, but Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation developed the world's first polymer currency in the 1980s that went into circulation on the nation's bicentenary in 1988. Now used in some 22 countries (over 40 if counting commemorative issues), polymer currency dramatically improves the life span of banknotes and prevents counterfeiting.

Modern currencies Name of currency units by country. Strength of currencies relative to USD as of April 2016. Currencies exchange logo Most traded currencies by value
Currency distribution of global foreign exchange market turnover[8] Rank Currency ISO 4217 code
(symbol) % daily share
(April 2016) 1  United States dollar USD (US$) 87.6% 2  Euro EUR (€) 31.4% 3  Japanese yen JPY (¥) 21.6% 4  Pound sterling GBP (£) 12.8% 5  Australian dollar AUD (A$) 6.9% 6  Canadian dollar CAD (C$) 5.1% 7  Swiss franc CHF (Fr) 4.8% 8  Renminbi CNY (元) 4.0% 9  Swedish krona SEK (kr) 2.2% 10  New Zealand dollar NZD (NZ$) 2.1% 11  Mexican peso MXN ($) 1.9% 12  Singapore dollar SGD (S$) 1.8% 13  Hong Kong dollar HKD (HK$) 1.7% 14 Norwegian krone NOK (kr) 1.7% 15 South Korean won KRW (₩) 1.7% 16  Turkish lira TRY (₺) 1.4% 17  Russian ruble RUB (₽) 1.1% 18 Indian rupee INR (₹) 1.1% 19 Brazilian real BRL (R$) 1.0% 20 South African rand ZAR (R) 1.0% Other 7.1% Total[9] 200.0% Main article: Tables of historical exchange rates to the United States dollar For a list of which currency or currencies are used by present-day countries or regions, see List of circulating currencies.

Currency use is based on the concept of lex monetae; that a sovereign state decides which currency it shall use. Currently, the International Organization for Standardization has introduced a three-letter system of codes (ISO 4217) to define currency (as opposed to simple names or currency signs), in order to remove the confusion that there are dozens of currencies called the dollar and many called the franc. Even the pound is used in nearly a dozen different countries; most of these are tied to the Pound Sterling, while the remainder have varying values. In general, the three-letter code uses the ISO 3166-1 country code for the first two letters and the first letter of the name of the currency (D for dollar, for instance) as the third letter. United States currency, for instance is globally referred to as USD.

The International Monetary Fund uses a variant system when referring to national currencies.

Alternative currencies Main article: Alternative currency

Distinct from centrally controlled government-issued currencies, private decentralized trust networks support alternative currencies such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, Monero, Peercoin or Dogecoin, as well as branded currencies, for example 'obligation' based stores of value, such as quasi-regulated BarterCard, Loyalty Points (Credit Cards, Airlines) or Game-Credits (MMO games) that are based on reputation of commercial products, or highly regulated 'asset backed' 'alternative currencies' such as mobile-money schemes like MPESA (called E-Money Issuance).[10]

Currency may be Internet-based and digital, for instance, Bitcoin[11] is not tied to any specific country, or the IMF's SDR that is based on a basket of currencies (and assets held).

Control and production

In most cases, a central bank has a monopoly right to issue of coins and banknotes (fiat money) for its own area of circulation (a country or group of countries); it regulates the production of currency by banks (credit) through monetary policy.

An exchange rate is the price at which two currencies can be exchanged against each other. This is used for trade between the two currency zones. Exchange rates can be classified as either floating or fixed. In the former, day-to-day movements in exchange rates are determined by the market; in the latter, governments intervene in the market to buy or sell their currency to balance supply and demand at a fixed exchange rate.

In cases where a country has control of its own currency, that control is exercised either by a central bank or by a Ministry of Finance. The institution that has control of monetary policy is referred to as the monetary authority. Monetary authorities have varying degrees of autonomy from the governments that create them. A monetary authority is created and supported by its sponsoring government, so independence can be reduced by the legislative or executive authority that creates it.

Several countries can use the same name for their own separate currencies (for example, dollar in Australia, Canada and the United States). By contrast, several countries can also use the same currency (for example, the euro or the CFA franc), or one country can declare the currency of another country to be legal tender. For example, Panama and El Salvador have declared US currency to be legal tender, and from 1791 to 1857, Spanish silver coins were legal tender in the United States. At various times countries have either re-stamped foreign coins, or used currency board issuing one note of currency for each note of a foreign government held, as Ecuador currently does.

Each currency typically has a main currency unit (the dollar, for example, or the euro) and a fractional unit, often defined as ​1⁄100 of the main unit: 100 cents = 1 dollar, 100 centimes = 1 franc, 100 pence = 1 pound, although units of ​1⁄10 or ​1⁄1000 occasionally also occur. Some currencies do not have any smaller units at all, such as the Icelandic króna.

Mauritania and Madagascar are the only remaining countries that do not use the decimal system; instead, the Mauritanian ouguiya is in theory divided into 5 khoums, while the Malagasy ariary is theoretically divided into 5 iraimbilanja. In these countries, words like dollar or pound "were simply names for given weights of gold."[12] Due to inflation khoums and iraimbilanja have in practice fallen into disuse. (See non-decimal currencies for other historic currencies with non-decimal divisions.)

Currency convertibility

Convertibility of a currency determines the ability of an individual, corporate or government to convert its local currency to another currency or vice versa with or without central bank/government intervention. Based on the above restrictions or free and readily conversion features, currencies are classified as:

Fully convertible 
When there are no restrictions or limitations on the amount of currency that can be traded on the international market, and the government does not artificially impose a fixed value or minimum value on the currency in international trade. The US dollar is an example of a fully convertible currency and, for this reason, US dollars are one of the major currencies traded in the foreign exchange market.
Partially convertible 
Central banks control international investments flowing in and out of the country, while most domestic trade transactions are handled without any special requirements, there are significant restrictions on international investing and special approval is often required in order to convert into other currencies. The Indian rupee and Renminbi are examples of a partially convertible currency.
Neither participate in the international FOREX market nor allow conversion of these currencies by individuals or companies. As a result, these currencies are known as blocked currencies. e.g.: North Korean won and the Cuban peso.
Local currencies Main article: Local currency

In economics, a local currency is a currency not backed by a national government, and intended to trade only in a small area. Advocates such as Jane Jacobs argue that this enables an economically depressed region to pull itself up, by giving the people living there a medium of exchange that they can use to exchange services and locally produced goods (in a broader sense, this is the original purpose of all money). Opponents of this concept argue that local currency creates a barrier which can interfere with economies of scale and comparative advantage, and that in some cases they can serve as a means of tax evasion.

Local currencies can also come into being when there is economic turmoil involving the national currency. An example of this is the Argentinian economic crisis of 2002 in which IOUs issued by local governments quickly took on some of the characteristics of local currencies.

One of the best examples of a local currency is the original LETS currency, founded on Vancouver Island in the early 1980s. In 1982, the Canadian Central Bank’s lending rates ran up to 14% which drove chartered bank lending rates as high as 19%. The resulting currency and credit scarcity left island residents with few options other than to create a local currency.[14]

List of major world payment currencies

The following table are estimates of the 15 most frequently used currencies in world payments from 2012 to 2015 by SWIFT.[15][16][17][18]

15 Major Currencies in World Payments (in % of World) Rank Currency January
2012 Currency January
2013 Currency January
2014 Currency January
2015 Currency February
2017 World 100.00% World 100.00% World 100.00% World 100.00% World 100.00% 1 Euro 44.04% Euro 40.17% United States dollar 38.75% United States dollar 43.41% United States dollar 40.86% 2 United States dollar 29.73% United States dollar 33.48% Euro 33.52% Euro 28.75% Euro 32.00% 3 Pound sterling 9.00% Pound sterling 8.55% Pound sterling 9.37% Pound sterling 8.24% Pound sterling 7.41% 4 Japanese yen 2.48% Japanese yen 2.56% Japanese yen 2.50% Japanese yen 2.79% Japanese yen 3.30% 5 Australian dollar 2.08% Australian dollar 1.85% Canadian dollar 1.80% Renminbi 2.06% Canadian dollar 1.89% 6 Canadian dollar 1.81% Swiss franc 1.83% Australian dollar 1.75% Canadian dollar 1.91% Renminbi 1.84% 7 Swiss franc 1.36% Canadian dollar 1.80% Renminbi 1.39% Swiss franc 1.91% Swiss franc 1.66% 8 Swedish krona 1.05% Singapore dollar 1.05% Swiss franc 1.38% Australian dollar 1.74% Australian dollar 1.61% 9 Singapore dollar 1.03% Hong Kong dollar 1.02% Hong Kong dollar 1.09% Hong Kong dollar 1.28% Hong Kong dollar 1.30% 10 Hong Kong dollar 0.95% Thai baht 0.97% Thai baht 0.98% Thai baht 0.98% Thai baht 1.01% 11 Norwegian krone 0.93% Swedish krona 0.96% Swedish krona 0.97% Singapore dollar 0.89% Swedish krona 0.97% 12 Thai baht 0.82% Norwegian krone 0.80% Singapore dollar 0.88% Swedish krona 0.80% Singapore dollar 0.96% 13 Danish krone 0.54% Renminbi 0.63% Norwegian krone 0.80% Norwegian krone 0.68% Norwegian krone 0.68% 14 Russian ruble 0.52% Danish krone 0.58% Danish krone 0.60% Danish krone 0.56% Polish złoty 0.51% 15 South African rand 0.48% Russian ruble 0.56% Polish złoty 0.58% Polish złoty 0.55% Danish krone 0.45% See also
  • Numismatics portal
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Related concepts

  • Counterfeit money
  • Currency transaction tax
  • Debasement
  • Fiscal localism
  • Foreign exchange market
  • Foreign exchange reserves
  • History of banking
  • History of money
  • Mutilated currency
  • Optimum currency area
  • Slang terms for money
  • Virtual currency
  • World currency

Accounting units

  • Currency pair
  • Currency symbol
  • Currency strength
  • European Currency Unit
  • Fictional currency
  • Franc Poincaré
  • Local currencies
  • Petrocurrency
  • Special drawing rights


  • ISO 4217
  • List of alternative names for currency
  • List of currencies
  • List of circulating currencies
  • List of proposed currencies
  • List of historical currencies
  • List of historical exchange rates
  • List of international trade topics
  • List of motifs on banknotes

  1. ^ "Currency". The Free Dictionary. 
  2. ^ Bernstein, Peter (2008) . "4–5". A Primer on Money, Banking and Gold (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-28758-3. OCLC 233484849. 
  3. ^ "Currency". Investopedia. 
  4. ^ "Guide to the Financial Markets" (PDF). The Economist. 
  5. ^ Banaji, Jairus (2007). "Islam, the Mediterranean and the Rise of Capitalism". Historical Materialism. Brill Publishers. 15 (1): 47–74. doi:10.1163/156920607X171591. ISSN 1465-4466. OCLC 440360743. Archived from the original on May 23, 2009. Retrieved August 28, 2010. 
  6. ^ Lopez, Robert Sabatino; Raymond, Irving Woodworth; Constable, Olivia Remie (2001) . Medieval trade in the Mediterranean world: Illustrative documents. Records of Western civilization.; Records of civilization, sources and studies, no. 52. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12357-4. OCLC 466877309. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. 
  7. ^ a b Labib, Subhi Y. (March 1969). "Capitalism in Medieval Islam". The Journal of Economic History. Wilmington, DE: Economic History Association. 29 (1): 79–86. ISSN 0022-0507. JSTOR 2115499. OCLC 478662641. 
  8. ^ "Triennial Central Bank Survey Foreign exchange turnover in April 2016" (PDF). Triennial Central Bank Survey. Basel, Switzerland: Bank for International Settlements. 11 December 2016. p. 7. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  9. ^ The total sum is 200% because each currency trade always involves a currency pair.
  10. ^ ● TED Video: Kemp-Robertson, Paul (June 2013). "Bitcoin. Sweat. Tide. Meet the future of branded currency". TED (conference).  ● Corresponding written article: "10 alternative currencies, from Bitcoin to BerkShares to sweat to laundry detergent". TED (conference). July 25, 2013. Archived from the original on July 25, 2013. 
  11. ^ Hough, Jack. "The Currency That's Up 200,000 Percent". SmartMoney (The Wall Street Journal). Retrieved December 14, 2012. 
  12. ^ Turk, James; Rubino, John (2007) . The collapse of the dollar and how to profit from it: Make a fortune by investing in gold and other hard assets (Paperback ed.). New York: Doubleday. pp. 43 of 252. ISBN 978-0-385-51224-4. OCLC 192055959. 
  13. ^ Linton, Michael; Bober, Jordan (2012-11-07). "Opening Money". The Extraenvironmentalist (Interview). Interviewed by Seth Moser-Katz; Justin Ritchie. Retrieved 2016-12-29. 
  14. ^ "Opening Money" (MP3). The Extraenvironmentalist (Podcast). Retrieved 2016-12-29. [13]
  15. ^ RMB breaks into the top ten most-used currencies for payments
  16. ^ Chinese Renminbi Overtakes the Swiss Franc as a World Payments Currency
  17. ^ RMB reaches record levels of payments activity between offshore centres
  18. ^ RMB role and share of international payments is declining CTMfile. 5 April 2017
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Psychology: Themes and Variations (MindTap Course List)
Psychology: Themes and Variations (MindTap Course List)
PSYCHOLOGY: THEMES AND VARIATIONS, 10th Edition, helps you experience the excitement of this fascinating field, while helping you study and retain what you learn. Filled with practical ways that you can apply psychology to your everyday life, this best-selling textbook is an experience in learning that you'll remember long after you complete your introductory psychology course. Critical Thinking Applications in every chapter give you specific critical thinking strategies you can apply in all of your courses and in your personal life. Reality Checks, many of which may surprise you, address common misconceptions about psychology. Every chapter of this book offers tools -- such as Concept Charts that provide colorful visual snapshots of key points -- to help you focus on what's important, showing you how to study in ways that help you retain information and do your best on exams.

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Life After Google: The Fall of Big Data and the Rise of the Blockchain Economy
Life After Google: The Fall of Big Data and the Rise of the Blockchain Economy
“Google’s algorithms assume the world’s future is nothing more than the next moment in a random process. George Gilder shows how deep this assumption goes, what motivates people to make it, and why it’s wrong: the future depends on human action.” — Peter Thiel, founder of PayPal and Palantir Technologies and author of Zero to One: Notes on Startups, or How to Build the Future “If you want to be clued in to the unfolding future, then you have come to the right place. For decades, George Gilder has been the undisputed oracle of technology’s future. Are giant companies like Google, Amazon, and Facebook the unstoppable monopolistic juggernauts that they seem, or are they dysfunctional giants about to be toppled by tech-savvy, entrepreneurial college dropouts?” — Nick Tredennick, Ph.D., Chief Scientist, QuickSilver Technology The Age of Google, built on big data and machine intelligence, has been an awesome era. But it’s coming to an end. In Life after Google, George Gilder—the peerless visionary of technology and culture—explains why Silicon Valley is suffering a nervous breakdown and what to expect as the post-Google age dawns. Google’s astonishing ability to “search and sort” attracts the entire world to its search engine and countless other goodies—videos, maps, email, calendars….And everything it offers is free, or so it seems. Instead of paying directly, users submit to advertising. The system of “aggregate and advertise” works—for a while—if you control an empire of data centers, but a market without prices strangles entrepreneurship and turns the Internet into a wasteland of ads. The crisis is not just economic. Even as advances in artificial intelligence induce delusions of omnipotence and transcendence, Silicon Valley has pretty much given up on security. The Internet firewalls supposedly protecting all those passwords and personal information have proved hopelessly permeable. The crisis cannot be solved within the current computer and network architecture. The future lies with the “cryptocosm”—the new architecture of the blockchain and its derivatives. Enabling cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin and ether, NEO and Hashgraph, it will provide the Internet a secure global payments system, ending the aggregate-and-advertise Age of Google. Silicon Valley, long dominated by a few giants, faces a “great unbundling,” which will disperse computer power and commerce and transform the economy and the Internet. Life after Google is almost here.   For fans of "Wealth and Poverty," "Knowledge and Power," and "The Scandal of Money." 

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The Lean Startup: How Today's Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses
The Lean Startup: How Today's Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses
Most startups fail. But many of those failures are preventable.  The Lean Startup is a new approach being adopted across the globe, changing the way companies are built and new products are launched. Eric Ries defines a startup as an organization dedicated to creating something new under conditions of extreme uncertainty. This is just as true for one person in a garage or a group of seasoned professionals in a Fortune 500 boardroom. What they have in common is a mission to penetrate that fog of uncertainty to discover a successful path to a sustainable business. The Lean Startup approach fosters companies that are both more capital efficient and that leverage human creativity more effectively.  Inspired by lessons from lean manufacturing, it relies on “validated learning,” rapid scientific experimentation, as well as a number of counter-intuitive practices that shorten product development cycles, measure actual progress without resorting to vanity metrics, and learn what customers really want. It enables a company to shift directions with agility, altering plans inch by inch, minute by minute. Rather than wasting time creating elaborate business plans, The Lean Startup offers entrepreneurs - in companies of all sizes - a way to test their vision continuously, to adapt and adjust before it’s too late. Ries provides a scientific approach to creating and managing successful startups in a age when companies need to innovate more than ever.

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The Happiness Advantage: How a Positive Brain Fuels Success in Work and Life
The Happiness Advantage: How a Positive Brain Fuels Success in Work and Life
Our most commonly held formula for success is broken. Conventional wisdom holds that if we work hard we will be more successful, and if we are more successful, then we’ll be happy. If we can just find that great job, win that next promotion, lose those five pounds, happiness will follow. But recent discoveries in the field of positive psychology have shown that this formula is actually backward: Happiness fuels success, not the other way around. When we are positive, our brains become more engaged, creative, motivated, energetic, resilient, and productive at work. This isn’t just an empty mantra. This discovery has been repeatedly borne out by rigorous research in psychology and neuroscience, management studies, and the bottom lines of organizations around the globe.             In The Happiness Advantage, Shawn Achor, who spent over a decade living, researching, and lecturing at Harvard University, draws on his own research—including one of the largest studies of happiness and potential at Harvard and others at companies like UBS and KPMG—to fix this broken formula. Using stories and case studies from his work with thousands of Fortune 500 executives in 42 countries, Achor explains how we can reprogram our brains to become more positive in order to gain a competitive edge at work.             Isolating seven practical, actionable principles that have been tried and tested everywhere from classrooms to boardrooms, stretching from Argentina to Zimbabwe, he shows us how we can capitalize on the Happiness Advantage to improve our performance and maximize our potential. Among the principles he outlines:  • The Tetris Effect: how to retrain our brains to spot patterns of possibility, so we can see—and seize—opportunities wherever we look.• The Zorro Circle: how to channel our efforts on small, manageable goals, to gain the leverage to gradually conquer bigger and bigger ones.• Social Investment: how to reap the dividends of investing in one of the greatest predictors of success and happiness—our social support network  A must-read for everyone trying to excel in a world of increasing workloads, stress, and negativity, The Happiness Advantage isn’t only about how to become happier at work. It’s about how to reap the benefits of a happier and more positive mind-set to achieve the extraordinary in our work and in our lives.

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2019 Official Red Book of United States Coins - Spiral Bound
2019 Official Red Book of United States Coins - Spiral Bound
The Official Red BookA Guide Book of United States Coinsis 72 years young and going strong. Collectors around the country love the book's grade-by-grade values, auction records, historical background, detailed specifications, high-resolution photographs, and accurate mintage data. How rare are your coins? How much are they worth? The Red Book tells you, covering everything from early colonial copper tokens to hefty Old West silver dollars and dazzling gold coins. You'll find 32,500] prices for more than 7,600 coins, tokens, medals, sets, and other collectibles. Articles on investing, grading coins, and detecting counterfeits will make you a savvy collector; and entertaining essays on the history of American coinage, shipwrecks and hoards, and the modern rare-coin market give you an inside look at "the hobby of kings." These are just some of the features of the Red Bookthe world's best-selling coin price guide (more than 24 million copies sold). Full Color [[ 7.7" x 6" x 1.25

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Essentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of Less
Essentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of Less
INSTANT NEW YORK TIMES AND WALL STREET JOURNAL BESTSELLER Have you ever felt the urge to declutter your work life?Do you often find yourself stretched too thin? Do you simultaneously feel overworked and underutilized? Are you frequently busy but not productive? Do you feel like your time is constantly being hijacked by other people’s agendas? If you answered yes to any of these, the way out is the Way of the Essentialist. The Way of the Essentialist isn’t about getting more done in less time. It’s about getting only the right things done.  It is not  a time management strategy, or a productivity technique. It is a systematic discipline for discerning what is absolutely essential, then eliminating everything that is not, so we can make the highest possible contribution towards the things that really matter.  By forcing us to apply a more selective criteria for what is Essential, the disciplined pursuit of less empowers us to reclaim control of our own choices about where to spend our precious time and energy – instead of giving others the implicit permission to choose for us.Essentialism is not one more thing – it’s a whole new way of doing everything. A must-read for any leader, manager, or individual who wants to do less, but better, and declutter and organize their own their lives, Essentialism is a movement whose time has come.

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Shadow of the Tomb Raider: Official Collector's Companion Tome
Shadow of the Tomb Raider: Official Collector's Companion Tome
Go Beyond Strategy—Immerse yourself in Lara’s world with this Collector’s Companion Tome from Prima Games!Compelling Interviews and Look Behind the Scenes: Hear from the talented minds behind Shadow of the Tomb Raider! Includes original, hand-drawn sketches from the Puzzle Designer!Orange Shadow Band Resource Pack: With the in-game resources included in this pack, totaling four gold and eight jade, you can obtain your choice of either ammunition or healing items, aiding Lara throughout your journey! Stunning Fan Art Section: Features pieces from dedicated and talented Tomb Raider fans!Custom Sticky Notes: 30 sticky notes, featuring an iconic image from the game, available only in this Collector’s Companion Tome! Bonus Comic! Includes Tomb Raider: Inferno #1 by Dark Horse Comics. Exclusive Foreword: Written by Gameplay Director, Daniel Drapeau.Premium Hardcover Book: The gorgeous, exclusive design is a must have for any fan, and features the signatures of the entire development team!Comprehensive Walkthrough: We lead the way from start to finish—experience everything!Detailed Maps: Our exclusive, custom maps reveal key locations, crucial items, and hidden secrets—never lose your way!Digital Bonus: Unlock your digital version of this guide with the free code card included inside. Access your digital guide anytime, anywhere, on any web-enabled device.Experience Lara Croft’s defining moment as she becomes the Tomb Raider. In Shadow of the Tomb Raider, Lara must master a deadly jungle, overcome terrifying tombs, and persevere through her darkest hour. As she races to save the world from a Maya apocalypse, Lara will ultimately be forged into the Tomb Raider she is destined to be. 

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Zero to One: Notes on Startups, or How to Build the Future
Zero to One: Notes on Startups, or How to Build the Future
#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLERIf you want to build a better future, you must believe in secrets.The great secret of our time is that there are still uncharted frontiers to explore and new inventions to create. In Zero to One, legendary entrepreneur and investor Peter Thiel shows how we can find singular ways to create those new things. Thiel begins with the contrarian premise that we live in an age of technological stagnation, even if we’re too distracted by shiny mobile devices to notice. Information technology has improved rapidly, but there is no reason why progress should be limited to computers or Silicon Valley. Progress can be achieved in any industry or area of business. It comes from the most important skill that every leader must master: learning to think for yourself.Doing what someone else already knows how to do takes the world from 1 to n, adding more of something familiar. But when you do something new, you go from 0 to 1. The next Bill Gates will not build an operating system. The next Larry Page or Sergey Brin won’t make a search engine. Tomorrow’s champions will not win by competing ruthlessly in today’s marketplace. They will escape competition altogether, because their businesses will be unique. Zero to One presents at once an optimistic view of the future of progress in America and a new way of thinking about innovation: it starts by learning to ask the questions that lead you to find value in unexpected places.

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The Power of Zero, Revised and Updated: How to Get to the 0% Tax Bracket and Transform Your Retirement
The Power of Zero, Revised and Updated: How to Get to the 0% Tax Bracket and Transform Your Retirement
OVER 140,000 COPIES IN PRINT, WITH A NEW CHAPTER ON THE 2018 TAX CUTS.There's a massive freight train bearing down on the average American investor, and it's coming in the form of higher taxes. The United States Government has made trillions of dollars in unfunded promises for programs like Social Security and Medicare--and the only way to deliver on these promises is to raise taxes. Some experts have even suggested that tax rates will need to double, just to keep our country solvent. Unfortunately, if you're like most Americans, you've saved the majority of your retirement assets in tax-deferred vehicles like 401(k)s and IRAs. If tax rates go up, how much of your hard-earned money will you really get to keep? In THE POWER OF ZERO, McKnight provides a concise, step-by-step roadmap on how to get to the 0% tax bracket by the time you retire, effectively eliminating tax rate risk from your retirement picture. Now, in this expanded edition, McKnight has updated the book with a new chapter on the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, showing readers how to navigate the new tax law in its first year of being in effect, and how they can extend the life of their retirement savings by taking advantage of it now. The day of reckoning is fast approaching. Are you ready to do what it takes to experience the power of zero?

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National Parks Quarters: 50 States + District of Columbia & Territories: Collector's Quarters Folder 2010-2021 (Warman's Collector Coin Folders)
National Parks Quarters: 50 States + District of Columbia & Territories: Collector's Quarters Folder 2010-2021 (Warman's Collector Coin Folders)
Are you ready to take your coin collecting to new places? How about taking your collecting on a scenic tour of America's most breathtaking and revered national parks courtesy of this new "America the Beautiful" National Parks Collector's coin folder.This affordable and durable 3-panel folder contains 60 slots - more than most folders - to house all of the National Parks quarters. Plus, there is a slot each for the Denver and Philadelphia coin fronts. From Hot Springs National Park to Tall Grass National Park you'll have a stunning showcase for your quarters, along with geographic details and historical anecdotes about each national site featured, as well as key coin specifications. Plus, the front cover of this folder features the reverse image of each of the first five coins issued in this program – a unique feature of the Warman's National Park Quarters folders, produced by Krause Publications.

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