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Bhirrana
diagnostic wares of this period included Mud Applique Wares, Incised (Deep and Light), Tan/Chocolate Slipped Wares, Brown-on-Buff Wares, Bichrome Wares (Paintings

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Village, , Archaeological Excavation Site , Ancient Town of Indus Valley Civilisation in Haryana, India Bhirrana
भिरड़ाणा
Birhana Village,
Archaeological Excavation Site
Ancient Town of Indus Valley Civilisation BhirranaLocation in Haryana, IndiaShow map of HaryanaBhirranaBhirrana (India)Show map of India Coordinates: 29°33′15″N 75°33′55″E / 29.55417°N 75.56528°E / 29.55417; 75.56528Coordinates: 29°33′15″N 75°33′55″E / 29.55417°N 75.56528°E / 29.55417; 75.56528Country  IndiaState HaryanaDistrict FatehabadLanguages • Official HindiTime zone IST (UTC+5:30)ISO 3166 code IN-HRVehicle registration HRNearest city FatehabadWebsite haryana.gov.in

Bhirrana, also Bhirdana and Birhana, (Hindi: भिरड़ाणा) is a small village located in Fatehabad District, in the Indian state of Haryana.[1][2]

Contents
  • 1 Location
  • 2 Excavations
  • 3 Dating
  • 4 Cultures
  • 5 Dancing girl graffiti
  • 6 Other findings
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 Sources
  • 10 Further reading
  • 11 External links
Location Bhirrana siteLocation Haryana, IndiaCoordinates 29°33′15″N 75°33′55″E / 29.55417°N 75.56528°E / 29.55417; 75.56528Length 190 m (620 ft)Width 240 m (790 ft)HistoryFounded Approximately 7570 BCEAbandoned Approximately 2600 BCEPeriods Hakra Wares to Mature HarappanCultures Indus Valley CivilizationSite notesExcavation dates 2003-04, 2004–05, 2005-06

The site is situated about 220 km to the northwest of New Delhi on the New Delhi-Fazilka national highway and about 14 km northeast of the district headquarters on the Bhuna road in the Fatehabad district. The site is one of the many sites seen along the channels of the ancient Saraswati riverine systems, now represented by the seasonal Ghaggar River which flows in modern Haryana from Nahan to Sirsa.

The mound measures 190 m north-south and 240 m east-west and rises to a height of 5.50 m from the surrounding area of flat alluvial sottar plain.

Excavations

The Excavation Branch-I, Nagpur of the Archaeological Survey of India excavated this site for three field seasons during 2003-04, 2004–05 and 2005-06. Several publications have been written on it by Rao et al.

Dating

According to Rao, Hakra Ware has been found at Bhirrana, and is pre-Harappan, dating to the 8th-7th millennium BCE.[3][4][5] Hakra Ware culture is a material culture which is contemporaneous with the early Harappan Ravi phase culture (3300-2800 BCE) of the Indus Valley.[6][7]

According to Dikshit and Rami, the estimation for the aniquity of Bhirrana is based on two calculations of charcoal samples, giving two dates of respectively 7570-7180 BCE, and 6689-6201 BCE.[3][4]

Cultures

According to Rao, the excavation has revealed these cultural periods; Period IA: Hakra Wares Culture, Period IB: Early Harappan Culture, Period IIA: Early Mature Harappan and Period IIB: Mature Harappan Culture.[3][4][5]

Period IA: Hakra Wares Culture: The excavation has revealed the remains of the Harappan culture right from its nascent stage, i.e., Hakra Wares[8] Culture (antedating the Known Early Harappan Culture in the subcontinent, also known as Kalibangan-I.) to a full-fledged Mature Harappan city. Prior to the excavation of Bhirrana, no Hakra Wares culture, predating the Early Harappan had been exposed in any Indian site. For the first time, the remains of this culture have been exposed at Bhirrana. This culture is characterised by structures in the form of subterranean dwelling pits, cut into the natural soil. The walls and floor of these pits were plastered with the yellowish alluvium of the Saraswati valley. The artefacts of this period comprised a copper bangle, a copper arrowhead, bangles of terracotta, beads of carnelian, lapis lazuli and steatite, bone point, stone saddle and quern.[9] The pottery repertoire is very rich and the diagnostic wares of this period included Mud Applique Wares, Incised (Deep and Light), Tan/Chocolate Slipped Wares, Brown-on-Buff Wares, Bichrome Wares (Paintings on the exterior with black and white pigments), Black-on-Red Ware and plain red wares.

Period IB: Early Harappan Culture: The entire site was occupied during this period. The settlement was an open air one with no fortification. The houses were built of mud bricks of buff colour in the ratio of 3:2:1. The pottery of this period shows all the six fabrics of Kalibangan - I along with many of the Hakra Wares of the earlier period. The artifacts of this period include a seal of quarter-foil shape made of shell, arrowheads, bangles and rings of copper, beads of carnelian, jasper, lapis lazuli, steatite, shell and terracotta, pendents, bull figurines, rattles, wheels, gamesmen, and marbles of terracotta, bangles of terracotta and faience, bone objects, sling balls, marbles and pounders of sandstone.

Period IIA: Early Mature Harappan Culture: This period is marked by transformation in the city lay-out. The entire settlement was encompassed within a fortification wall. The twin units of the town planning; Citadel and Lower Town came into vogue. The mud brick structures were aligned with a slight deviation from the true north. The streets, lanes and by-lanes were oriented in similar fashion. The pottery assemblage shows a mixed bag of Early Harappan and Mature Harappan forms. The artifacts of the period included beads of semi-precious stones (including two caches of beads kept in two miniature pots), bangles of copper, shell, terracotta and faience; fishhook, chisel, arrowhead of copper; terracotta animal figurines and a host of miscellaneous artifacts.

Period IIB: Mature Harappan Culture: The last period of occupation at the site belongs to the Mature Harappan period with all the characteristic features of a well-developed Harappan city. The important artifacts of the period consisted of Seals of steatite, bangles of copper, terracotta, faience and shell, inscribed celts of copper, bone objects, terracotta spoked wheels, animal figurines of terracotta, beads of lapis lazuli, carnelian, agate, faience, steatite, terracotta and stone objects.[9] A replica of the famous "Dancing Girl" from Mohenjodaro is found engraved[1] on a potsherd in the form of a graffiti.[10] The massive fortification wall[9] of the town was made of mud bricks. The houses were made of mud bricks (sun-baked bricks). Wide linear roads can be seen separating the houses. A circular structure of baked earth is probably a "tandoor"- a community kitchen still seen in rural India. Presence of the baked bricks is seen used in the main drain provided on the width of the northern arm of the fortification wall to flush out the waste water from the houses.

Dancing girl graffiti

Pottery graffiti at Bhirrana show "mermaid" type deities and dancing girls;[1] the latter have a posture so similar to Mohenjo-daro's bronze "dancing girls" that the archaeologist L.S. Rao stated that "it appears that the craftsman of Bhirrana had first-hand knowledge of the former."[9][11] These deities or dancing girls may represent apsaras, or water nymphs, associated with water rites once widespread in the Indus Valley civilisation.[10]

Other findings

Other significant findings included terracotta wheels with painted spokes.[12] People used to live in shallow mud plastered pit dwellings and pits were also used for industrial activity or sacrifices.[9] Multi-roomed houses were exposed at this site, one house with ten rooms and another with three rooms. Another house had a kitchen, court yards, chullah in the kitchen; beside the chullah, charred grains were also found.[9]

According to Rao, all phases of Indus Valley Civilisation are represented in this site.

See also
  • India portal
  • Indus Valley Civilization
  • List of Indus Valley Civilization sites
  • List of Monuments of National Importance in Haryana
  • List of State Protected Monuments in Haryana
  • Haryana Tourism
References
  1. ^ a b c "Harappan link". Frontline. 19 January 2008. 
  2. ^ Kunal, Bhirdana and Banawali in Fatehabad
  3. ^ a b c Dikshit 2013, p. 129-133.
  4. ^ a b c Mani 2008, p. 237-238.
  5. ^ a b Sarkar 2006, p. 2-3.
  6. ^ Coningham & Young 2015, p. 158.
  7. ^ Ahmed 2014, p. 107.
  8. ^ William Law (II), Randal (2008). Inter-regional Interaction and Urbanism in the Ancient Indus Valley: A Geologic Provenience Study of Harappa's Rock and Mineral Assemblage. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest. p. 83. ISBN 9780549628798. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. pp. 109, 145, 153. ISBN 9788131711200. 
  10. ^ a b Mahadevan, Iravatham (August 2011). "The Indus Fish Swam in the Great Bath: A New Solution to an Old Riddle" (PDF). Bulletin of the Indus Research Centre (2): 19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2012. 
  11. ^ "The ageless tale a potsherd from Bhirrana tells". The Hindu. 12 September 2007. 
  12. ^ "Images of Excavation Site - Bhirrana, A Harappan town - Archaeological Survey of India". asi.nic.in. 
Sources .mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}
  • Ahmed, Mihktar (2014), Ancient Pakistan - an Archaeological History 
  • Coningham; Young (2015), The Archaeology of South Asia: From the Indus to Asoka, c.6500 BCE–200 CE, Cambridge University Press 
  • Dikshit, K.N. (2013), "Origin of Early Harappan Cultures in the Sarasvati Valley: Recent Archaeological Evidence and Radiometric Dates" (PDF), Journal of IndIan ocean archaeology no. 9, 2013, archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-18 
  • Mani, B.R. (2008), "Kashmir Neolithic and Early Harappan : A Linkage" (PDF), Pragdhara 18, 229–247 (2008) 
  • Sarkar, Anindya (2016), "Oxygen isotope in archaeological bioapatites from India: Implications to climate change and decline of Bronze Age Harappan civilization", Scientific Reports 
Further reading
  • The Tribune, 2 January 2004
  • Puratattva, The Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of India No. 34, 35 and 36;
  • Man and Environment xxxi
External links
  • Graffiti of dancing girl
  • v
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Indus Valley CivilisationHistory and culture
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Architecture
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Indus Valley sites in Afghanistan
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Related topics
  • Meluhha
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Local Flavors: Cooking and Eating from America's Farmers' Markets
Local Flavors: Cooking and Eating from America's Farmers' Markets
In Local Flavors, bestselling cookbook author Deborah Madison takes readers along as she explores farmers’ markets across the country, sharing stories, recipes, and dozens of market-inspired menus. Her portraits of markets from Maine to Hawaii showcase the bounty of America’s family farms and reveal the sheer pleasure to be found in shopping for and cooking with local foods.Deborah Madison follows the seasons in her cross-country journey, beginning with the first tender greens of spring and ending with those foods that keep. Recipes such as Chard and Cilantro Soup with Noodle Nests and Lamb’s-Quarters with Sonoma Teleme Cheese launch the market season, followed by such dishes as an Elixir of Fresh Peas or a Radish Sandwich. Recipes for Whole Little Cauliflowers with Crispy Breadcrumbs and White Beans with Black Kale and Savoy Cabbage illustrate the range of the robust crucifers, while herbs and alliums provide the inspiration for a lively Herb Salad, tisanes, and Sweet and Sour Onions with Dried Pluots and Rosemary. Deborah Madison challenges the conventional view of what’s seasonal. A Young Root Vegetable Braise celebrates that early crop of delicate roots, while Braised Root Vegetables with Black Lentils and Red Wine Sauce offers an elegant centerpiece dish for the heartier roots of winter. Superlative fresh eggs, along with handmade cheese, are featured players at the markets everywhere, and here they appear in such simple dishes as Fried Eggs with Sizzling Vinegar and Warm Ricotta Custard featuring fresh whole-milk ricotta. Because organically raised poultry and meats have an increasingly important presence in our farmers’ markets, they are included, too, paired with other market produce that highlights their flavors, as in Roast Chicken with Herbs Under the Skin. Late summer corn and beans inspire Corn Fritters with Aged Cheddar and Arugula and Shelly Beans with Pasta and Sage. When markets are filled with squashes and melons, tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants, Deborah Madison shows us that they’re perfect ingredients for simple, vibrant dishes, such as Braised Farmers’ Long Eggplant Stuffed with Garlic or Tropical Melon Soup with Coconut Milk. For the happily overwhelmed cook, Platter Salads suggest how to go ahead and use all of the market’s bounty.Fruits, another vital part of farmers’ markets, are generously featured. Huckleberries, unusual grapes, and figs; stone fruits like plums and peaches; heirloom apples, persimmons; winter citrus and subtropical fruits are all here. Fig Tart with Orange Flower Custard; Peach Shortcake on Ginger Biscuits; a Rustic Tart of Quinces, Apples, and Pears; and a Passion Fruit and Pineapple Compote are just a few of the luscious desserts. And, because the market features more than fresh foods of the moment, recipes based on dried fruits, oils, vinegars, preserves, and other long-keeping foods help the reader continue eating locally once the market season has ended.By going behind the scenes to speak with the farmers and producers, Deborah Madison connects readers directly with the people who grow their food. Full-color photographs of gorgeous produce, mouthwatering dishes, and evocative scenes from the markets will entice every reader to cook from the farmers’ market as often as possible.

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$17.24
-$22.71(-57%)



Josh Groban - Noel (Pvg) (Piano/Vocal/guitar)
Josh Groban - Noel (Pvg) (Piano/Vocal/guitar)
(Piano/Vocal/Guitar Artist Songbook). Groban's Noel was the first Christmas album in over a decade to hit number one, but it didn't stop there. Noel became the best-selling album in all of 2007 (passing High School Musical 2 and Daughtry ) with sales of over 2.77 million units! It even passed Elvis' previous Christmas record of three weeks at #1 by staying at the top of the charts for four consecutive weeks. Now musicians can enjoy playing and singing Groban's songs with our matching folio that features arrangements of all 13 tracks: Angels We Have Heard on High * Ave Maria * The Christmas Song (Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire) * The First Noel * I'll Be Home for Christmas * It Came upon a Midnight Clear * The Little Drummer Boy * O Come All Ye Faithful * Panis Angelicus * Petit Papa Noel * Silent Night * Thankful * What Child Is This?

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$12.52
-$5.47(-30%)



Holly Jolly Christmas in Plastic Canvas
Holly Jolly Christmas in Plastic Canvas
Created on 7-count plastic canvas, these projects include everything from Santa and snowmen to beautiful poinsettias and angels. Hardcover.

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$29.45



Holidays and Holy Nights: Celebrating Twelve Seasonal Festivals of the Christian Year
Holidays and Holy Nights: Celebrating Twelve Seasonal Festivals of the Christian Year
For many people the chaos of fifty-hour workweeks and the demands of family have created a hectic, routine-driven life. Time itself becomes a conveyor belt moving us continuously from one demand to the next and year-to-year. Holidays and Holy Nights offers an escape from the conveyor-belt life and introduces us to the cyclical and deeply spiritual Christian liturgical year. This joyous book "unpacks" theology to uncover the poetic, symbolic, folkloric, psychological, and mystical nature of the liturgical year. Moving through the four seasons, Hill discusses holidays such as the Feast of Michaelmas, Halloween, Advent, Christmas Eve, Easter Vigil, and the Transfiguration. After evoking the experience of the seasons/festivals, Hill shows how they developed in history, theology, and folklore. He then offers specific suggestions for participating more deeply in the seasons, for Christians and non-Christians alike. Holidays and Holy Nights is a guide for all spiritual seekers looking for ritual and a way to create “sacred time” in our own lives, inspiring us to practice festival as a form of high fun or reverential play.

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Swedish Christmas
Swedish Christmas
Swedish Christmas is not just a cookbook but an inspiring book full of Christmas memories, recipes and tips of how to make Christmas enchanting. With its atmospheric photographs and engaging stories, it can be used as the ultimate handbook to a magical Christmas or simply be enjoyed as an armchair book. All the recipes have been adapted to the American kitchen.

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$51.00



The Farmer's Market Cookbook: Seasonal Dishes Made from Nature's Freshest Ingredients
The Farmer's Market Cookbook: Seasonal Dishes Made from Nature's Freshest Ingredients
100 recipes for cooking fresh from your local market - be it farm stand or grocer's aisle. Cooking seasonally means having a keen eye and a sensitive nose as you traverse the aisles of nature's store. The harbingers of each season are color-coded - spring's plate is drenched with verdant tender stalks and gentle herbs; summer is resplendent with myriad bold reds, oranges, and yellows; autumn is rich with umber root vegetables and a second booray of green leaves. Understanding this spectrum is an essential starting point to setting a menu. THE FARMER'S MARKET COOKBOOK helps the cook do just that as it pays homage to nature and the wonderful palette she offers. The book will guide the home cook through the ripening seasons and serve as a road map allowing the reader to navigate any local market. Chef Richard Ruben offers dozens of simple, elegant recipes that celebrate the gifts of nature's cycle including: - fiddlehead fern risotto - fried green tomatoes - lamb marinated in tropical juice - rhubarb and almond crisp - strawberry tomato salsa - chilled cucumber/mint soup - grilled chicken breast - lemon verbena sorbet with summer squash - ginger butternut soup - curried brussels sprouts - apple crisp towers Ruben also provides additional information on the origin and proper selection of produce, hints for putting up flavored vinegars and oils, and historical facts about food. THE FARMER'S MARKET COOKBOOK presents an original approach to modern cuisine that hearkens back to a simpler time when the land around us provided our meals, while also helping to fulfill our eclectic current cravings.

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$7.25
-$15.70(-68%)



Salads for Dinner (Pillsbury Classic Cookbooks #209)
Salads for Dinner (Pillsbury Classic Cookbooks #209)
This book contains 22 Salad recipes ready in 20 minutes....includes salads using chicken and turkey, beef and pork, fish and seafood, and vegetarian choices. Each recipe includes a photo.

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