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IBM System z
IBM System z (officially "IBM z Systems") is a family name used by IBM for all of its mainframe computers. In 2000, IBM renamed the existing System/390

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History of IBM mainframes, 1952–present Market name
  • 700/7000 series
  • System/360
  • System/370
  • IBM 308X
  • IBM 3090
  • System/390
  • zSeries 900, 800, 990, and 890
  • System z9
  • System z10
  • zEnterprise System (z196, zEC12, z13)
  • System/360
  • System/370
  • S/370-XA
  • ESA/370
  • ESA/390
  • z/Architecture
  • v
  • t
  • e
A pair of IBM mainframes. On the left is the IBM z Systems z13. On the right is the IBM LinuxONE Rockhopper. A trio of IBM zEnterprise mainframe computers. From left to right: EC12, BC12, Bladecenter Extension. An IBM zEnterprise EC12 with the cover removed. The interior is lit to better see the various internal parts.

IBM System z (officially "IBM z Systems") is a family name used by IBM for all of its mainframe computers. In 2000, IBM renamed the existing System/390 to IBM eServer zSeries with the e depicted in IBM's red trademarked symbol, but because no specific machine names were changed for System/390, the zSeries name in common use refers only to the z900 and z990 generations of mainframes. In April 2006, with another generation of products, the official family was changed to IBM System z, which now includes both older IBM eServer zSeries models, the IBM System z9 models, the IBM System z10 models, and the newer IBM zEnterprise models.

  • 1 Architecture
    • 1.1 Virtualization
  • 2 List of models (reverse chronological order)
    • 2.1 IBM System z14
    • 2.2 IBM System z13
    • 2.3 IBM zEnterprise System
    • 2.4 IBM System z10
    • 2.5 IBM System z9
    • 2.6 IBM zSeries family
    • 2.7 Previous models
  • 3 Processor book
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links


The zSeries, System z and zEnterprise families were named for their availability – z stands for zero downtime. The systems are built with spare components capable of hot failovers to ensure continuous operations.

The System z family maintains full backward compatibility. In effect, current systems are the direct, lineal descendants of System/360, announced in 1964, and the System/370 from the 1970s. Many applications written for these systems can still run unmodified on the newest System z over five decades later.


Virtualization is required by default on IBM z Systems. First layer virtualization is provided by the Processor Resource and System Manager (PR/SM) to deploy one or more Logical Partitions (LPARs). Each LPAR supports a variety of operating systems. A hypervisor called z/VM can also be run as the second layer virtualization in LPARs to create as many virtual machines (VMs) as there are resources assigned to the LPARs to support them. The first layer of z System virtualization (PR/SM) allows a z machine to run a limited number of LPARs (up to 80 on the IBM z13). These can be considered virtual "bare metal" servers because PR/SM allows CPUs to be dedicated to individual LPARs. z/VM LPARs allocated within PR/SM LPARs can run a very large number of virtual machines as long as there are adequate CPU, memory, and I/O resources configured with the system for the desired performance, capacity, and throughput.

z Systems' PR/SM and hardware attributes allow compute resources to be dynamically changed to meet workload demands. CPU and memory resources can be non-disruptively added to the system and dynamically assigned, recognized, and used by LPARs. I/O resources such as IP and SAN ports can also be added dynamically. They are virtualized and shared across all LPARs. The hardware component that provides this capability is called the Channel Subsystem. Each LPAR can be configured to either "see" or "not see" the virtualized I/O ports to establish desired "shareness" or isolation. This virtualization capability allows significant reduction in I/O resources because of its ability to share them and drive up utilization.

PR/SM on z Systems has earned Common Criteria Evaluation Assurance Level (EAL) 5+ security certification, and z/VM has earned Common Criteria EAL4+ certification.

The KVM hypervisor from Linux has also been ported.

List of models (reverse chronological order)

Since the move away from the System/390 name, a number of System z models have been released. These can be grouped into families with similar architectural characteristics.

IBM System z14
  • z Systems z14 introduced on July 17 2017
  • Offical z Systems z14 platform micro-site
  • IBM Redbooks z14 technical guide
IBM System z13
  • z Systems z13s (2965 series), introduced on February 17 2016
  • z Systems z13 (2964 series), introduced on January 13, 2015
IBM zEnterprise System

The IBM zEnterprise System (zEnterprise), announced in July 2010, with the z196 model, is designed to offer both mainframe and distributed server technologies in an integrated system. The zEnterprise System consists of three components. First is a System z server. Second is the IBM zEnterprise BladeCenter Extension (zBX). Last is the management layer, IBM zEnterprise Unified Resource Manager (zManager), which provides a single management view of zEnterprise resources. The zEnterprise is designed to extend mainframe capabilities – management efficiency, dynamic resource allocation, serviceability – to other systems and workloads running on AIX on POWER7, and Microsoft Windows or Linux on x86.

The zEnterprise BladeCenter Extension (zBX) is an infrastructure component that hosts both general purpose blade servers and appliance-like workload optimizers which can all be managed as if they were a single mainframe. The zBX supports a private high speed internal network that connects it to the central processing complex, which reduces the need for networking hardware and provides inherently high security.

The IBM zEnterprise Unified Resource Manager integrates the System z and zBX resources as a single virtualized system and provides unified and integrated management across the zEnterprise System. It can identify system bottlenecks or failures among disparate systems and if a failure occurs it can dynamically reallocate system resources to prevent or reduce application problems. The Unified Resource Manager provides energy monitoring and management, resource management, increased security, virtual networking, and information management from a single user interface.

Highlights of the original zEnterprise z196 include:

  • BladeCenter Extension (zBX) and Unified Resource Manager
  • Up to 80 central processors (CPs)
  • 60% higher capacity than the z10 (up to 52,000 MIPS)
  • Twice the memory capacity
  • 5.2 GHz quad-core chips

The newest zEnterprise, the EC12, was announced in August 2012, and included:

  • Up to 101 central processors (CPs)
  • 50% higher capacity than the z196 (up to 78,000 MIPS)
  • Transactional Execution
  • 5.5 GHz hex-core chips
  • Flash Express – integrated SSDs which improve paging and certain other I/O performance

On April 8, 2014, in honor of the 50th anniversary of the System/360 mainframe, IBM announced the release of its first converged infrastructure solution based on mainframe technology. Dubbed the IBM Enterprise Cloud System, this new offering combines IBM mainframe hardware, software, and storage into a single system and is designed to compete with competitive offerings from VCE, HP, and Oracle. According to IBM, it is the most scalable Linux server available with support for up to 6,000 virtual machines in a single-footprint.

In June 2014, IBM announced it had shipped its first Enterprise Cloud System to Vissensa, a UK-based managed service provider.

Specific models from this family include:

  • zEnterprise BC12 (2828 machine type), introduced on July 23, 2013
  • zEnterprise EC12 (2827 series), introduced on August 28, 2012
  • zEnterprise 114 (2818 series), introduced on July 6, 2011
  • zEnterprise 196 (2817 series), introduced on July 22, 2010
IBM System z10 IBM System z10

The IBM System z10 servers supported more memory than previous generation systems and can have up to 64 central processors (CPs) per frame. The full speed z10 processor's uniprocessor performance was up to 62% faster than that of the z9 server, according to IBM's z10 announcement, and included these other features:

  • 50% more performance and 70% more usable capacity. The new 4.4 GHz processor was designed to address CPU intensive workloads and support large scale server consolidation on the mainframe.
  • Just-in-time capacity and management – monitoring of multiple systems based on Capacity Provisioning and Workload Manager (WLM) definitions. When the defined conditions are met, z/OS can suggest capacity changes for manual activation from a z/OS console, or the system can add or remove temporary capacity automatically and without operator intervention.

Specific models from this family include:

  • z10 Business Class (2098 series), introduced on October 21, 2008
  • z10 Enterprise Class (2097 series), introduced on February 26, 2008
IBM System z9 IBM System z9

In July 2005, IBM announced a new family of servers – the System z9 family – with the IBM System z9 Enterprise Class (z9 EC) and the IBM System z9 Business Class (z9 BC) servers. The System z9 servers offered:

  • More flexibility on the enterprise class servers in customizing and sizing the capacity of the general purpose processors (CPs) that reside in the server. The z9 EC servers offered four different sub-capacity settings when run with eight or fewer general purpose processors.
  • zIIP engines. The zIIP is designed so that a program can work with z/OS to have all or a portion of its Service Request Block (SRB) dispatched work directed to the zIIP to help free up capacity on the general purpose processor which may make it available for use by other workloads running on the server.
  • MIDAW. The Modified Indirect Data Address Word (MIDAW) facility offers an alternative facility for a channel program to be constructed. It is designed to improve performance for native FICON applications that use extended format datasets (including DB2 and VSAM) by helping to improve channel utilization, reduce channel overhead, and improve I/O response times.
  • CP Assist for Cryptographic Functions (CPACF) is shipped on every CP and IFL processor in support of clear key encryption. CPACF was enhanced for System z9 processors to include support of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) for 128-bit keys, Secure Hash Algorithm-256 (SHA-256), CPACF offers DES, Triple DES and SHA-1.

Specific models from this family include:

  • z9 Business Class (2096 series), successor to the z890 and smallest z990 models (2006)
  • z9 Enterprise Class (2094 series), introduced in 2005, initially as z9-109, beginning the new System z9 line
IBM zSeries family An IBM zSeries 800 (foreground, left) running Linux

The zSeries family, which includes the z900, z800, z990 and z890, introduced IBM's newly designed 64-bit z/Architecture to the mainframe world. The new servers provide more than four times the performance of previous models. In its 64-bit mode the new CPU is freed from the 31-bit addressing constraints of its predecessors. Major features of the eServer zSeries family:

  • Based on z/Architecture (64-bit real and virtual addresses), as opposed to earlier ESA/390 (31-bit) used in S/390 systems yet emphasizing the backwards compatibility the ESA/390 applications are fully compatible with z/Architecture
  • First zSeries Superscalar server (z990) – A superscalar processor allows concurrent execution of instructions by adding additional resources onto the microprocessor to achieve more parallelism by creating multiple pipelines, each working on its own set of instructions.
  • Offers up to 32 central processors (CPs) per frame
  • Frames can be coupled in up to a 32-frame Sysplex, with each frame physically separated up to 100 kilometers
  • Supports the z/OS, Linux on System z, z/VM, z/VSE, and z/TPF operating systems
  • Support of multiple I/O channel subsystem – or multiple Logical Channel Subsystem (LCSS). The z990 allows for support of up to four LCSS – offering support for up to 4 times the previous 256 channel limit
  • Support for zAAP processors. These specialty processors allow IBM JVM processing cycles to be executed on the configured zAAPs with no anticipated modifications to the Java application(s). This means that deployment and integration of new Java technology-based workloads can happen on the very same platform as heritage applications and core business databases in a highly cost-effective manner

Specific models from this family included:

  • z890 (2086 series), successor to the z800 and smaller z900 models (2004)
  • z990 (2084 series), successor to larger z900 models (2003)
  • z800 (2066 series), entry-level, less powerful variant of the z900 (2002)
  • z900 (2064 series), for larger customers (2000)
Previous models

Older S/390 IBM mainframe servers are not listed here since support for the last S/390 compatible version of z/OS (1.5) was dropped on March 31, 2007.

Processor book

A processor book is a modular card in IBM mainframes that contains processors, memory, and I/O connections. A multi-chip module is welded onto each processor book for the z196 model.

See also
  • List of IBM products
  • Linux on System z
  • zAAP
  • zIIP
  • Peer to Peer Remote Copy
  • Extended Remote Copy
  • LPAR
  • HiperSocket
  • IBM Parallel Sysplex
  • Hercules emulator
  • z/VM
  • z/OS
  • OpenSolaris for System z
  • Gameframe
  1. ^ IBM Corporation, IBM Mainframes - z Systems, retrieved 2015-04-20 
  2. ^ IBM Corporation, IBM System z9 Enterprise Class Update (formerly System z9 109) Frequently Asked Questions (PDF), retrieved 2007-10-23 
  3. ^ Selecting System z operating environments: Linux or z/OS?
  4. ^ "Mainframe strength: Continuing compatibility". z/OS basic skills information center. IBM. Retrieved 12 October 2012. 
  5. ^ Bannan, Karen. "The zEnterprise EC12 Raises Enterprise Security While Boosting Analytics and Cloud Performance". IBM Systems Magazine. IBM. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  6. ^ "z/VM Security and Integrity Resources". IBM. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  7. ^ "IBM - KVM for IBM z Systems". IBM. Retrieved 14 March 2016. 
  8. ^ IBM Mainframe Ushers in New Era of Data Protection
  9. ^ The enterprise mainframe server – the core of trusted digital experiences
  10. ^ IBM z14 Technical Guide - A draft IBM Redbooks publication
  11. ^ IBM Unveils New Mainframe for Encrypted Hybrid Clouds
  12. ^ IBM. "IBM Launches z13 Mainframe". IBM. IBM. Retrieved 20 April 2015. 
  13. ^ "Introducing the zEnterprise System". IBM zEnterprise System Technical Introduction. IBM. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  14. ^ "IBM's mainframe-blade hybrid to do Windows". The Register. Retrieved 12 October 2012. 
  15. ^ "IBM Brings New Cloud Offerings, Research Projects and Pricing Plans to the Mainframe". IBM News Room. IBM. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-18. 
  16. ^ "IBM Enterprise Cloud System". IBM System z: Enterprise Cloud System. IBM. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-18. 
  17. ^ "IBM Brings New Cloud Offerings, Research Projects and Pricing Plans to the Mainframe". Enterprise Systems Media. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-18. 
  18. ^ Taft, Darryl (2014-06-27). "IBM Ships Its First Enterprise Cloud System to Vissensa". eWeek. Retrieved 2014-07-18. 
  19. ^ "System functions and features". IBM System z10 Business Class Technical Overview. IBM. 
  20. ^ End of Support for z/OS 1.4 and z/OS 1.5 is Approaching
  21. ^ Introduction to the New Mainframe. IBM Corporation. March 2011. p. 6. 
  22. ^ "Multichip Module Packaging and Its Impact on Architecture" (PDF). 
  23. ^ "IBM's z12 mainframe engine makes each clock count". The Register. Retrieved 14 April 2017. 
External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to IBM System z.
  • IBM IT Infrastructure web page
  • IBM Destination z
  • Mainframe Software Support Forum
  • IBM Systems Mainframe Magazine
  • IBM System z web page
  • Z6 microprocessor The follow-on to Z9, by Charles F. Webb of IBM
  • IBM Archives: A Brief History of the IBM ES/9000, System/390 AND zSeries

DB2 SQL Tuning Tips for z/OS Developers (IBM Press)
DB2 SQL Tuning Tips for z/OS Developers (IBM Press)
The Definitive Solutions-Oriented Guide to IBM® DB2® for z/OS®: Now Fully Updated for Both v9 and v10! The largest database tuning performance gains can often be obtained from tuning application code, and applications that use SQL to retrieve data are the best candidates for tuning. This well-organized, easy-to-understand reference brings together more than 100 SQL-related skills and techniques that any developer can use to build and optimize DB2 applications for consistently superior performance. DB2 tuning expert Tony Andrews (“Tony the Tuner”) draws on more than 20 years of DB2-related experience, empowering you to take performance into your own hands, whether you’re writing new software or tuning existing systems. Tony shows you exactly how to clear bottlenecks, resolve problems, and improve both speed and reliability. This book fully reflects the latest SQL programming best practices for DB2 V9 and DB2 V10 on z/OS: techniques that are taught in no other book and are rarely covered in general DB2 SQL courses. Drawing on his extensive consulting experience and highly praised training with Themis Inc., Tony also presents practical checklists and an invaluable 15-step methodology for optimizing virtually any DB2 application. Coverage includes Empowering developers on knowing what to do and where to look in resolving performance problems in queries or programs Providing many programming and SQL coding examples Establishing standards and guidelines that lead to high-performance SQL Implementing time-efficient code walkthroughs to ensure that your standards are followed Focusing on the small number of SQL statements that consume the most resources Identifying simple solutions that deliver the most sizable benefits Optimizing performance by rewriting query predicates more efficiently Providing a better understanding of SQL optimization and Runstat statistics Recognizing opportunities to tweak your code more effectively than the Optimizer Optimizing SQL code with COBOL applications Efficiently checking for the existence of data, rows, or tables Using Runstats’ newest capabilities to consistently optimize paths to data

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DB2 Developer's Guide: A Solutions-Oriented Approach to Learning the Foundation and Capabilities of DB2 for z/OS (6th Edition) (IBM Press)
DB2 Developer's Guide: A Solutions-Oriented Approach to Learning the Foundation and Capabilities of DB2 for z/OS (6th Edition) (IBM Press)
DB2 Developer's Guide is the field's #1 go-to source for on-the-job information on programming and administering DB2 on IBM z/OS mainframes. Now, three-time IBM Information Champion Craig S. Mullins has thoroughly updated this classic for DB2 v9 and v10. Mullins fully covers new DB2 innovations including temporal database support; hashing; universal tablespaces; pureXML; performance, security and governance improvements; new data types, and much more. Using current versions of DB2 for z/OS, readers will learn how to: * Build better databases and applications for CICS, IMS, batch, CAF, and RRSAF * Write proficient, code-optimized DB2 SQL * Implement efficient dynamic and static SQL applications * Use binding and rebinding to optimize applications * Efficiently create, administer, and manage DB2 databases and applications * Design, build, and populate efficient DB2 database structures for online, batch, and data warehousing * Improve the performance of DB2 subsystems, databases, utilities, programs, and SQL stat DB2 Developer's Guide, Sixth Edition builds on the unique approach that has made previous editions so valuable. It combines: * Condensed, easy-to-read coverage of all essential topics: information otherwise scattered through dozens of documents * Detailed discussions of crucial details within each topic * Expert, field-tested implementation advice * Sensible examples

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IBM Certified Database Administrator DB-2 10 for z/OS: The Crammer's Ultimate Exam Prep!
IBM Certified Database Administrator DB-2 10 for z/OS: The Crammer's Ultimate Exam Prep!
Are you tired of spending thousands of your hard-earned dollars on education? Sick of spending weeks, months, and years in class to get a qualification you know you could pick up quicker if you were only given the opportunity? Looking for a simpler, faster, more affordable way to reach your goals? We heard you and agree. Alexa Training Solutions now has a better way! At Alexa Training Solutions, our field experts have put together easy-to-use Study Guides, that finally give the power back to you! You now can prepare for your certification exam at YOUR pace, on YOUR time, and from the convenience of YOUR phone, tablet or computer, at the fraction of the cost of traditional education. With Alexa Study Guides, you have hundreds of expert-formulated exam questions at your fingertips. Download your Study Guide Now, and gain instant access to YOUR easy-to-use study tool. Unlock your true potential and open the door to a rewarding career on YOUR terms.

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DB2 11 System Administrator for z/OS: Certification Study Guide: Exam 317 (DB2 DBA Certification)
DB2 11 System Administrator for z/OS: Certification Study Guide: Exam 317 (DB2 DBA Certification)
This book provides an in-depth review of the skills required to pass IBM’s DB2 11 for z/OS System Administration exam 317 certification exam. This book addresses the changes in this new release of the DB2 11 for z/OS System Administration certification test, specifically for the latest version of DB2 for z/OS, version 11. Each section of the exam addresses a detailed set of skills that a DB2 system administrator on DB2 11 for z/OS should have. This book takes those sections, chapter by chapter, and provides the information a DB2 for z/OS system administrator will need to know to pass the certification exam. Practice questions and answers follow each chapter. A new practice final exam has been added to the book. The reader will come away being fully prepared to pass exam 317 and acquire certification, an important milestone showing significant academic and/or professional achievement.

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Murach's OS/390 and z/OS JCL
Murach's OS/390 and z/OS JCL
Section 1: The IBM mainframe environmentLearn how the hardware and system software of an IBM mainframe work together, and see how OS/390 and z/OS build on earlier operating systems. If you're new to mainframes, this is must reading.Section 2: JCL essentialsLearn how to code the JCL that you'll use every day to run programs that process disk, tape, and print files.Section 3: Other JCL skillsTime-saving features that you'll use regularly, including error handling techniques, generation data groups, and SMS (the Storage Management Subsystem).Section 4: VSAM data managementSee how easy it is to code JCL for jobs that use VSAM files. Then, learn how to use the AMS utility to create and manage VSAM files.Section 5: System tools for programmersLearn how to use work-saving tools for program development. Like compilation procedures. Utilities for sorting and copying files. CLIST and REXX for procedure building. And UNIX System Services.

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IBM 7316-TF3 Rack-mounted Flat Panel Console
IBM 7316-TF3 Rack-mounted Flat Panel Console
IBM 7316-TF3 Rack-mounted Flat Panel Console

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Real World IBM System z Stories
Real World IBM System z Stories
Nothing breeds success like success. In this book, you will find detailed case studies of organizations that have improved their business success by applying solutions based on the IBM System z family of mainframe computers. By gaining insight into their problems, solutions, and results, you will discover how to better meet your own business needs and fuel business success. Real World SOA Stories includes dozens of case studies from many different industries including banking, computer services, education, energy & utilities, financial services, government, healthcare, industrial products, insurance, professional services, retail, travel & transportation, and more. The real-world business solutions highlighted will allow you to survey the latest IBM offerings including IBM WebSphere, DB2, SOA, Linux, Rational, IMS, CICS, Tivoli, z/OS, AIX, z/VM, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, ACI Proactive Risk Manager, Cognos, HATS, Content Manager, Lotus, IFL, SAP, InfoSphere, and more. When you buy this print edition, you also gain access to the online version which includes many links to videos and more detail about each case study. You can easily share the content in the online version with colleagues via email or social networks. This combination printed book and online version is just the right mix to help you improve your own business results. Real World IBM System z Stories helps you: * Learn how to increase business success from the real-world experiences of others. * Gain insight by seeing what other businesses in your industry and geography are doing with technology. * Survey the latest business solutions available for IBM mainframe environments. * See how your business can build on existing IBM mainframe infrastructure to add more business value. * Gain access to the online version with additional links to more content and video case studies. * Share this information with one click via email and social networks.

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IBM DB2 for z/OS: The Database for Gaining a Competitive Advantage!
IBM DB2 for z/OS: The Database for Gaining a Competitive Advantage!
Data is becoming the world's new "natural resource," transforming industries and professions across the board. Smart, innovative organizations know that data is the new basis of gaining a competitive advantage. DB2 for z/OS remains the leading database for storing mission-critical data. This book explains how DB2 for z/OS and supporting products enable businesses to use their data to gain a competitive advantage.  

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IBM Mainframe Security: Beyond the Basics-A Practical Guide from a z/OS and RACF Perspective (Ebl-Schweitzer)
IBM Mainframe Security: Beyond the Basics-A Practical Guide from a z/OS and RACF Perspective (Ebl-Schweitzer)
Rather than rehashing basic information—such as command syntax—already available in other publications, this book focuses on important security and audit issues, business best practices, and compliance, discussing the important issues in IBM mainframe security. Mainframes are the backbone of most large IT organizations; security cannot be left to chance. With very little training available to the younger crowd, and older, more experienced personnel retiring or close to retiring, there is a need in mainframe security skills at the senior level. Based on real-life experiences, issues, and solutions to mainframe security from the author’s three decades of practical experience as a mainframe security practitioner, this book fulfills that need.

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ISPF Programmer’s Guide: Volume 2 (IBM z/OS ISPF Smart Practices)
ISPF Programmer’s Guide: Volume 2 (IBM z/OS ISPF Smart Practices)
This book is intended to support ISPF application programmers to become professional in the smart programming of ISPF applications using the REXX language. The contents are presented in a modular manner to suit reading with heterogeneous ISPF programming knowledge. The following topics are covered: Introduction to the programming language REXX as well as to ISPF programming, data processing in ISPF applications, use of messages, panels, skeletons, tables, ISPF variables and an introduction to creating and applying edit macros. Each theme is vividly illustrated by programming examples. The Smart ISPF Utilities contain some very useful programming aids that are often useful when programming ISPF applications. The book serves as a textbook as well as a manual for daily work. Many cross-references are included as well as an extensive index. Moreover, the author gives many helpful hints and tips on smart ISPF programming practices. The Smart ISPF Utilities contain many useful programming aids.

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