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Kansas /ˈkænzəs/ ( listen) is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita. Kansas is named after

View Wikipedia Article

This article is about the U.S. state. For the American progressive rock band, see Kansas (band). For other uses, see Kansas (disambiguation). State of Kansas Flag Seal Nickname(s): The Sunflower State (official);
The Wheat State;
The Free State Motto(s): Ad astra per aspera (Latin for To the stars through difficulties) State song(s): "Home on the Range" Official language English Demonym Kansan Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area Ranked 15th  • Total 82,278 sq mi
(213,100 km2)  • Width 410 miles (660 km)  • Length 213 miles (343 km)  • % water 0.6  • Latitude 37° N to 40° N  • Longitude 94° 35′ W to 102° 3′ W Population Ranked 35th  • Total 2,907,289 (2016 est.)  • Density 35.1/sq mi  (13.5/km2)
Ranked 40th  • Median household income $54,865 (30th) Elevation  • Highest point Mount Sunflower
4,041 ft (1232 m)  • Mean 2,000 ft  (610 m)  • Lowest point Verdigris River at Oklahoma border
679 ft (207 m) Before statehood Kansas Territory Admission to Union January 29, 1861 Kansas Day (34th) Governor Sam Brownback (R) Lieutenant Governor Jeff Colyer (R) Legislature Kansas Legislature  • Upper house Senate  • Lower house House of Representatives U.S. Senators Pat Roberts (R)
Jerry Moran (R) U.S. House delegation Roger Marshall (R)
Lynn Jenkins (R)
Kevin Yoder (R)
Ron Estes (R) (list) Time zones    • Primary Central: UTC −6/−5  • Hamilton, Greeley, Wallace, and Sherman counties Mountain: UTC −7/−6 ISO 3166 US-KS Abbreviations KS, Kan., Kans. Website Kansas state symbols The Flag of Kansas The Seal of Kansas Living insignia Amphibian Barred tiger salamander Bird Western meadowlark Flower Wild sunflower Grass Little bluestem Insect Western honey bee Mammal American bison Reptile Ornate box turtle Tree Plains cottonwood Inanimate insignia Motto Ad astra per aspera (Latin for To the stars through difficulties) Soil Harney silt loam (unofficial) Song "Home on the Range" State route marker State quarter Released in 2005 Lists of United States state symbols

Kansas /ˈkænzəs/ ( listen) is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita. Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribe's name (natively kką:ze) is often said to mean "people of the (south) wind" although this was probably not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to numerous and diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state generally lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison.

Kansas was first settled by European Americans in 1812, in what is now Bonner Springs, but the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery issue. When it was officially opened to settlement by the U.S. government in 1854 with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, abolitionist Free-Staters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine whether Kansas would become a free state or a slave state. Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, and was known as Bleeding Kansas. The abolitionists prevailed, and on January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a free state. After the Civil War, the population of Kansas grew rapidly when waves of immigrants turned the prairie into farmland.

By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn, sorghum, and soybeans. Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles (213,100 km2) is the 15th-largest state by area and is the 34th most-populous of the 50 states with a population of 2,911,641. Residents of Kansas are called Kansans. Mount Sunflower is Kansas' highest point at 4,041 feet (1,232 m).

  • 1 History
  • 2 Geography
    • 2.1 Geology
    • 2.2 Topography
    • 2.3 Rivers
    • 2.4 National parks and historic sites
    • 2.5 Flora and fauna
    • 2.6 Climate
  • 3 Demographics
    • 3.1 Ancestry
    • 3.2 Language
    • 3.3 Religion
    • 3.4 Settlement
    • 3.5 Birth data
    • 3.6 Regions
      • 3.6.1 Northeast Kansas
      • 3.6.2 Wichita
      • 3.6.3 Around the state
      • 3.6.4 Southeast Kansas
      • 3.6.5 Central and North-Central Kansas
      • 3.6.6 Northwest Kansas
      • 3.6.7 Southwest Kansas
  • 4 Economy
    • 4.1 Taxes
  • 5 Transportation
    • 5.1 Highways
      • 5.1.1 Interstate Highways
      • 5.1.2 U.S. Routes through Kansas
    • 5.2 Aviation
    • 5.3 Rail
      • 5.3.1 Passenger Rail
      • 5.3.2 Freight Rail
  • 6 Law and government
    • 6.1 State and local politics
      • 6.1.1 Political culture
    • 6.2 National politics
    • 6.3 State laws
  • 7 Education
  • 8 Culture
    • 8.1 Music
    • 8.2 Literature
    • 8.3 Film
    • 8.4 Television
    • 8.5 Sports
      • 8.5.1 Professional
        • History
      • 8.5.2 College
        • NCAA Division I schools
        • NCAA Division II schools
      • 8.5.3 High school
  • 9 Notable people
    • 9.1 Landmarks
  • 10 See also
  • 11 References
  • 12 Bibliography
  • 13 External links

History Main articles: History of Kansas and Kansas in the American Civil War Samuel Seymour's 1819 illustration of a Kansa lodge and dance is the oldest drawing known to be done in Kansas.

For a millennium, the land that is currently Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans. The first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was the Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was acquired by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, however, was still a part of Spain, Mexico, and the Republic of Texas until the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, when these lands were ceded to the United States. From 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today.

In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state. The Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30, 1854, establishing Nebraska Territory and Kansas Territory, and opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, and Pueblo.

Quantrill's Raid on Lawrence

Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border. These settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas.

Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to join the United States. By that time the violence in Kansas had largely subsided, but during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly 200 people. He was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal record.

After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas. Many African Americans also looked to Kansas as the land of "John Brown" and, led by freedmen like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, began establishing black colonies in the state. Leaving southern states in the late 1870s because of increasing discrimination, they became known as Exodusters.

At the same time, the Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West-era commenced in Kansas. Wild Bill Hickok was a deputy marshal at Fort Riley and a marshal at Hays and Abilene. Dodge City was another wild cowboy town, and both Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp worked as lawmen in the town. In one year alone, eight million head of cattle from Texas boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns."

In response to demands of Methodists and other evangelical Protestants, in 1881 Kansas became the first U.S. state to adopt a constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages, which was only repealed in 1948.

Geography The Great Plains of Kansas Kanopolis State Park Flint Hills in Wabaunsee County

Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; Missouri on the east; Oklahoma on the south; and Colorado on the west. The state is divided into 105 counties with 628 cities, and is located equidistant from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The geographic center of the 48 contiguous states is in Smith County near Lebanon. Until 1989, the Meades Ranch Triangulation Station in Osborne County was the geodetic center of North America: the central reference point for all maps of North America. The geographic center of Kansas is in Barton County.

Geology Main article: Geology of Kansas

Kansas is underlain by a sequence of horizontal to gently westward dipping sedimentary rocks. A sequence of Mississippian, Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks outcrop in the eastern and southern part of the state. The state's western half has exposures of Cretaceous through Tertiary sediments, the latter derived from the erosion of the uplifted Rocky Mountains to the west. These are underlain by older Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments which correlate well with the outcrops to the east. The state's northeastern corner was subjected to glaciation in the Pleistocene and is covered by glacial drift and loess.


The western two-thirds of the state, lying in the great central plain of the United States, has a generally flat or undulating surface, while the eastern third has many hills and forests. The land gradually rises from east to west; its altitude ranges from 684 ft (208 m) along the Verdigris River at Coffeyville in Montgomery County, to 4,039 ft (1,231 m) at Mount Sunflower, 0.5 miles (0.80 km) from the Colorado border, in Wallace County. It is a popular belief that Kansas is the flattest state in the nation, reinforced by a well known 2003 tongue-in-cheek study stating that Kansas was indeed "flatter than a pancake". This has since been called into question, with most scientists ranking Kansas between the 20th and 30th flattest state, depending on measurement method. Its average elevation is 2,000 feet (610 m), higher than that of 36 states.

Rivers Spring River, Kansas

Nearly 75 mi (121 km) of the state's northeastern boundary is defined by the Missouri River. The Kansas River (locally known as the Kaw), formed by the junction of the Smoky Hill and Republican rivers at appropriately-named Junction City, joins the Missouri River at Kansas City, after a course of 170 mi (270 km) across the northeastern part of the state.

The Arkansas River (pronunciation varies), rising in Colorado, flows with a bending course for nearly 500 mi (800 km) across the western and southern parts of the state. With its tributaries, (the Little Arkansas, Ninnescah, Walnut, Cow Creek, Cimarron, Verdigris, and the Neosho), it forms the southern drainage system of the state.

Kansas' other rivers are the Saline and Solomon Rivers, tributaries of the Smoky Hill River; the Big Blue, Delaware, and Wakarusa, which flow into the Kansas River; and the Marais des Cygnes, a tributary of the Missouri River. Spring River is located between Riverton and Baxter Springs.

National parks and historic sites

Areas under the protection of the National Park Service include:

  • Brown v. Board Of Education National Historic Site in Topeka
  • California National Historic Trail
  • Fort Larned National Historic Site in Larned
  • Fort Scott National Historic Site
  • Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail
  • Nicodemus National Historic Site at Nicodemus
  • Oregon National Historic Trail
  • Pony Express National Historic Trail
  • Santa Fe National Historic Trail
  • Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve near Strong City
Flora and fauna Further information: List of taxa described from Kansas Climate Köppen climate types in Kansas Clouds in northeastern Kansas Kansas Summer Wheat and Storm Panorama

According to the Köppen climate classification, Kansas' climate can be characterized in terms of three types: it has humid continental, semi-arid steppe, and humid subtropical. The state's eastern two-thirds (especially the northeastern portion) has a humid continental climate, with cool to cold winters and hot, often humid summers. Most of the precipitation falls in the summer and spring.

The western third of the state – from roughly the U.S. Route 83 corridor westward – has a semiarid steppe climate. Summers are hot, often very hot, and generally less humid. Winters are highly changeable between warm and very cold. The western region receives an average of about 16 inches (410 mm) of precipitation per year. Chinook winds in the winter can warm western Kansas all the way into the 80 °F (27 °C) range.

The far south-central and southeastern reaches of the state, including Wichita, have a humid subtropical climate with hot, humid summers, milder winters and more precipitation than elsewhere in Kansas. Some features of all three climates can be found in most of the state, with droughts and changeable weather between dry and humid not uncommon, and both warm and cold spells in the winter.

Temperatures in areas between US 83 and U.S. Route 81, as well as the southwestern portion of the state along and south of U.S. Route 50, reach 100 °F (38 °C) or above on most days of June, July and August. High humidity added to the high temperatures sends the heat index into life-threatening territory, especially in Wichita, Hutchinson, Salina, Russell, Hays and Great Bend. Temperatures are often higher in Dodge City, Garden City and Liberal, but the heat index in those locations is usually lower than the actual air temperature.

Although temperatures of 100 °F (38 °C) or higher are not as common in areas east of US 81, higher humidity and the urban heat island effect lead most summer days to heat indices between 107 °F (42 °C) and 114 °F (46 °C) in Topeka, Lawrence and the Kansas City metropolitan area. During the summer, nightly low temperatures in the northeastern part of the state, especially in the aforementioned large cities, struggle to fall below 80 °F (27 °C), and combined with humidity between 85 and 95 percent, dangerous heat indices can be experienced at every hour of the day.

Precipitation ranges from about 47 inches (1,200 mm) annually in the state's southeast corner to about 16 inches (410 mm) in the southwest. Snowfall ranges from around 5 inches (130 mm) in the fringes of the south, to 35 inches (890 mm) in the far northwest. Frost-free days range from more than 200 days in the south, to 130 days in the northwest. Thus, Kansas is the country's ninth or tenth sunniest state, depending on the source. Western Kansas is as sunny as California and Arizona.

Kansas is prone to severe weather, especially in the spring and early summer. Despite the frequent sunshine throughout much of the state, due to its location at a climatic boundary prone to intrusions of multiple air masses, the state is vulnerable to strong and severe thunderstorms. Some of these storms become supercell thunderstorms; these can spawn tornadoes, occasionally of EF3 strength or higher. Kansas averages over 50 tornadoes annually. Severe thunderstorms sometimes drop very large hail over Kansas as well as bringing flash flooding and damaging straight line winds.

According to NOAA, the all-time highest temperature recorded in Kansas is (121 °F or 49.4 °C) on July 24, 1936, near Alton in Osborne County, and the all-time low is −40 °F (−40 °C) on February 13, 1905, near Lebanon in Smith County. Alton and Lebanon are approximately 50 miles (80 km) apart.

Kansas's record high of 121 °F (49.4 °C) ties with North Dakota for the fifth-highest record high in an American state, behind California (134 °F or 56.7 °C), Arizona (128 °F or 53.3 °C), Nevada (125 °F or 51.7 °C), and New Mexico (122 °F or 50 °C).

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Kansas Cities City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Concordia 36/17 43/22 54/31 64/41 74/52 85/62 91/67 88/66 80/56 68/44 51/30 40/21 Dodge City 41/19 48/24 57/31 67/41 76/52 87/62 93/67 91/66 82/56 70/44 55/30 44/22 Goodland 39/16 45/20 53/26 63/35 72/46 84/56 89/61 87/60 78/50 66/38 50/25 41/18 Topeka 37/17 44/23 55/33 66/43 75/53 84/63 89/68 88/65 80/56 69/44 53/32 41/22 Wichita 40/20 47/25 57/34 67/44 76/54 87/64 93/69 92/68 82/59 70/47 55/34 43/24 Sources: Demographics

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Kansas was 2,907,289 on July 1, 2016, a 1.9% increase since the 2010 United States Census and an increase of 58,523, or 2.05%, since the year 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 93,899 people (that is 246,484 births minus 152,585 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 20,742 people out of the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 44,847 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 65,589 people.

The population density of Kansas is 52.9 people per square mile. The center of population of Kansas is located in Chase County, at 38°27′N 96°32′W / 38.450°N 96.533°W / 38.450; -96.533, approximately 3 miles (4.8 km) north of the community of Strong City.

Historical population Census Pop. %± 1860 107,206 — 1870 364,399 239.9% 1880 996,096 173.4% 1890 1,428,108 43.4% 1900 1,470,495 3.0% 1910 1,690,949 15.0% 1920 1,769,257 4.6% 1930 1,880,999 6.3% 1940 1,801,028 −4.3% 1950 1,905,299 5.8% 1960 2,178,611 14.3% 1970 2,246,578 3.1% 1980 2,363,679 5.2% 1990 2,477,574 4.8% 2000 2,688,418 8.5% 2010 2,853,118 6.1% Est. 2016 2,907,289 1.9% 1910–2010
2015 Estimate Ancestry

According to the 2010 Census, the racial makeup of the population was:

  • 83.8% of the population was White American (77.5% non-Hispanic white)
  • 5.9% was Black or African American
  • 1.0% American Indian and Alaska Native
  • 2.4% Asian American
  • 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander
  • 3.0% from two or more races.

Ethnically 10.5% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).

Kansas ethnic breakdown of population Racial composition 1990 2000 2010 White 90.1% 86.1% 83.8% Black 5.8% 5.8% 5.9% Asian 1.3% 1.7% 2.4% Native 0.9% 0.9% 1.0% Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander – – 0.1% Other race 2.0% 3.4% 3.9% Two or more races – 2.1% 3.0%

As of 2004, the population included 149,800 foreign-born (5.5% of the state population). The ten largest reported ancestry groups, which account for over 85% of the population, in the state are: German (33.75%), Irish (14.4%), English (14.1%), American (7.5%), French (4.4%), Scottish (4.2%), Dutch (2.5%), Swedish (2.4%), Italian (1.8%), and Polish (1.5%). German descendants are especially present in the northwest, while those of descendants of English and of white Americans from other states are especially present in the southeast.

Mexicans are present in the southwest and make up nearly half the population in certain counties. Many African Americans in Kansas are descended from the Exodusters, newly freed blacks who fled the South for land in Kansas following the Civil War.

As of 2011, 35.0% of Kansas' population younger than one year of age belonged to minority groups (i.e., did not have two parents of non-Hispanic white ancestry).

A population density map of Kansas Language

Spanish is the second-most-spoken language in Kansas, after English .

Religion Religion in Kansas religion percent Protestant   57% Unaffiliated   20% Catholic   18% Other religion   4% No religion   3% Jehovah's Witnesses   1% Mormon   1%

The 2014 Pew Religious Landscape Survey showed the religious makeup of adults in Kansas was as follows:

Christian 76%
57% Protestant
31% Evangelical Protestant
24% Mainline Protestant
2% Black Protestant
18% Catholic
1% Mormon
1% Jehovah's Witness
Non-Christian faiths 4%
Jewish < 1%
Muslim 1%
Buddhist 1%
Hindu < 1%
Other World Religions < 1%
Other Faiths 2%
Unaffiliated 20%
Atheist 2%
Agnostic 3%
Nothing in particular 14%
Don't know < 1%
Reverend Charles Sheldon, Topeka resident and coiner of the phrase "what would Jesus do?"

As of 2010, the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) reported that the Catholic Church has the highest number of adherents in Kansas (at 426,611), followed by the United Methodist Church with 202,989 members, and the Southern Baptist Convention, reporting 99,329 adherents.

Kansas's capital Topeka is sometimes cited as the home of Pentecostalism as it was the site of Charles Fox Parham's Bethel Bible College, where glossolalia was first claimed as the evidence of a spiritual experience referred to as the baptism of the Holy Spirit in 1901. It is also the home of Reverend Charles Sheldon, author of In His Steps, and was the site where the question "What would Jesus do?" originated in a sermon of Sheldon's at Central Congregational Church.

Topeka is also home of the Westboro Baptist Church, a hate group according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. The church has garnered worldwide media attention for picketing the funerals of U.S. servicemen and women for what church members claim as "necessary to combat the fight for equality for gays and lesbians." They have sometimes successfully raised lawsuits against the city of Topeka.

Settlement Main article: Rural flight Urban and rural populations

Known as rural flight, the last few decades have been marked by a migratory pattern out of the countryside into cities. Out of all the cities in these Midwestern states, 89% have fewer than 3,000 people, and hundreds of those have fewer than 1,000. In Kansas alone, there are more than 6,000 ghost towns and dwindling communities, according to one Kansas historian, Daniel C. Fitzgerald. At the same time, some of the communities in Johnson County (metropolitan Kansas City) are among the fastest-growing in the country.

See also: List of cities in Kansas Cities with population of at least 15,000 City Population* Growth rate** Metro area 1 Wichita 388,143 1.58% Wichita 2 Overland Park 184,525 6.43% Kansas City, MO-KS 3 Kansas City 149,636 2.64% Kansas City 4 Olathe 133,062 5.71% Kansas City 5 Topeka 127,215 -0.20% Topeka 6 Lawrence 92,763 5.84% Lawrence 7 Shawnee 64,599 3.84% Kansas City 8 Manhattan 56,078 7.26% Manhattan 9 Lenexa 51,042 5.92% Kansas City 10 Salina 47,867 0.34% ‡ 11 Hutchinson 41,642 −1.04% ‡ 12 Leavenworth 36,000 2.12% Kansas City 13 Leawood 34,395 7.93% Kansas City 14 Dodge City 28,117 2.84% ‡ 15 Garden City 27,004 1.30% ‡ 16 Junction City 24,665 5.62% Manhattan 17 Emporia 24,560 -1.43% ‡ 18 Derby 23,234 4.86% Wichita 19 Prairie Village 21,877 2.00% Kansas City 20 Hays 21,044 2.60% ‡ 21 Liberal 21,012 2.37% ‡ 22 Gardner 20,667 8.07% Kansas City 23 Pittsburg 20,394 0.80% ‡ 24 Newton 19,120 -0.06% Wichita 25 Great Bend 15,840 −0.97% ‡ *2014 Estimate
**Growth rate 2010–2014
‡Defined as a micropolitan area

Kansas has 627 incorporated cities. By state statute, cities are divided into three classes as determined by the population obtained "by any census of enumeration." A city of the third class has a population of less than 5,000, but cities reaching a population of more than 2,000 may be certified as a city of the second class. The second class is limited to cities with a population of less than 25,000, and upon reaching a population of more than 15,000, they may be certified as a city of the first class. First and second class cities are independent of any township and are not included within the township's territory.

Birth data

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother Race 2013 2014 2015 White: 34,178 (88.0%) 34,420 (87.7%) 34,251 (87.5%) Non-Hispanic White 28,281 (72.8%) 28,504 (72.7%) 28,236 (72.1%) Black 2,967 (7.6%) 3,097 (7.9%) 3,090 (7.9%) Asian 1,401 (3.6%) 1,359 (3.5%) 1,483 (3.8%) Native 293 (0.7%) 347 (0.9%) 330 (0.8%) Hispanic (of any race) 6,143 (15.8%) 6,132 (15.6%) 6,300 (16.1%) Total Kansas 38,839 (100%) 39,223 (100%) 39,154 (100%) Regions Northeast Kansas

The northeastern portion of the state, extending from the eastern border to Junction City and from the Nebraska border to south of Johnson County is home to more than 1.5 million people in the Kansas City (Kansas portion), Manhattan, Lawrence, and Topeka metropolitan areas. Overland Park, a young city incorporated in 1960, has the largest population and the largest land area in the county. It is home to Johnson County Community College and the corporate campus of Sprint Nextel, the largest private employer in the metro area. In 2006, the city was ranked as the sixth best place to live in America; the neighboring city of Olathe was 13th.

Olathe is the county seat and home to Johnson County Executive Airport. The cities of Olathe, Shawnee, and Gardner have some of the state's fastest growing populations. The cities of Overland Park, Lenexa, Olathe, and Gardner are also notable because they lie along the former route of the Santa Fe Trail. Among cities with at least one thousand residents, Mission Hills has the highest median income in the state.

Several institutions of higher education are located in Northeast Kansas including Baker University (the oldest university in the state, founded in 1858 and affiliated with the United Methodist Church) in Baldwin City, Benedictine College (sponsored by St. Benedict's Abbey and Mount St. Scholastica Monastery and formed from the merger of St. Benedict's College (1858) and Mount St. Scholastica College (1923)) in Atchison, MidAmerica Nazarene University in Olathe, Ottawa University in Ottawa and Overland Park, Kansas City Kansas Community College and KU Medical Center in Kansas City, and KU Edwards Campus in Overland Park. Less than an hour's drive to the west, Lawrence is home to the University of Kansas, the largest public university in the state, and Haskell Indian Nations University.

To the north, Kansas City, with the second largest land area in the state, contains a number of diverse ethnic neighborhoods. Its attractions include the Kansas Speedway, Sporting Kansas City, Kansas City T-Bones, Schlitterbahn, and The Legends at Village West retail and entertainment center. Nearby, Kansas's first settlement Bonner Springs is home to several national and regional attractions including the Providence Medical Center Amphitheather, the National Agricultural Center and Hall of Fame, and the annual Kansas City Renaissance Festival. Further up the Missouri River, the city of Lansing is the home of the state's first maximum-security prison. Historic Leavenworth, founded in 1854, was the first incorporated city in Kansas. North of the city, Fort Leavenworth is the oldest active Army post west of the Mississippi River. The city of Atchison was an early commercial center in the state and is well known as the birthplace of Amelia Earhart.

To the west, nearly a quarter million people reside in the Topeka metropolitan area. Topeka is the state capital and home to Washburn University and Washburn Institute of Technology. Built at a Kansas River crossing along the old Oregon Trail, this historic city has several nationally registered historic places. Further westward along Interstate 70 and the Kansas River is Junction City with its historic limestone and brick buildings and nearby Fort Riley, well known as the home to the U.S. Army's 1st Infantry Division (nicknamed "the Big Red One"). A short distance away, the city of Manhattan is home to Kansas State University, the second-largest public university in the state and the nation's oldest land-grant university, dating back to 1863. South of the campus, Aggieville dates back to 1889 and is the state's oldest shopping district of its kind.

Wichita Wichita, the largest city in the state of Kansas

In south-central Kansas, the Wichita metropolitan area is home to over 600,000 people. Wichita is the largest city in the state in terms of both land area and population. 'The Air Capital' is a major manufacturing center for the aircraft industry and the home of Wichita State University. Before Wichita was 'The Air Capital' it was a Cowtown. With a number of nationally registered historic places, museums, and other entertainment destinations, it has a desire to become a cultural mecca in the Midwest. Wichita's population growth has grown by double digits and the surrounding suburbs are among the fastest growing cities in the state. The population of Goddard has grown by more than 11% per year since 2000. Other fast-growing cities include Andover, Maize, Park City, Derby, and Haysville.

Wichita was one of the first cities to add the city commissioner and city manager in their form of government. Wichita is also home of the nationally recognized Sedgwick County Zoo.

Up river (the Arkansas River) from Wichita is the city of Hutchinson. The city was built on one of the world's largest salt deposits, and it has the world's largest and longest wheat elevator. It is also the home of Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center, Prairie Dunes Country Club and the Kansas State Fair. North of Wichita along Interstate 135 is the city of Newton, the former western terminal of the Santa Fe Railroad and trailhead for the famed Chisholm Trail. To the southeast of Wichita are the cities of Winfield and Arkansas City with historic architecture and the Cherokee Strip Museum (in Ark City). The city of Udall was the site of the deadliest tornado in Kansas on May 25, 1955; it killed 80 people in and near the city. To the southwest of Wichita is Freeport, the state's smallest incorporated city (population 5).

Around the state A Kansas farmer feeds his cattle

Located midway between Kansas City, Topeka, and Wichita in the heart of the Bluestem Region of the Flint Hills, the city of Emporia has several nationally registered historic places and is the home of Emporia State University, well known for its Teachers College. It was also the home of newspaper man William Allen White.

Southeast Kansas

Southeast Kansas has a unique history with a number of nationally registered historic places in this coal-mining region. Located in Crawford County (dubbed the Fried Chicken Capital of Kansas), Pittsburg is the largest city in the region and the home of Pittsburg State University. The neighboring city of Frontenac in 1888 was the site of the worst mine disaster in the state in which an underground explosion killed 47 miners. "Big Brutus" is located 1.5 miles (2.4 km) outside the city of West Mineral. Along with the restored fort, historic Fort Scott has a national cemetery designated by President Lincoln in 1862.

Central and North-Central Kansas

Salina is the largest city in central and north-central Kansas. South of Salina is the small city of Lindsborg with its numerous Dala horses. Much of the architecture and decor of this town has a distinctly Swedish style. To the east along Interstate 70, the historic city of Abilene was formerly a trailhead for the Chisholm Trail and was the boyhood home of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and is the site of his Presidential Library and the tombs of the former President, First Lady and son who died in infancy. To the west is Lucas, the Grassroots Art Capital of Kansas.

Northwest Kansas Kansas City

Westward along the Interstate, the city of Russell, traditionally the beginning of sparsely-populated northwest Kansas, was the base of former U.S. Senator Bob Dole and the boyhood home of U.S. Senator Arlen Specter. The city of Hays is home to Fort Hays State University and the Sternberg Museum of Natural History, and is the largest city in the northwest with a population of around 20,001.

Two other landmarks are located in smaller towns in Ellis County: the "Cathedral of the Plains" is located 10 miles (16 km) east of Hays in Victoria, and the boyhood home of Walter Chrysler is 15 miles (24 km) west of Hays in Ellis. West of Hays, population drops dramatically, even in areas along I-70, and only two towns containing populations of more than 4,000: Colby and Goodland, which are located 35 miles (56 km) apart along I-70.

Southwest Kansas

Dodge City, famously known for the cattle drive days of the late 19th century, was built along the old Santa Fe Trail route. The city of Liberal is located along the southern Santa Fe Trail route. The first wind farm in the state was built east of Montezuma. Garden City has the Lee Richardson Zoo. In 1992, a short-lived secessionist movement advocated the secession of several counties in southwest Kansas.

Economy See also: Kansas locations by per capita income

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Kansas' total GDP in 2014 was $140,964 billion. In 2015, the job growth rate in was .8 percent, among the lowest rate in America with only "10,900 total nonfarm jobs" added that year. According to the Kansas Department of Labor 2016 report, the average annual wage in 2015 was $42,930. As of April 2016, the state's unemployment rate was 4.2%.

Kansas had a $350 million budget shortfall in February 2017. In February 2017, S&P downgraded Kansas' credit rating to AA-.

The agricultural outputs of the state are cattle, sheep, wheat, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, hogs, corn, and salt. Eastern Kansas is part of the Grain Belt, an area of major grain production in the central United States. The industrial outputs are transportation equipment, commercial and private aircraft, food processing, publishing, chemical products, machinery, apparel, petroleum and mining.

Largest employers (as of 2016) Rank Business Employees Location Industry No. 1 Spirit AeroSystems 10,900 Wichita Aviation No. 2 Sprint Corporation 7,500 Overland Park Telecommunications No. 3 Cessna Aircraft 6,200 Wichita Aviation No. 4 General Motors 4,000 Kansas City Automobile manufacturing No. 5 Garmin 3,417 Olathe GPS Device Design & Manufacturing No. 6 Black & Veatch 3,500 Overland Park Engineering Consulting No. 7 Koch Industries 3,300 Wichita Chemical Technologies No. 8 Tyson Foods 3,200 Holcomb Meat Product Manufacturing No. 9 Performance Contracting 2,900 Lenexa Roofing & siding No. 10 UPS 2,871 Lenexa Package Delivery and Logistics

Kansas ranks eighth in U.S. petroleum production. Production has experienced a steady, natural decline as it becomes increasingly difficult to extract oil over time. Since oil prices bottomed in 1999, oil production in Kansas has remained fairly constant, with an average monthly rate of about 2.8 million barrels (450,000 m3) in 2004. The recent higher prices have made carbon dioxide sequestration and other oil recovery techniques more economical.

Kansas ranks eighth in U.S. natural gas production. Production has steadily declined since the mid-1990s with the gradual depletion of the Hugoton Natural Gas Field—the state's largest field which extends into Oklahoma and Texas. In 2004, slower declines in the Hugoton gas fields and increased coalbed methane production contributed to a smaller overall decline. Average monthly production was over 32 billion cubic feet (0.9 km3).

The Kansas economy is also heavily influenced by the aerospace industry. Several large aircraft corporations have manufacturing facilities in Wichita and Kansas City, including Spirit AeroSystems, Cessna, Learjet, and Hawker Beechcraft (formerly Raytheon). Boeing ended a decades-long history of manufacturing in Kansas in 2012–13.

Major company headquarters in Kansas include the Sprint Corporation (with world headquarters in Overland Park), Embarq (with national headquarters in Overland Park), YRC Worldwide (Overland Park), Garmin (Olathe), Payless Shoes (national headquarters and major distribution facilities in Topeka), and Koch Industries (with national headquarters in Wichita).


"The Brownback experiment didn’t work. We saw that loud and clear."

— Kansas Center for Economic Growth 2017

Starting in 2013, Governor Sam Brownback's "ambitious tax overhaul" trimmed income tax, eliminated some corporate taxes, and created pass-through income tax exemptions, but led to years of budget shortfalls, culminating in a $350 million budget shortfall in February 2017. During his campaign for the 2010 election, Brownback called for a complete "phase out Kansas's income tax". From 2013 to 2017, 300,000 businesses were considered to be pass-through income entities and benefited from Brownback's complete tax exemption. His tax reform "encouraged tens of thousands of Kansans to claim their wages and salaries as income from a business rather than from employment." There was an increase in job growth "following enactment of the tax cuts."

Under Brownback, in January 2013, the "largest tax cut" in Kansas state history took effect. He cut the income tax rate and eliminated some corporate taxes. He added a penny to the sales tax to offset the loss to state revenues but that was inadequate. Deficits mounted. By April, Brownback wanted to cut taxes even again. He made more cuts to education and some state services to offset lost revenue. The economic growth that he anticipated never materialized. Brownback argued that it was because of "low wheat and oil prices and a downturn in aircraft sales." In the summer of 2016 S&P Global Ratings downgraded Kansas' credit rating. In February 2017, S&P lowered it to AA-.

In February 2017, a bi-partisan coalition presented a bill that would repeal the pass-through income, the "most important provisions of Brownback's overhaul", and raise taxes to make up for the budget shortfall. Brownback vetoed the bill but "45 GOP legislators had voted in favor of the increase, while 40 voted to uphold the governor's veto." On June 6, 2017 a "coalition of Democrats and newly-elected Republicans overrode veto and implemented tax increases to a level that is close to what it was before 2013. Brownback's tax overhaul was described in a June 2017 article in The Atlantic as the United States' "most aggressive experiment in conservative economic policy". The drastic tax cuts had "threatened the viability of schools and infrastructure" in Kansas—Democrats and some Republicans "rebelled against cuts to the schools".

In 2003, Kansas had three income brackets for income tax calculation, ranging from 3.5% to 6.45%.

The state sales tax in Kansas is 6.15%. Various cities and counties in Kansas have an additional local sales tax. Except during the 2001 recession (March–November 2001) when monthly sales tax collections were flat, collections have trended higher as the economy has grown and two rate increases have been enacted. If there had been no change in sales tax rates, and no change in the economy, the total sales tax collections for 2003 should have been $1,797 million, compared to $805.3 million in 1990, but instead they amounted to $1,630 million an inflation adjusted reduction of 10%.

Revenue shortfalls resulting from lower than expected tax collections and slower growth in personal income following a 1998 permanent tax reduction have contributed to the substantial growth in the state's debt level as bonded debt increased from $1.16 billion in 1998 to $3.83 billion in 2006. Some increase in debt was expected as the state continues with its 10-year Comprehensive Transportation Program enacted in 1999.

As of June 2004, Moody's Investors Service ranked the state 14th for net tax-supported debt per capita. As a percentage of personal income, it was at 3.8%—above the median value of 2.5% for all rated states and having risen from a value of less than 1% in 1992. The state has a statutory requirement to maintain cash reserves of at least 7.5% of expenses at the end of each fiscal year, however, lawmakers can vote to override the rule, and did so during the most recent budget agreement.

Transportation Interstate 35 as it enters Kansas in Rosedale. Highways

Kansas is served by two Interstate highways with one beltway, two spur routes, and three bypasses, with over 874 miles (1,407 km) in all. The first section of Interstate in the nation was opened on Interstate 70 (I-70) just west of Topeka on November 14, 1956.

I-70 is a major east–west route connecting to Denver, Colorado and Kansas City, Missouri. Cities along this route (from west to east) include Colby, Hays, Salina, Junction City, Topeka, Lawrence, Bonner Springs, and Kansas City.

I-35 is a major north–south route connecting to Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and Des Moines, Iowa. Cities along this route (from south to north) include Wichita, El Dorado, Emporia, Ottawa, and Kansas City (and suburbs).

Spur routes serve as connections between the two major routes. I-135, a north–south route, connects I-35 at Wichita to I-70 at Salina. I-335, a southwest–northeast route, connects I-35 at Emporia to I-70 at Topeka. I-335 and portions of I-35 and I-70 make up the Kansas Turnpike. Bypasses include I-470 around Topeka, I-235 around Wichita, and I-670 in downtown Kansas City. I-435 is a beltway around the Kansas City metropolitan area while I-635 bypasses through Kansas City.

U.S. Route 69 (US-69) travels south to north, from Oklahoma to Missouri. The highway passes through the eastern section of Kansas, traveling through Baxter Springs, Pittsburg, Frontenac, Fort Scott, Louisburg, and the Kansas City area.

Map of the Kansas road system.

Kansas also has the coutry's third largest state highway system after Texas and California. This is because of the high number of counties and county seats (105) and their intertwining.

In January 2004, the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) announced the new Kansas 511 traveler information service. By dialing 511, callers will get access to information about road conditions, construction, closures, detours and weather conditions for the state highway system. Weather and road condition information is updated every 15 minutes.

Interstate Highways
  • I-35
    • I-135 (formerly known as I-35W)
    • I-235
    • I-335
    • I-435
    • I-635
  • I-70
    • I-470
    • I-670
U.S. Routes through Kansas
  • US-24
  • US-36
  • US-40
  • US-50
  • US-54
  • US-56
  • US-59
    • US-159
  • US-160
  • US-166
  • US-69
    • US-169
  • US-270
  • US-73
  • US-75
  • US-77
    • US-177
  • US-81
    • US-281
  • US-83
    • US-183
    • US-283
  • US-400

The state's only major commercial (Class C) airport is Wichita Dwight D. Eisenhower National Airport, located along US-54 on the western edge of the city. Manhattan Regional Airport in Manhattan offers daily flights to Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport and Chicago's O'Hare International Airport, making it the second-largest commercial airport in the state. Most air travelers in northeastern Kansas fly out of Kansas City International Airport, located in Platte County, Missouri.

In the state's southeastern part, people often use Tulsa International Airport in Tulsa, Oklahoma or Joplin Regional Airport in Joplin, Missouri. For those in the far western part of the state, Denver International Airport is a popular option. Connecting flights are also available from smaller Kansas airports in Dodge City, Garden City, Hays, Hutchinson, Liberal, or Salina.

Rail Passenger Rail

The Southwest Chief Amtrak route runs through the state on its route from Chicago to Los Angeles. Stops in Kansas include Lawrence, Topeka, Newton, Hutchinson, Dodge City, and Garden City. An Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach connects Newton and Wichita to the Heartland Flyer in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Freight Rail

Kansas is served by four Class I railroads, Amtrak, BNSF, Kansas City Southern, and Union Pacific, as well as many shortline railroads.

Law and government State and local politics See also: Government of Kansas and Political party strength in Kansas

Executive branch: The executive branch consists of six elected officers. The governor and lieutenant governor are elected on the same ticket. The attorney general, secretary of state, state treasurer, and state insurance commissioner are each elected separately. The six top executive offices of Kansas are all Republican. Governor Sam Brownback and Lieutenant Governor Jeff Colyer were elected in 2010 on the same ticket to a maximum of two consecutive four-year terms. Also elected in 2010 were the Attorney General Derek Schmidt of Independence; the Secretary of State Kris Kobach, of Kansas City; the State Treasurer Jacob LaTurner, of Galena; and the Insurance Commissioner Ken Selzer, of Topeka.

Legislative branch: The bicameral Kansas Legislature consists of the Kansas House of Representatives, with 125 members serving two-year terms, and the Kansas Senate, with 40 members serving four-year terms. Currently, 32 of the 40 Senators are Republican and 92 of the 125 Representatives are Republican.

Judicial branch: The judicial branch of the state government is headed by the Kansas Supreme Court. The court has seven judges. A vacancy is filled by the Governor picking one of three nominees selected by the nine-member Kansas Supreme Court Nominating Commission. The board consists of five Kansas lawyers elected by other Kansas lawyers and four members selected by the governor.

State symbols
  • Amphibian: barred tiger salamander
  • Animal: American bison
  • Bird: western meadowlark
  • Flower: sunflower
  • Insect: European honey bee
  • Motto: Ad astra per aspera, or "To the stars through difficulties"
  • Reptile: ornate box turtle
  • Soil: Harney silt loam
  • Song: "Home on the Range"
  • Tree: cottonwood
  • Seal: symbols of commerce (river, steamboat) and agriculture (farmer plowing) adopted 1861

Political culture FEMA – 33068 – Greensburg fire chief holding up flags in rural Kansas after a tornado destroys town

Since the mid-20th century, Kansas has remained one of the most socially conservative states in the nation. The 1990s brought the defeat of prominent Democrats, including Dan Glickman, and the Kansas State Board of Education's 1999 decision to eliminate evolution from the state teaching standards, a decision that was later reversed. In 2005, voters accepted a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage. The next year, the state passed a law setting a minimum age for marriage at 15 years. Kansas' path to a solid Republican state has been examined by historian Thomas Frank in his 2004 book What's the Matter with Kansas?.

Kansas has a history of many firsts in legislative initiatives—it was the first state to institute a system of workers' compensation (1910) and to regulate the securities industry (1911). Kansas also permitted women's suffrage in 1912, almost a decade before the federal constitution was amended to require it. Suffrage in all states would not be guaranteed until ratification of the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920.

The council–manager government model was adopted by many larger Kansas cities in the years following World War I while many American cities were being run by political machines or organized crime, notably the Pendergast Machine in neighboring Kansas City, Missouri. Kansas was also at the center of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, a 1954 Supreme Court decision that banned racially segregated schools throughout the U.S.

The state backed Republicans Wendell Willkie and Thomas E. Dewey in 1940 and 1944, respectively. Kansas also supported Dewey in 1948 despite the presence of incumbent president Harry S. Truman, who hailed from Independence, Missouri, approximately 15 miles (24 km) east of the Kansas–Missouri state line. Since Roosevelt carried Kansas in 1932 and 1936, only one Democrat has won Kansas' electoral votes, Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964.

In 2008, Governor Kathleen Sebelius vetoed permits for the construction of new coal-fired energy plants in Kansas, saying: "We know that greenhouse gases contribute to climate change. As an agricultural state, Kansas is particularly vulnerable. Therefore, reducing pollutants benefits our state not only in the short term – but also for generations of Kansans to come." However, shortly after Mark Parkinson became governor in 2009 upon Sebelius's resignation to become Secretary of U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Parkinson announced a compromise plan to allow construction of a coal-fired plant.

In 2010, Sam Brownback was elected governor with 63 percent of the state vote. He was sworn in as governor in 2011, Kansas' first Republican governor in eight years. Brownback had established himself as a conservative member of the U.S. Senate in years prior, but since becoming governor has made several controversial decisions, leading to a 23% approval rating among registered voters, the lowest of any governor in the United States. In May 2011, much to the opposition of art leaders and enthusiasts in the state, Brownback eliminated the Kansas Arts Commission, making Kansas the first state without an arts agency. In July 2011, Brownback announced plans to close the Lawrence branch of the Kansas Department of Social and Rehabilitation Services as a cost-saving measure. Hundreds rallied against the decision. Lawrence City Commission later voted to provide the funding needed to keep the branch open.

National politics Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election. See also: U.S. Congressional Delegations from Kansas

The state's current delegation to the Congress of the United States includes Republican Senators Pat Roberts of Dodge City and Jerry Moran of Manhattan; and Republican Representatives Roger Marshall of Great Bend (District 1), Lynn Jenkins of Topeka (District 2), Kevin Yoder of Overland Park (District 3), and Ron Estes of Wichita (District 4).

Historically, Kansas has been strongly Republican, dating from the Antebellum age when the Republican Party was created out of the movement opposing the extension of slavery into Kansas Territory. Kansas has not elected a Democrat to the U.S. Senate since the 1932 election, when Franklin D. Roosevelt won his first term as President in the wake of the Great Depression. This is the longest Senate losing streak for either party in a single state. Senator Sam Brownback was a candidate for the Republican party nomination for President in 2008. Brownback was not a candidate for re-election to a third full term in 2010, but he was elected Governor in that year's general election. Moran defeated Tiahrt for the Republican nomination for Brownback's seat in the August 2010 primary, then won a landslide general election victory over Democrat Lisa Johnston.

The only non-Republican presidential candidates Kansas has given its electoral vote to are Populist James Weaver and Democrats Woodrow Wilson, Franklin Roosevelt (twice), and Lyndon Johnson. In 2004, George W. Bush won the state's six electoral votes by an overwhelming margin of 25 percentage points with 62% of the vote. The only two counties to support Democrat John Kerry in that election were Wyandotte, which contains Kansas City, and Douglas, home to the University of Kansas, located in Lawrence. The 2008 election brought similar results as John McCain won the state with 57% of the votes. Douglas, Wyandotte, and Crawford County were the only counties in support of President Barack Obama.

Abilene was the boyhood home to Republican president Dwight D. Eisenhower, and he maintained lifelong ties to family and friends there. Kansas was the adult home of two losing Republican candidates (Governor Alf Landon in 1936 and Senator Bob Dole in 1996).

The New York Times reported in September 2014 that as the Democratic candidate for Senator has tried to drop out of the race, independent Greg Orman has attracted enough bipartisan support to seriously challenge the reelection bid of Republican Pat Roberts:

Kansas politics have been roiled in recent years. The rise of the Tea Party and the election of President Obama have prompted Republicans to embrace a purer brand of conservatism and purge what had long been a robust moderate wing from its ranks. Mr. Roberts has sought to adapt to this new era, voting against spending bills that included projects for the state that he had sought.
State laws See also: Alcohol laws of Kansas

The legal drinking age in Kansas is 21. In lieu of the state retail sales tax, a 10% Liquor Drink Tax is collected for liquor consumed on the licensed premises and an 8% Liquor Enforcement Tax is collected on retail purchases. Although the sale of cereal malt beverage (also known as 3.2 beer) was legalized in 1937, the first post-Prohibition legalization of alcoholic liquor did not occur until the state's constitution was amended in 1948. The following year the Legislature enacted the Liquor Control Act which created a system of regulating, licensing, and taxing, and the Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control (ABC) was created to enforce the act. The power to regulate cereal malt beverage remains with the cities and counties. Liquor-by-the-drink did not become legal until passage of an amendment to the state's constitution in 1986 and additional legislation the following year. As of November 2006, Kansas still has 29 dry counties and only 17 counties have passed liquor-by-the-drink with no food sales requirement. Today there are more than 2,600 liquor and 4,000 cereal malt beverage licensees in the state.

Education Main article: Education in Kansas

Education in Kansas is governed at the primary and secondary school level by the Kansas State Board of Education. The state's public colleges and universities are supervised by the Kansas Board of Regents.

Twice since 1999 the Board of Education has approved changes in the state science curriculum standards that encouraged the teaching of intelligent design. Both times, the standards were reversed after changes in the composition of the board in the next election.

Culture The Famous Rio Theatre in Overland Park Music Main article: Music of Kansas

The rock band Kansas was formed in the state capital of Topeka, the hometown of several of the band's members.

Joe Walsh, guitarist for the famous rock band the Eagles, was born in Wichita.

Singers from Kansas include Leavenworth native Melissa Etheridge, Sharon native Martina McBride, Chanute native Jennifer Knapp (whose first album was titled Kansas), Kansas City native Janelle Monáe, and Liberal native Jerrod Niemann.

Literature See also: Kansas Notable Book Awards

The state's most famous appearance in literature was as the home of Dorothy Gale, the main character in the novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900). Laura Ingalls Wilder's Little House on the Prairie, published in 1935, is another well-known tale about Kansas.

Kansas was also the setting of the 1965 best-seller In Cold Blood, described by its author Truman Capote as a "nonfiction novel." Mixing fact and fiction, the book chronicles the events and aftermath of the 1959 murder of a wealthy farmer and his family who lived in the small West Kansas town of Holcomb in Finney County.

The winner of the 2011 Newbery Medal for excellence in children's literature, Moon Over Manifest, tells the story of a young and adventurous girl named Abilene who is sent to the fictional town of Manifest, Kansas, by her father in the summer of 1936. It was written by Kansan Clare Vanderpool.

Lawrence is the setting for a number of science fiction writer James Gunn's novels.

Film Fox Theater, Hutchinson See also: List of films set in Kansas
  • As was the case with the novel, the main character in the 1939 fantasy film The Wizard of Oz was a young girl who lived in Kansas with her aunt and uncle. The line, "We're not in Kansas anymore", has entered into the English lexicon as a phrase describing a wholly new and/or unexpected situation.
  • The 1967 feature film In Cold Blood, like the book on which it was based, was set in various locations across Kansas. Many of the scenes in the film were filmed at the exact locations where the events profiled in the book took place. A 1996 TV miniseries was also based on the book.
  • The 1988 film Kansas starred Andrew McCarthy as a traveler who met up with a dangerous wanted drifter played by Matt Dillon.
  • The 2005 film Capote, for which Philip Seymour Hoffman was awarded the Academy Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of the title character, profiled the author as he traveled across Kansas while writing In Cold Blood (although most of the film itself was shot in the Canadian province of Manitoba).
  • The setting of The Day After, a 1983 made-for-television movie about a fictional nuclear attack, was the city of Lawrence.
  • The 2013 film Man of Steel is set primarily in Kansas (as Superman is from Smallville, Kansas – a fictitious town).
  • The 2012 film Looper is set in Kansas.
  • The 1973 film Paper Moon in which Tatum O'Neal won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress (The youngest to win an Academy Award) was based in and filmed in Kansas. The film was shot in the small towns of Hays; McCracken; Wilson; and St. Joseph, Missouri. Various shooting locations include the Midland Hotel at Wilson; the railway depot at Gorham; storefronts and buildings on Main Street in White Cloud; Hays; sites on both sides of the Missouri River; Rulo Bridge; and Saint Joseph, Missouri.
  • Scenes of the 1996 film Mars Attacks! took place in the fictional town of Perkinsville. Scenes taking place in Kansas were filmed in Burns, Lawrence, and Wichita.
  • The 2007 film The Lookout is set mostly in Kansas (although filmed in Canada). Specifically two locations; Kansas City and the fictional town of Noel, Kansas.
  • The 2017 film Thank You For Your Service is primarily set in Kansas, including the cities of Topeka and Junction City.
  • The protagonist brothers of the 2005 TV show Supernatural hail from Lawrence, with the city referenced numerous times on the show.
  • 2006 TV series Jericho was based in the fictitious town of Jericho, Kansas, surviving post-nuclear America.
  • Early seasons of Smallville, about Superman as a teenager, were based in a fictional town in Kansas.
  • Gunsmoke, a radio series western, ran from 1952 to 1961, took place in Dodge City, Kansas.
  • Gunsmoke, television series, the longest running prime time show of the 20th century, ran from September 10, 1955 to March 31, 1975 for a total of 635 episodes.
  • The 2009 Showtime series United States of Tara is set in Overland Park, a suburb of Kansas City.
Sports Professional Sporting Park in Kansas City Team Sport League City Sporting Kansas City Soccer Major League Soccer Kansas City Kansas City T-Bones Baseball American Association Kansas City Garden City Wind Baseball Pecos League Garden City Salina Liberty Indoor Football Champions Indoor Football Salina Wichita Thunder Ice hockey ECHL Wichita Wichita Force Indoor Football Champions Indoor Football Wichita Wichita Wingnuts Baseball American Association Wichita

Sporting Kansas City, who have played their home games at Village West in Kansas City, since 2008, are the first top-tier professional sports league and first Major League Soccer team to be located within Kansas. In 2011 the team moved to their new home, a $165m soccer specific stadium now known as Children's Mercy Park.

Historically, many Kansans have supported the major league sports teams of Kansas City, Missouri, including the Kansas City Royals (MLB), the Kansas City Chiefs (NFL) and the Kansas City Brigade (AFL) – in part because the home stadiums for these teams are just miles from the Kansas border. The Chiefs and the Royals play at the Truman Sports Complex, located about 10 miles (16 km) from the Kansas–Missouri state line. The Kansas City Brigade play in the newly opened Sprint Center, which is even closer to the state line. FC Kansas City, a charter member of the National Women's Soccer League, played the 2013 season, the first for both the team and the league, on the Kansas side of the metropolitan area, but has played on the Missouri side ever since. From 1973 to 1997 the flagship radio station for the Royals was WIBW in Topeka.

Some Kansans, mostly from the westernmost parts of the state, support the professional sports teams of Denver, particularly the Denver Broncos of the NFL.

Two major auto racing facilities are located in Kansas. The Kansas Speedway located in Kansas City hosts races of the NASCAR, IRL, and ARCA circuits. Also, the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) holds drag racing events at Heartland Park Topeka. The Sports Car Club of America has its national headquarters in Topeka.


The history of professional sports in Kansas probably dates from the establishment of the minor league baseball Topeka Capitals and Leavenworth Soldiers in 1886 in the Western League. The African-American Bud Fowler played on the Topeka team that season, one year before the "color line" descended on professional baseball.

In 1887, the Western League was dominated by a reorganized Topeka team called the Golden Giants – a high-priced collection of major leaguer players, including Bug Holliday, Jim Conway, Dan Stearns, Perry Werden and Jimmy Macullar, which won the league by 15½ games. On April 10, 1887, the Golden Giants also won an exhibition game from the defending World Series champions, the St. Louis Browns (the present-day Cardinals), by a score of 12–9. However, Topeka was unable to support the team, and it disbanded after one year.

The first night game in the history of professional baseball was played in Independence on April 28, 1930 when the Muscogee (Oklahoma) Indians beat the Independence Producers 13 to 3 in a minor league game sanctioned by the Western League of the Western Baseball Association with 1,500 fans attending the game. The permanent lighting system was first used for an exhibition game on April 17, 1930 between the Independence Producers and House of David semi-professional baseball team of Benton Harbor, Michigan with the Independence team winning with a score of 9 to 1 before a crowd of 1,700 spectators.

College See also: List of college athletic programs in Kansas

The governing body for intercollegiate sports in the United States, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), was headquartered in Johnson County, Kansas from 1952 until moving to Indianapolis in 1999.

NCAA Division I schools Allen Fieldhouse in Lawrence, home of the Kansas Jayhawks

While there are no franchises of the four major professional sports within the state, many Kansans are fans of the state's major college sports teams, especially the Jayhawks of the University of Kansas (KU), and the Wildcats of Kansas State University (KSU or "K-State"). Both teams are rivals in the Big 12 Conference.

Both KU and K-State have tradition-rich programs in men's basketball. The Jayhawks are a perennial national power, ranking second in all-time victories among NCAA programs, behind Kentucky. The Jayhawks have won five national titles, including NCAA tournament championships in 1952, 1988, and 2008. They also were retroactively awarded national championships by the Helms Foundation for 1922 and 1923. K-State also had a long stretch of success on the hardwood, lasting from the 1940s to the 1980s, making four Final Fours during that stretch. In 1988, KU and K-State met in the Elite Eight, KU taking the game 71–58. After a 12-year absence, the Wildcats returned to the NCAA tournament in 2008 and advanced to the Elite Eight in 2010. KU is fifth all-time with 14 Final Four appearances, while K-State's four appearances are tied for 17th.

Conversely, success on the gridiron has been less frequent for both KSU and KU. However, there have been recent breakthroughs for both schools' football teams. The Jayhawks won the Orange Bowl for the first time in three tries in 2008, capping a 12–1 season, the best in school history. And when Bill Snyder arrived to coach at K-State in 1989, he turned the Wildcats from one of the worst college football programs in America into a national force for most of the 1990s and early 2000s. The team won the Fiesta Bowl in 1997, achieved an undefeated (11–0) regular season and No. 1 ranking in 1998, and took the Big 12 Conference championship in 2003. After three seasons in which K-State football languished, Snyder came out of retirement in 2009 and guided them to the top of the college football ranks again, finishing second in the Big 12 in 2011 and earning a berth in the Cotton Bowl, and winning the Big 12 again in 2012.

Wichita State University, which also fields teams (called the Shockers) in Division I of the NCAA, is best known for its baseball and basketball programs. In baseball, the Shockers won the College World Series in 1989. In men's basketball, they appeared in the Final Four in 1965 and 2013, and entered the 2014 NCAA tournament unbeaten. The school also fielded a football team from 1897 to 1986. The Shocker football team is tragically known for a plane crash in 1970 that killed 31 people, including 14 of the team's players.

NCAA Division II schools

Notable success has also been achieved by the state's smaller schools in football. Pittsburg State University, a NCAA Division II participant, has claimed four national titles in football, two in the NAIA and most recently the 2011 NCAA Division II national title. Pittsburg State became the winningest NCAA Division II football program in 1995. PSU passed Hillsdale College at the top of the all-time victories list in the 1995 season on its march to the national runner-up finish. The Gorillas, in 96 seasons of intercollegiate competition, have accumulated 579 victories – posting a 579–301–48 overall mark.

Washburn University, in Topeka, won the NAIA Men's Basketball Championship in 1987. The Fort Hays State University men won the 1996 NCAA Division II title with a 34–0 record, and the Washburn women won the 2005 NCAA Division II crown. St. Benedict's College (now Benedictine College), in Atchison, won the 1954 and 1967 Men's NAIA Basketball Championships.

The Kansas Collegiate Athletic Conference has its roots as one of the oldest college sport conferences in existence and participates in the NAIA and all ten member schools are in the state of Kansas. Other smaller school conference that have some members in Kansas are the Heartland Conference, the Midlands Collegiate Athletic Conference, the Midwest Christian College Conference, and the Heart of America Athletic Conference. Many junior colleges also have active athletic programs.

High school

The Kansas State High School Activities Association (KSHSAA) is the organization which oversees interscholastic competition in the state of Kansas at the high school level. It oversees both athletic and non-athletic competition, and sponsors championships in several sports and activities. The association is perhaps best known for devising the overtime system now used for almost all football games below the professional level (which has also been adopted at all levels of Canadian football).

Notable people Main article: List of people from Kansas Landmarks Main article: List of Kansas landmarks See also: National Register of Historic Places listings in Kansas See also
  • Kansas portal
  • Outline of Kansas – organized list of topics about Kansas
  • Index of Kansas-related articles
  1. ^ "Free-Staters of Kansas". 
  2. ^ "Governor's Signature Makes English the Official Language of Kansas". US English. May 11, 2007. Archived from the original on July 10, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2008. 
  3. ^ Geography, US Census Bureau. "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates". 
  4. ^ a b "Kansas Geography from NETSTATE". 
  5. ^ USGS, Howard Perlman,. "Area of each state that is water". 
  6. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. June 21, 2017. Retrieved June 21, 2017. 
  7. ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2011. 
  9. ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  10. ^ "Current Lists of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas and Delineations". 
  11. ^ John Koontz, p.c.
  12. ^ Rankin, Robert. 2005. "Quapaw". In Native Languages of the Southeastern United States, eds. Heather K. Hardy and Janine Scancarelli. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, p. 492.
  13. ^ Connelley, William E. 1918. "Indians Archived February 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.". A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans, ch. 10, vol. 1.
  14. ^ a b Miller, Rober B. (2013). Bonner Springs (Images of America). USA: Arcadia Publishing Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 1467110434. 
  15. ^ "Today in History: January 29". Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Kansas Quick Facts". Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2010. 
  17. ^ "Kansas Agriculture". Kansas Department of Agriculture. Retrieved September 14, 2015. 
  18. ^ Jones, Gray Ghosts and Rebel Riders Holt & Co. 1956, p. 76
  19. ^ "Kansas Is Flatter Than a Pancake". Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  20. ^ Bert Nash Community Mental Health Center 785-843-9192 (July 27, 2003). "Study finds Kansas Flatter Than Pancake". Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  21. ^ "Fracas over Kansas pancake flap". Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  22. ^ "Kansas". National Park Service. Retrieved July 15, 2008. 
  23. ^ "Annual Average Number of Tornadoes, 1953–2004". National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved October 25, 2006. 
  24. ^ "Goodland Weather – Kansas – Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Retrieved April 9, 2016. 
  25. ^ "Concordia Weather – Kansas – Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Retrieved April 9, 2016. 
  26. ^ "Dodge City Weather – Kansas – Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Retrieved April 9, 2016. 
  27. ^ "Topeka Weather – Kansas – Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Retrieved April 9, 2016. 
  28. ^ "Wichita Weather – Kansas – Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Retrieved April 9, 2016. 
  29. ^ a b c "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016". U.S. Census Bureau. December 20, 2016. Archived from the original (CSV) on December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 26, 2015. 
  30. ^ "Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Population Change for the United States, Regions and States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006", Population Estimates, US: Census Bureau, Population Division, December 22, 2006, NST-EST2006-04, archived from the original on September 16, 2004, Kansas population has increased at a decreasing rate, reducing the number of congressmen from 5 to 4 in 1992 (Congressional Redistricting Act, eff. 1992). 
  31. ^ Wright, John W, ed. (2007). Almanac. The New York Times. p. 178. 
  32. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State". US: Census Bureau. 2000. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved December 5, 2008. 
  33. ^ "Resident Population Data". Census. US: Government. 2010. Archived from the original on November 18, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2011. 
  34. ^ "States", Quick facts, Census, archived from the original on May 3, 2012 
  35. ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". July 25, 2008. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  36. ^ "". January 7, 2014. Archived from the original on January 7, 2014.  External link in |title= (help)
  37. ^ Center for New Media and Promotions(C2PO). "2010 Census Data". 
  38. ^ "Kansas – Social demographics". American Community Survey Office. 2006. Archived from the original on September 10, 2004. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  39. ^ Exner, Rich (June 3, 2012). "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer. 
  40. ^ Pew Research Center, Religious Landscape Study: Religious composition of adults in Kansas (2014).
  41. ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report". Retrieved November 12, 2013. 
  42. ^ "Westboro Baptist Church". Southern Poverty Law Center. 
  43. ^ Fitzgerald, Daniel C, KS extinct locations, archived from the original on December 9, 2009 
  44. ^ "Population Estimates". Fact finder. US: Census. 2014. Archived from the original on May 22, 2015. Retrieved January 25, 2016. 
  45. ^ "Births: Final Data for 2013" (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports. CDC. January 15, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2017. 
  46. ^ "Births: Final Data for 2014" (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports. CDC. December 23, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2017. 
  47. ^ "Births: Final Data for 2015" (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports. CDC. January 5, 2017. Retrieved June 7, 2017. 
  48. ^ "Best places to live 2006". MONEY Magazine. Archived from the original on December 3, 2006. Retrieved December 9, 2006. 
  49. ^ N/A. "Wichita (city), Kansas".  Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  50. ^ a b c "Go Wichita Convention and Visitors Bureau". Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  51. ^ "Annual estimates of the population through July 1, 2006". Population Estimates. US: Census Bureau, Population Division. June 28, 2007. Archived from the original on December 6, 2006. 
  52. ^ "The Blackwell Tornado of 25 May 1955". NWS Norman, Oklahoma. June 13, 2006. Archived from the original on October 8, 2006. Retrieved January 28, 2007. 
  53. ^ "U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)". 2016. Archived from the original on July 7, 2010. Retrieved February 26, 2017. 
  54. ^ "Change in total nonfarm employment by state, over-the-month and over-the-year, seasonally adjusted". Retrieved February 26, 2017. 
  55. ^ Yael T. Abouhalkah (November 30, 2015), Kansas has low but misleading unemployment rate under Gov. Sam Brownback, retrieved February 26, 2017 
  56. ^ Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) OES Home 2016 Kansas Wage Survey (PDF), 2016, retrieved February 26, 2017 
  57. ^ "Local Area Unemployment Statistics". Retrieved February 26, 2017. 
  58. ^ a b c Max Ehrenfreund (February 22, 2017), "Republicans' 'real-live experiment' with Kansas's economy survives a revolt from their own party", The Washington Post, retrieved February 25, 2017 
  59. ^ a b c Alan Blinder (February 22, 2017), "Kansas Lawmakers Uphold Governor's Veto of Tax Increases", The New York Times, retrieved February 25, 2017 
  60. ^ "Kansas Department of Commerce – Official Website – Economic Overview Charts". Retrieved August 10, 2016. 
  61. ^ a b c d e f Berman, Russell (June 7, 2017). "The Death of Kansas's Conservative Experiment". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 7, 2017. Republicans in the state legislature on Tuesday voted to reverse Governor Sam Brownback’s signature tax cuts, dealing a blow to the kind of fiscal policy the Trump administration wants to enact nationally. 
  62. ^ Editorial Board (April 13, 2013). "Editorial: Louisiana's lawmakers realize what Missouri's don't: Income tax cuts are suicidal". Retrieved February 25, 2017. 
  63. ^ I-70 – the First Open Interstate, Kansas Department of Transportation, retrieved October 7, 2016 
  64. ^ "KDOT Launches New Traveler Information Service" (Press release). Kansas Department of Transportation. January 22, 2004. Retrieved July 14, 2006. 
  65. ^ "Manhattan Airport Official Site". Retrieved July 14, 2010. 
  66. ^ "Amtrak Southwest Chief". Amtrak. Retrieved August 13, 2017. 
  67. ^ "Wichita Returns to the Amtrak Map". Amtrak. Retrieved August 13, 2017. 
  68. ^ "Kansas State Railroad Map 2017" (PDF). Kansas Department of Transportation. Retrieved August 14, 2017. 
  69. ^ Los Angeles Times. Vote by Kansas School Board Favors Evolution's Doubters
  70. ^ "Kansas Lawmakers Set Minimum Marriage Age to 15". Fox News. May 5, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  71. ^ staff (March 21, 2008). "Kansas Governor Rejects Two Coal-Fired Power Plants". Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  72. ^ "Here Are America's Least (and Most) Popular Governors". 
  73. ^ "Kansas governor eliminates state's art funding". Los Angeles Times. May 31, 2011. p. m. Retrieved October 12, 2011. 
  74. ^ Hittle, Shaun (July 16, 2011). "Hundreds rally against closing SRS office". Retrieved October 12, 2011. 
  75. ^ "Lawrence City Commission approves funding for SRS office". August 9, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2011. 
  76. ^ "2008 Election Results – Kansas". CNN. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  77. ^ Jonathan Martin, "National G.O.P. Moves to Take Over Campaign of Kansas Senator", New York Times September 4, 2014
  78. ^ "Liquor Licensee and Supplier Information". Alcoholic Beverage Control, Kansas Department of Revenue. Archived from the original on December 8, 2006. Retrieved January 18, 2007. 
  79. ^ "History of Alcoholic Beverages in Kansas". Alcoholic Beverage Control, Kansas Department of Revenue. 2000. Archived from the original on January 17, 2007. Retrieved January 18, 2007. 
  80. ^ "PBR: Toto – we're not in Kansas anymore.." BBC Newsnight. December 9, 2009. 
  81. ^ "The Lookout" (PDF). 
  82. ^ "Making Airwaves Through History". December 2, 2002. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  83. ^ Evans, Harold (1940). "Baseball in Kansas, 1867–1940". Kansas Historical Quarterly. Retrieved February 18, 2008. 
  84. ^ a b c Madden, W.C.; Stewart, Patrick (2002). The Western League: A Baseball History, 1885 through 1999. ISBN 0-7864-1003-5. 
  85. ^ Bowman, Larry G. "I Think It Is Pretty Ritzy Myself: Kansas Minor League Teams and Night Baseball". Kansas History, Winter 1995/1996, pp 248–257. Kansas Historical Society. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
  86. ^ Jim Davis, Loss of NCAA headquarters not related to incentives, Kansas City Business Journal (June 8, 1997).
  87. ^ Sam Epstein, Sports Law (Cengage Learning, 2013), p. 19.
  • Wishart, David J, ed. (2004), Encyclopedia of the Great Plains, University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0-8032-4787-7 ; 900 pages of scholarly articles
External links Find more aboutKansasat Wikipedia's sister projects
  • Definitions from Wiktionary
  • Media from Wikimedia Commons
  • News from Wikinews
  • Quotations from Wikiquote
  • Texts from Wikisource
  • Textbooks from Wikibooks
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  • State of Kansas
  • Kansas at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
  • Kansas Travel and Tourism Division
  • Kansas Historical Society
  • Kansas Memory – documents, photographs, and other primary sources provided by the Kansas Historical Society
  • Kansas State Agency Databases – Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Kansas state agencies
  • USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Kansas
  • Kansas Department of Transportation maps
  • Cutler's History of Kansas
  • Kansas State Facts from USDA


  • Highway Map (PDF), KS: KSDOT, 2015 .
  • Railroad Map (PDF), KS: KSDOT, 2015 .
  • "Access state, county, city, railroad, and other maps", Kansas Memory (digital portal), the Kansas State Historical Society .
  • Geographic data related to Kansas at OpenStreetMap
  • "Kansas Maps", Perry-Castañeda Library (map collection), The University of Texas .
Preceded by
Oregon List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on January 29, 1861 (34th) Succeeded by
West Virginia Topics related to Kansas
The Sunflower State
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Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Kansas
  1. Jeff Longwell
  2. Carl R. Gerlach
    (Overland Park)
  3. Mark Holland
    (Kansas City)
  4. Larry Wolgast
  5. Michael Copeland
Other states
  • v
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Protected areas of Kansas Federal National Historic Sites:
  • Brown v. Board of Education
  • Fort Larned
  • Fort Scott
  • Nicodemus
National Wildlife Refuges:
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Coordinates: 38°30′N 98°00′W / 38.5°N 98°W / 38.5; -98

Authority control
  • WorldCat Identities
  • VIAF: 152389568
  • LCCN: n79007369
  • ISNI: 0000 0004 0393 0633
  • GND: 4114131-3
  • SUDOC: 176543422
  • BNF: cb13934270f (data)
  • NDL: 00628402



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