United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture (in French) Abbreviation UNESCO Formation 16 November 1945 Type Specialized agency Legal status Active Headquarters Place de Fontenoy, Paris, France Membership 195 member states Head Irina Bokova
Director-General of UNESCO Website www.unesco.org
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.
UNESCO has 195 member states and ten associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist.
UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programmes, international science programmes, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press, regional and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements on secure the world cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.
UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.
The broad goals and objectives of the international community – as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities.
- 1 History
- 2 Activities
- 3 Media
- 4 Official UNESCO NGOs
- 5 Institutes and centres
- 6 Prizes
- 7 International Days observed at UNESCO
- 8 Member states
- 9 Governing bodies
- 9.1 Director-General
- 9.2 General Conference
- 9.3 Executive Board
- 10 Offices
- 10.1 Field offices by region
- 10.1.1 Africa
- 10.1.2 Arab States
- 10.1.3 Asia and Pacific
- 10.1.4 Europe and North America
- 10.1.5 Latin America and the Caribbean
- 11 Controversies
- 11.1 New World Information and Communication order
- 11.2 Israel
- 11.2.1 Occupied Palestine Resolution
- 11.3 Palestine
- 11.3.1 Palestinian Youth Magazine controversy
- 11.3.2 Islamic University of Gaza controversy
- 11.4 Wikileaks
- 11.5 Che Guevara
- 11.6 Listing Nanjing Massacre documents
- 12 Products or services
- 12.1 Information Processing Tools
- 13 See also
- 14 References and notes
- 15 External links
UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility. On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education (IBE) began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the work of these predecessor organizations was largely interrupted by the onset of World War II.
After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME) began meetings in London which continued between 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF) was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented. A prominent figure in the initiative for UNESCO was Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, and a Preparatory Commission was established. The Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state.
The first General Conference took place between 19 November to 10 December 1946, and elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General. The Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the CICI, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence. As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate, political and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, and the dissolution of the USSR.
Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists (among them was Claude Lévi-Strauss) and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO claiming that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela.
UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, Haiti, started in 1947. This project was followed by expert missions to other countries, including, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949. In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, Thailand, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children, youths and adults. Ten years later, the 2000 World Education Forum held in Dakar, Senegal, led member governments to commit to achieving basic education for all by 2015.
UNESCO's early activities in culture included, for example, the Nubia Campaign, launched in 1960. The purpose of the campaign was to move the Great Temple of Abu Simbel to keep it from being swamped by the Nile after construction of the Aswan Dam. During the 20-year campaign, 22 monuments and architectural complexes were relocated. This was the first and largest in a series of campaigns including Mohenjo-daro (Pakistan), Fes (Morocco), Kathmandu (Nepal), Borobudur (Indonesia) and the Acropolis (Greece). The organization's work on heritage led to the adoption, in 1972, of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. The World Heritage Committee was established in 1976 and the first sites inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1978. Since then important legal instruments on cultural heritage and diversity have been adopted by UNESCO member states in 2003 (Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage) and 2005 (Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions).
An intergovernmental meeting of UNESCO in Paris in December 1951 led to the creation of the European Council for Nuclear Research, which was responsible for establishing the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in 1954.
Arid Zone programming, 1948–1966, is another example of an early major UNESCO project in the field of natural sciences. In 1968, UNESCO organized the first intergovernmental conference aimed at reconciling the environment and development, a problem which continues to be addressed in the field of sustainable development. The main outcome of the 1968 conference was the creation of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme.
In communication, the free flow of information has been a priority for UNESCO from its beginnings. In the years immediately following World War II, efforts were concentrated on reconstruction and on the identification of needs for means of mass communication around the world. UNESCO started organizing training and education for journalists in the 1950s. In response to calls for a "New World Information and Communication Order" in the late 1970s, UNESCO established the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems, which produced the 1980 MacBride report (named after the Chair of the Commission, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Seán MacBride). Following the MacBride report, UNESCO introduced the Information Society for All programme and Toward Knowledge Societies programme in the lead up to the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003 (Geneva) and 2005 (Tunis).
In 2011, Palestine became a UNESCO member following a vote in which 107 member states supported and 14 opposed. Laws passed in the United States in 1990 and 1994 mean that it cannot contribute financially to any UN organisation that accepts Palestine as a full member. As a result, it withdrew its funding which accounted for about 22% of UNESCO's budget. Israel also reacted to Palestine's admittance to UNESCO by freezing Israel payments to the UNESCO and imposing sanctions to the Palestinian Authority, claiming that Palestine's admittance would be detrimental "to potential peace talks". Two years after they stopped paying their dues to UNESCO, US and Israel lost UNESCO voting rights in 2013 without losing the right to be elected (as a consequence, US was elected as a member of the Executive Board for the period 2016-2019).
Activities UNESCO offices in Brasília
UNESCO implements its activities through the five programme areas: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information.
- Education: UNESCO supports research in comparative education; and provide expertise and fosters partnerships to strengthen national educational leadership and the capacity of countries to offer quality education for all. This includes the
- UNESCO Chairs, an international network of 644 UNESCO Chairs, involving over 770 institutions in 126 countries.
- Environmental Conservation Organisation
- Convention against Discrimination in Education adopted in 1960
- Organization of the International Conference on Adult Education (CONFINTEA) in an interval of 12 years
- Publication of the Education for All Global Monitoring Report
- Publication of the Four Pillars of Learning seminal document
- UNESCO ASPNet, an international network of 8,000 schools in 170 countries.
UNESCO does not accredit institutions of higher learning.
- UNESCO also issues public statements to educate the public:
- Seville Statement on Violence: A statement adopted by UNESCO in 1989 to refute the notion that humans are biologically predisposed to organised violence.
- Designating projects and places of cultural and scientific significance, such as:
- Global Geoparks Network
- Biosphere reserves, through the Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB), since 1971
- City of Literature; in 2007, the first city to be given this title was Edinburgh, the site of Scotland's first circulating library. In 2008, Iowa City, Iowa became the City of Literature.
- Endangered languages and linguistic diversity projects
- Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
- Memory of the World International Register, since 1997
- Water resources management, through the International Hydrological Programme (IHP), since 1965
- World Heritage Sites
- World Digital Library
- Encouraging the "free flow of ideas by images and words" by:
- Promoting freedom of expression, freedom of the press and freedom of information legislation, through the International Programme for the Development of Communication and the Communication and Information Programme
- Promoting universal access to Information and Communications Technology, through the Information for All Programme
- Promoting pluralism and cultural diversity in the media
- Promoting events, such as:
- International Decade for the Promotion of a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World: 2001–2010, proclaimed by the UN in 1998
- World Press Freedom Day, 3 May each year, to promote freedom of expression and freedom of the press as a basic human right and as crucial components of any healthy, democratic and free society.
- Criança Esperança in Brazil, in partnership with Rede Globo, to raise funds for community-based projects that foster social integration and violence prevention.
- International Literacy Day
- International Year for the Culture of Peace
- Founding and funding projects, such as:
- Migration Museums Initiative: Promoting the establishment of museums for cultural dialogue with migrant populations.
- UNESCO-CEPES, the European Centre for Higher Education: established in 1972 in Bucharest, Romania, as a de-centralized office to promote international co-operation in higher education in Europe as well as Canada, USA and Israel. Higher Education in Europe is its official journal.
- Free Software Directory: since 1998 UNESCO and the Free Software Foundation have jointly funded this project cataloguing free software.
- FRESH Focussing Resources on Effective School Health.
- OANA, Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies
- International Council of Science
- UNESCO Goodwill Ambassadors
- ASOMPS, Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices, a series of scientific conferences held in Asia
- Botany 2000, a programme supporting taxonomy, and biological and cultural diversity of medicinal and ornamental plants, and their protection against environmental pollution
- The UNESCO Collection of Representative Works, translating works of world literature both to and from multiple languages, from 1948 to 2005
- GoUNESCO, an umbrella of initiatives to make heritage fun supported by UNESCO, New Delhi Office
The UNESCO transparency portal has been designed to enable public access to information regarding Organization's activities, such as its aggregate budget for a biennium, as well as links to relevant programmatic and financial documents. These two distinct sets of information are published on the IATI registry, respectively based on the IATI Activity Standard and the IATI Organization Standard.
UNESCO and its specialized institutions issue a number of magazines.
The UNESCO Courier magazine states its mission to "promote UNESCO’s ideals, maintain a platform for the dialogue between cultures and provide a forum for international debate." Since March 2006 it is available online, with limited printed issues. Its articles express the opinions of the authors which are not necessarily the opinions of UNESCO. As of 2016, the latest issue posted was October–December 2011.
In 1950, UNESCO initiated the quarterly review Impact of Science on Society (also known as Impact) to discuss the influence of science on society. UNESCO also publish museum international quarterly from the year 1948.
Official UNESCO NGOs
UNESCO has official relations with 322 international non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Most of these are what UNESCO calls "operational", a select few are "formal". The highest form of affiliation to UNESCO is "formal associate", and the 22 NGOs with formal associate (ASC) relations occupying offices at UNESCO are:
Abbr Organization IB International Baccalaureate CCIVS Co-ordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service EI Education International IAU International Association of Universities IFTC International Council for Film, Television and Audiovisual Communication ICPHS International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies which publishes Diogenes ICSU International Council for Science ICOM International Council of Museums ICSSPE International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education ICA International Council on Archives ICOMOS International Council on Monuments and Sites IFJ International Federation of Journalists IFLA International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions IFPA International Federation of Poetry Associations IMC International Music Council IPA International Police Association INSULA International Scientific Council for Island Development ISSC International Social Science Council ITI International Theatre Institute IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources IUTAO International Union of Technical Associations and Organizations UIA Union of International Associations WAN World Association of Newspapers WFEO World Federation of Engineering Organizations WFUCA World Federation of UNESCO Clubs, Centres and Associations UNESCO Institute for Water Education in Delft Institutes and centres
The institutes are specialized departments of the organization that support UNESCO's programme, providing specialized support for cluster and national offices.
Abbr Name Location IBE International Bureau of Education Geneva UIL UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning Hamburg IIEP UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning Paris (headquarters) and Buenos Aires (regional office) IITE UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education Moscow IICBA UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa Addis Ababa IESALC UNESCO International Institute for Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean Caracas UNESCO-UNEVOC UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training Bonn CEPES UNESCO European Centre for Higher Education Bucharest UNESCO-IHE UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education Delft ICTP International Centre for Theoretical Physics Trieste UIS UNESCO Institute for Statistics Montreal Prizes
UNESCO awards 22 prizes in education, science, culture and peace:
- Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize
- L'Oréal-UNESCO Awards for Women in Science
- UNESCO/King Sejong Literacy Prize
- UNESCO/Confucius Prize for Literacy
- UNESCO/Emir Jaber al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah Prize to promote Quality Education for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities
- UNESCO King Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa Prize for the Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Education
- UNESCO/Hamdan Bin Rashid Al-Maktoum Prize for Outstanding Practice and Performance in Enhancing the Effectiveness of Teachers
- UNESCO/Kalinga Prize for the Popularization of Science
- UNESCO/Institut Pasteur Medal for an outstanding contribution to the development of scientific knowledge that has a beneficial impact on human health
- UNESCO/Sultan Qaboos Prize for Environmental Preservation
- Great Man-Made River International Water Prize for Water Resources in Arid Zones presented by UNESCO (title to be reconsidered)
- Michel Batisse Award for Biosphere Reserve Management
- UNESCO/Bilbao Prize for the Promotion of a Culture of Human Rights
- UNESCO Prize for Peace Education
- UNESCO-Madanjeet Singh Prize for the Promotion of Tolerance and Non-Violence
- UNESCO/International José Martí Prize
- UNESCO/Avicenna Prize for Ethics in Science
- UNESCO/Juan Bosch Prize for the Promotion of Social Science Research in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Sharjah Prize for Arab Culture
- Melina Mercouri International Prize for the Safeguarding and Management of Cultural Landscapes (UNESCO-Greece)
- IPDC-UNESCO Prize for Rural Communication
- UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize
- UNESCO/Jikji Memory of the World Prize
- UNESCO-Equatorial Guinea International Prize for Research in the Life Sciences
- Carlos J. Finlay Prize for Microbiology
- International Simón Bolívar Prize (inactive since 2004)
- UNESCO Prize for Human Rights Education
- UNESCO/Obiang Nguema Mbasogo International Prize for Research in the Life Sciences (inactive since 2010)
- UNESCO Prize for the Promotion of the Arts
International Days observed at UNESCO
Date Name 27 January International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust 13 February World Radio Day 21 February International Mother Language Day 8 March International Women's Day 20 March International Francophonie Day 21 March International Day of Nowruz 21 March World Poetry Day 21 March International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination 22 March World Day for Water 23 April World Book and Copyright Day 30 April International Jazz Day 3 May World Press Freedom Day 21 May World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development 22 May International Day for Biological Diversity 25 May Africa Day / Africa Week 5 June World Environment Day 8 June World Oceans Day 21 June International Yoga Day 9 August International Day of the World's Indigenous People 12 August International Youth Day 23 August International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition 8 September International Literacy Day 15 September International Day of Democracy 21 September International Day of Peace 28 September International Day for the Universal Access to Information 5 October World Teachers' Day 2nd Wednesday in October International Day for Disaster Reduction 17 October International Day for the Eradication of Poverty 20 October World Statistics Day 27 October World Day for Audiovisual Heritage 10 November World Science Day for Peace and Development 3rd Thursday in November World Philosophy Day 16 November International Day for Tolerance 19 November International Men's Day 25 November International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women 29 November International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People 1 December World AIDS Day 10 December Human Rights Day 18 December International Migrants Day Member states Main article: Member states of UNESCO
UNESCO counts 195 member states and 9 associate members. Some members are not independent states and some members have additional National Organizing Committees from some of their dependent territories. UNESCO state parties are the United Nations member states (except Liechtenstein), Cook Islands, Niue, and the State of Palestine.
Governing bodies Director-General
Elections for the renewal of the position of Director-General took place in Paris from 7 to 23 September 2009. Eight candidates ran for the position, and 58 countries voted for them. The Executive Council gathered from 7 to 23 September, the vote itself beginning on the 17th. Irina Bokova was elected the new Director-General.
The list of the Directors-General of UNESCO since its establishment in 1946 is as follows:
Irina Bokova Bulgaria 2009–present Koïchiro Matsuura Japan 1999–2009 Federico Mayor Zaragoza Spain 1987–99 Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow Senegal 1974–87 René Maheu France 1961–74; acting 1961 Vittorino Veronese Italy 1958–61 Luther Evans United States 1953–58 John Wilkinson Taylor United States acting 1952–53 Jaime Torres Bodet Mexico 1948–52 Julian Huxley United Kingdom 1946–48 General Conference
This is the list of the sessions of UNESCO General Conference held since 1946:
Session Location Year Chaired by from 38th Paris 2015 Stanley Mutumba Simataa Namibia 37th Paris 2013 Hao Ping China 36th Paris 2011 Katalin Bogyay Hungary 35th Paris 2009 Davidson Hepburn Bahamas 34th Paris 2007 George N. Anastassopoulos Greece 33rd Paris 2005 Musa Bin Jaafar Bin Hassan Oman 32nd Paris 2003 Michael Omolewa Nigeria 31st Paris 2001 Ahmad Jalali Iran 30th Paris 1999 Jaroslava Moserova Czech Republic 29th Paris 1997 Eduardo Portella Brazil 28th Paris 1995 Torben Krogh Denmark 27th Paris 1993 Ahmed Saleh Sayyad Yemen 26th Paris 1991 Bethwell Allan Ogot Kenya 25th Paris 1989 Anwar Ibrahim Malaysia 24th Paris 1987 Guillermo Putzeys Alvarez Guatemala 23rd Sofia 1985 Nikolai Todorov Bulgaria 22nd Paris 1983 Saïd Tell Jordan 4th extraordinary Paris 1982 21st Belgrade 1980 Ivo Margan Yugoslavia 20th Paris 1978 Napoléon LeBlanc Canada 19th Nairobi 1976 Taaita Toweett Kenya 18th Paris 1974 Magda Jóború Hungary 3rd extraordinary Paris 1973 17th Paris 1972 Toru Haguiwara Japan 16th Paris 1970 Atilio Dell'Oro Maini Argentina 15th Paris 1968 William Eteki Mboumoua Cameroon 14th Paris 1966 Bedrettin Tuncel Turkey 13th Paris 1964 Norair Sisakian Armenian SSR 12th Paris 1962 Paulo de Berrêdo Carneiro Brazil 11th Paris 1960 Akale-Work Abte-Wold Ethiopia 10th Paris 1958 Jean Berthoin France 9th New Delhi 1956 Abul Kalam Azad India 8th Montevideo 1954 Justino Zavala Muñiz Uruguay 2nd extraordinary Paris 1953 7th Paris 1952 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan India 6th Paris 1951 Howland H. Sargeant United States 5th Florence 1950 Stefano Jacini Italy 4th Paris 1949 Edward Ronald Walker Australia 1st extraordinary Paris 1948 3rd Beirut 1948 Hamid Bey Frangie Lebanon 2nd Mexico City 1947 Manuel Gual Vidal Mexico 1st Paris 1946 Léon Blum France Executive Board Term Group I
(9 seats) Group II
(7 seats) Group III
(10 seats) Group IV
(14 seats) Group V(b)
(7 seats) 2016–19
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Trinidad and Tobago
Papua New Guinea
United Arab Emirates
Offices The Garden of Peace, UNESCO headquarters, Paris. Donated by the Government of Japan, this garden was designed by American-Japanese sculptor artist Isamu Noguchi in 1958 and installed by Japanese gardener Toemon Sano.
UNESCO headquarters are located at Place de Fontenoy in Paris, France.
UNESCO's field offices across the globe are categorized into four primary office types based upon their function and geographic coverage: cluster offices, national offices, regional bureaus and liaison offices.
Field offices by region
The following list of all UNESCO Field Offices is organized geographically by UNESCO Region and identifies the members states and associate members of UNESCO which are served by each office.
- Abidjan – National Office to Côte d'Ivoire
- Abuja – National Office to Nigeria
- Accra – Cluster Office for Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo
- Addis Ababa – Liaison Office with the African Union and with the Economic Commission for Africa
- Bamako – Cluster Office for Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali and Niger
- Brazzaville – National Office to the Republic of the Congo
- Bujumbura – National Office to Burundi
- Dakar – Regional Bureau for Education in Africa and Cluster Office for Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, and Senegal
- Dar es Salaam – Cluster Office for Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and Tanzania
- Harare – Cluster Office for Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe
- Juba – National Office to South Sudan
- Kinshasa – National Office to the Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Libreville – Cluster Office for the Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Sao Tome and Principe
- Maputo – National Office to Mozambique
- Nairobi – Regional Bureau for Sciences in Africa and Cluster Office for Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan and Uganda
- Windhoek – National Office to Namibia
- Yaoundé – Cluster Office to Cameroon, Central African Republic and Chad
- Amman – National Office to Jordan
- Beirut – Regional Bureau for Education in the Arab States and Cluster Office to Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Palestine
- Cairo – Regional Bureau for Sciences in the Arab States and Cluster Office for Egypt, Libya and Sudan
- Doha – Cluster Office to Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen
- Iraq – National Office for Iraq (currently located in Amman, Jordan)
- Khartoum – National Office to Sudan
- Rabat – Cluster Office to Algeria, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia
- Ramallah – National Office to the Palestinian Territories
Asia and Pacific See also: UNESCO Asia Pacific Heritage Awards
- Apia – Cluster Office to Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Tokelau (Associate Member)
- Bangkok – Regional Bureau for Education in Asia and the Pacific and Cluster Office to Thailand, Burma, Laos, Singapore and Vietnam
- Beijing – Cluster Office to North Korea, Japan, Mongolia, the People's Republic of China and South Korea
- Dhaka – National Office to Bangladesh
- Hanoi – National Office to Vietnam
- Islamabad – National Office to Pakistan
- Jakarta – Regional Bureau for Sciences in Asia and the Pacific and Cluster Office to Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and East Timor
- Kabul – National Office to Afghanistan
- Kathmandu – National Office to Nepal
- New Delhi – Cluster Office to Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka
- Phnom Penh – National Office to Cambodia
- Tashkent – National Office to Uzbekistan
- Tehran – Cluster Office to Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and Turkmenistan
Europe and North America
- Almaty – Cluster Office to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan
- Brussels – Liaison Office to the European Union and its subsidiary bodies in Brussels
- Geneva – Liaison Office to the United Nations in Geneva
- New York City – Liaison Office to the United Nations in New York
- Moscow – Cluster Office to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova and Russia
- Venice – Regional Bureau for Sciences and Culture in Europe
Latin America and the Caribbean Carondelet Palace, Presidential Palace – with changing of the guards. The Historic Center of Quito, Ecuador is one of the largest, least-altered and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas. This center was, together with the historic centre of Kraków in Poland, the first to be declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO on 18 September 1978.
- Brasilia – National Office to Brazil
- Guatemala City – National Office to Guatemala
- Havana – Regional Bureau for Culture in Latin America and the Caribbean and Cluster Office to Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Aruba
- Kingston – Cluster Office to Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago as well as the associate member states of British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Curaçao and Sint Maarten
- Lima – National Office to Peru
- Mexico City – National Office to Mexico
- Montevideo – Regional Bureau for Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean and Cluster Office to Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay
- Port-au-Prince – National Office to Haiti
- Quito – Cluster Office to Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela
- San José – Cluster Office to Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama
- Santiago de Chile – Regional Bureau for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean and National Office to Chile
Controversies New World Information and Communication order
UNESCO has been the centre of controversy in the past, particularly in its relationships with the United States, the United Kingdom, Singapore and the former Soviet Union. During the 1970s and 1980s, UNESCO's support for a "New World Information and Communication Order" and its MacBride report calling for democratization of the media and more egalitarian access to information was condemned in these countries as attempts to curb freedom of the press. UNESCO was perceived by some as a platform for communists and Third World dictators to attack the West, a stark contrast to accusations made by the USSR in the late 1940s and early 1950s. In 1984, the United States withheld its contributions and withdrew from the organization in protest, followed by the United Kingdom in 1985. Singapore took the opportunity to withdraw also at the end of 1985, citing rising membership fees. Following a change of government in 1997, the UK rejoined. The United States rejoined in 2003, followed by Singapore on 8 October 2007.
Israel was admitted to UNESCO in 1949, one year after its creation. Israel has maintained its membership since 1949. In 2010, Israel designated the Cave of the Patriarchs, Hebron and Rachel's Tomb, Bethlehem as National Heritage Sites and announced restoration work, prompting criticism from the United States and protests from Palestinians. In October 2010, UNESCO's Executive Board voted to declare the sites as "al-Haram al-Ibrahimi/Tomb of the Patriarchs" and "Bilal bin Rabah Mosque/Rachel's Tomb" and stated that they were "an integral part of the occupied Palestinian Territories" and any unilateral Israeli action was a violation of international law. UNESCO described the sites as significant to "people of the Muslim, Christian and Jewish traditions", and accused Israel of highlighting only the Jewish character of the sites. Israel in turn accused UNESCO of "detach the Nation of Israel from its heritage", and accused it of being politically motivated. The Rabbi of the Western Wall claimed that Rachel's tomb had not previously been declared a holy Muslim site. Israel partially suspended ties with UNESCO. Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister Danny Ayalon declared that the resolution was a "part of Palestinian escalation". Zevulun Orlev, chairman of the Knesset Education and Culture Committee, referred to the resolutions as an attempt to undermine the mission of UNESCO as a scientific and cultural organization that promotes cooperation throughout the world.
On 28 June 2011, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee, at Jordan's insistence, censured Israel's decision to demolish and rebuild the Mughrabi Gate Bridge in Jerusalem for safety reasons. Israel stated that Jordan had signed an agreement with Israel stipulating that the existing bridge must be dismantled for safety reasons; Jordan disputed the agreement, saying that it was only signed under U.S. pressure. Israel was also unable to address the UNESCO committee over objections from Egypt.
In January 2014, days before it was scheduled to open, UNESCO Director-General, Irina Bokova, "indefinitely postponed" and effectively cancelled an exhibit created by the Simon Wiesenthal Center entitled, "The People, The Book, The Land: The 3,500-year relationship between the Jewish people and the Land of Israel." The event was scheduled to run from 21 January through 30 January in Paris. Bokova cancelled the event after representatives of Arab states at UNESCO argued that its display would "harm the peace process". The author of the exhibition, Professor Robert Wistrich of the Hebrew University's Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism, called the cancellation an "appalling act," and characterized Bokova's decision as "an arbitrary act of total cynicism and, really, contempt for the Jewish people and its history." UNESCO amended the decision to cancel the exhibit within the year, and it quickly achieved popularity and was viewed as a great success.
Occupied Palestine Resolution Main article: Occupied Palestine Resolution
On 13 October 2016, UNESCO passed a resolution on East Jerusalem that condemned Israel for "aggressions" by Israeli police and soldiers and "illegal measures" against the freedom of worship and Muslims' access to their holy sites, while also recognizing Israel as the occupying power. Palestinian leaders welcomed the decision. While the text acknowledged the "importance of the Old City of Jerusalem and its walls for the three monotheistic religions", it referred to the sacred hilltop compound in Jerusalem's Old City only by its Muslim name "Al-Haram al-Sharif", Arabic for Noble Sanctuary. In response, Israel denounced the UNESCO resolution for its omission of the words "Temple Mount" stating that it denies Jewish ties to the key holy site. After receiving criticism from numerous Israeli politicians and diplomats, including Benjamin Netanyahu and Ayelet Shaked, Israel froze all ties with the organization. The resolution was condemned by Ban ki-Moon and the Director-General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova, who said that Judaism, Islam and Christianity have clear historical connections to Jerusalem and "to deny, conceal or erase any of the Jewish, Christian or Muslim traditions undermines the integrity of the site. Al-Aqsa Mosque is also Temple Mount, whose Western Wall is the holiest place in Judaism." It was also rejected by the Czech Parliament which said the resolution reflects a "hateful anti-Israel sentiment", and hundreds of Italian Jews demonstrated in Rome over Italy abstention. On 26 October, UNESCO approved a reviewed version of the resolution, which also criticized Israel for its continuous "refusal to let the body's experts access Jerusalem's holy sites to determine their conservation status." Despite containing some softening of language following Israeli protests over a previous version, Israel continued to denounce the text. The resolution refers to the site Jews and Christians refer to as the Temple Mount only by its Arab name — a significant semantic decision also adopted by UNESCO's executive board last week, triggering condemnation from Israel and its allies. U.S. Ambassador Crystal Nix Hines stated: "This item should have been defeated. These politicized and one-sided resolutions are damaging the credibility of UNESCO." In November 2016, the City Council of Beverly Hills, California passed a resolution to condemn the UNESCO resolution.
Palestine Palestinian Youth Magazine controversy
In February 2011, an article was published in a Palestinian youth magazine in which a teenage girl described one of her four role-models as Adolf Hitler. In December 2011, UNESCO, which partly funded the magazine, condemned the material and subsequently withdrew support.
Islamic University of Gaza controversy
In 2012, UNESCO decided to establish a chair at the Islamic University of Gaza in the field of astronomy, astrophysics, and space sciences, fueling much controversy and criticism. Israel's foreign ministry criticized the move and stated that the university supports Hamas (which Israel and other countries designate as a terrorist organization) and houses bomb laboratories for Hamas.
The head, Kamalain Shaath, defended UNESCO, stating that "the Islamic University is a purely academic university that is interested only in education and its development". Israeli ambassador to UNESCO Nimrod Barkan planned to submit a letter of protest with information about the university's ties to Hamas, especially angry that this was the first Palestinian university that UNESCO chose to cooperate with. The Jewish organization B'nai B'rith criticized the move as well.
On 16 and 17 February 2012, UNESCO held a conference entitled, "The Media World after WikiLeaks and News of the World." Despite all six panels being focused on WikiLeaks, no member of WikiLeaks staff were invited to speak. After receiving a complaint from WikiLeaks spokesman Kristinn Hrafnsson, UNESCO invited him to attend, but did not offer a place on any panels. The offer also came only a week before the conference, which was held in Paris, France. Many of the speakers featured, including David Leigh and Heather Brooke, had spoken out openly against WikiLeaks and its founder Julian Assange in the past. WikiLeaks released a press statement on 15 February 2012 denouncing UNESCO which stated, "UNESCO has made itself an international human rights joke. To use "freedom of expression" to censor WikiLeaks from a conference about WikiLeaks is an Orwellian absurdity beyond words."
In 2013, UNESCO announced that the collection "The Life and Works of Ernesto Che Guevara" became part of the Memory of the World Register. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, a US congresswoman, condemned this decision, saying that the organization acts against its own ideals:
This decision is more than an insult to the families of those Cubans who were lined up and summarily executed by Che and his merciless cronies it also serves as a direct contradiction to the UNESCO ideals of encouraging peace and universal respect for human rights.
UN Watch, also condemned this selection by UNESCO.
Listing Nanjing Massacre documents
In 2015, Japan threatened to halt funding for UNESCO over the organization's decision to include documents relating to the 1937 Nanjing massacre in the latest listing for its "Memory of the World" program. In October 2016, Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida confirmed that Japan's 2016 annual funding of ¥4.4 billion had been suspended although denied any direct link with the Nanjing document controversy.
Products or services
- UNESDOC – Contains over 146,000 UNESCO documents in full text published since 1945 as well as metadata from the collections of the UNESCO Library and documentation centres in Field Offices and Institutes.
Information Processing Tools
UNESCO develops, maintains and disseminates, free-of-charge, two interrelated software packages for database management (CDS/ISIS) and data mining/statistical analysis (IDAMS).
- CDS/ISIS - a generalised Information Storage and Retrieval system. The Windows version may run on a single computer or in a local area network. The JavaISIS client/server components allow remote database management over the Internet and are available for Windows, Linux and Macintosh. Furthermore, GenISIS allows the user to produce HTML Web forms for CDS/ISIS database searching. The ISIS_DLL provides an API for developing CDS/ISIS based applications.
- OpenIDAMS – a software package for processing and analysing numerical data developed, maintained and disseminated by UNESCO. The original package was proprietary but UNESCO has initiated a project to provide it as open source.
- IDIS - a tool for direct data exchange between CDS/ISIS and IDAMS.
- Academic Mobility Network
- WikiProject UNESCO
References and notes
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- ^ "UNESCO". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- ^ UNESCO's General Conference voted on 31 October 2011 "to admit Palestine as a member State". However, it notes that, for "its membership to take effect, Palestine must sign and ratify UNESCO's Constitution". "UNESCO " Media Services " General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO Member State". UNESCO.
- ^ "Member States | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". UNESCO.
- ^ "The Faroes become associated <ny specialized institutes and centres throughout the world". Archived from the original on 23 August 2011.
- ^ "UNDG Members". United Nations Development Group. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- ^ "Introducing UNESCO". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- ^ "UNESCO • General Conference; 34th; Medium-term Strategy, 2008–2013; 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- ^ League of Nations. Records of the Second Assembly. Plenary Meetings. 5 September-5 October 1921. Geneva. P. The International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) was officially created on 4 January 1922, as a consultative organ composed of individuals elected based on their personal qualifications. The International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC) was then created in Paris on 9 August 1925, to act as the executing agency for the ICIC. (1987). A Chronology of UNESCO: 1947–1987. Paris, December 1987. LAD.85/WS/4 Rev. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012
- ^ UNESCO. (1987). A Chronology.
- ^ THE WORK OF U.N.E.S.C.O. (Hansard, 26 January 1949). Hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- ^ "United Nations Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Held at the Institute of Civil Engineers, London, from 1 to 16 November 1945. ECO/Conf./29. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- ^ "Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 16 November 1945. United Nations Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Held at the Institute of Civil Engineers, London, from 1 to 16 November 1945. ECO/Conf./29. P. 93. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 1st Session. (1947). General Conference, First Session, held at UNESCO House, Paris, from 20 November to 10 December 1946. UNESCO/C/30 . (Paris.) Item 14, p. 73. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- ^ UNESCO. General Conference, 8th Session. (1955). Records of the General Conference, Eighth Session, Montevideo, 1954: Resolutions. 8 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution II.1.2, p.12. UNESDOC database
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- ^ UNESCO. Executive Board, 42nd Session. (1955). Report of the Director-General on the Activities of the Organization (March–November 1955). Paris, 9 November 1955. 42 EX/43. Part I Relations with Member States, paragraph 3.
- ^ The Haiti pilot project: phase one, 1947–1949. (1951). Monographs on Fundamental Education IV. UNESCO: Paris.
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- ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 2nd Session. (1948). Resolutions adopted by the General Conference during its second session, Mexico, November–December 1947. 2 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution 3.4.1, p. 17. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
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- ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 21st Session. (1980). International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia: Report of the Executive Committee of the Campaign and of the Director-General. 26 August 1980. 21 C/82. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- ^ "Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Paris, 16 November 1972. UNESCO. General Conference, 17th Session. Records of the General Conference, Seventeenth Session, Paris, 17 October to 21 November 1972. Volume I: Resolutions, Recommendations. 17 C/Resolution 29. Chapter IX Conventions and Recommendations, p. 135. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- ^ "UNESCO. Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Second Session. Final Report. Washington, DC, 5–8 September 1978. CC-78/CONF.010/10 Rev. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- ^ "Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Paris, 17 October 2003. UNESCO. General Conference, 32nd Session. Records of the General Conference, Thirty-second Session, Paris, 29 September to 17 October 2003. Volume I: Resolutions. 32 C/Resolution 32. Chapter IV Programme for 2004–2005, Major Programme IV – Culture, p. 53. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- ^ "Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Paris, 20 October 2005. UNESCO. General Conference, 33rd Session. Records of the General Conference. Thirty-third Session, Paris, 3–21 October 2005. Volume I: Resolutions. 33 C/Resolution 41. Chapter V Programme for 2006–2007, p. 83. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- ^ "UNESCO. Executive Board, 26th Session. Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its twenty-sixth session. (7 June to 9 July 1951). Paris, 27 July 1951. 26 EX/Decisions. Item 7 Programme, Resolution 188.8.131.52, p. 9. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 3rd Session. (1949). Records of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Third Session. Beirut, 1948. Volume II: Resolutions. (UNESCO: Paris). 2 C/Resolution 3.7, page 23. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- ^ ""Use and conservation of the biosphere: Proceedings of the intergovernmental conference of experts on the scientific basis for rational use and conservation of the resources of the biosphere. Paris, 4–13 September 1968." (1970.) In Natural Resources Research, Volume X. SC.69/XIL.16/A. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- ^ "UNESCO. (1955). International Expert Meeting on Professional Training for Journalism. Unesco House, 9–13 April 1956. Purpose and Scope. Paris, 18 November 1955. UNESCO/MC/PT.1. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 19th Session. (1977). Approved Programme and budget for 1977–1978. Paris, February 1977. 19 C/5, p. 332, paragraphs 4154 and 4155. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- ^ "MacBride, S. (1980). Many voices, one world: towards a new, more just, and more efficient world information and communication order. (UNESCO: Paris). UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- ^ "UNESCO. (1996). UNESCO and an Information Society for All: a position paper. (UNESCO: Paris). CII-96/WS/4. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 32nd Session. (2003). Communiqué: Ministerial Round Table on "Towards Knowledge Societies." (UNESCO Headquarters, 9 and 10 October 2003). 14 October 2003. 32 C/INF.26. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- ^ "General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO Member". 31 October 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- ^ Blomfield, Adrian (31 October 2011). "US withdraws Unesco funding after it accepts Palestinian membership". The Telegraph. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- ^ Erlanger, Steven; Sayare, Scott (31 October 2011). "Unesco Approves Full Membership for Palestinians". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- ^ "After UNESCO vote, Israeli sanctions on Palestinian Authority anger U.S.". Haaretz. 4 November 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- ^ "Israel freezes UNESCO funds". CNN. 3 December 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- ^ "U.S., Israel lose voting rights at UNESCO over Palestine row". Reuters. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- ^ Because diploma mills have claimed false UNESCO accreditation, UNESCO itself has published warnings against education organizations that claim UNESCO recognition or affiliation. See Luca Lantero, Degree Mills: non-accredited and irregular higher education institutions, Information Centre on Academic Mobility and Equivalence (CIMEA), Italy. and UNESCO "Alert: Misuse of UNESCO Name by Bogus Institutions"
- ^ Varga, Susan (2006). Edinburgh Old Town (Images of Scotland). The History Press Ltd. ISBN 0-7524-4083-7.
- ^ "Migration Institutions – Home". Migrationmuseums.org. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- ^ "Education | EDUCATION –". UNESCO. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- ^ Reddy, A (2014) 'Official support for GoUNESCO from UNESCO New Delhi – GoUNESCO', GoUNESCO. Uniform Resource Locator: http://www.gounesco.com/unesco-new-delhi-support-gounesco.
- ^ "The magazine - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization".
- ^ "Science and technology education – Unesco", a UNESCO brochure
- ^ "Quoted on UNESCO official site". Ngo-db.unesco.org. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- ^ "Full list of NGOs that have official relations with UNESCO". UNESCO. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- ^ "UNESCO Headquarters Committee 107th session 13 Feb 2009". Ngo-db.unesco.org. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- ^ admin (27 May 2015). "The IBE Team".
- ^ "UIL - UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning".
- ^ "IIEP UNESCO".
- ^ "UNESCO IITE".
- ^ "IICBA official site".
- ^ "Inicio".
- ^ "UNESCO-UNEVOC - Promoting learning for the world of work".
- ^ "CEPES official site".
- ^ "Home - UNESCO-IHE".
- ^ "ICTP - International Centre for Theoretical Physics".
- ^ "UNESCO Institute for Statistics: UNESCO Institute for Statistics".
- ^ UNESCO Executive Board Document 185 EX/38, Paris, 10 September 2010
- ^ International Days | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. UNESCO. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- ^ "List of UNESCO members and associates". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- ^ "Summary update on Government progress to become a State Party to the UNESCO International Convention against Doping in Sport" (PDF). WADA. p. 2. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
- ^ "State Parties". UNESCO. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- ^ "Member States of the United Nations". United Nations. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- ^ List of the voting countries
- ^ UNESCO official site: Directors-General
- ^ UNESCO official site: Previous Sessions of the General Conference
- ^ "President of the 38th session of the General Conference". UNESCO. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- ^ "General Conference 37th | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- ^ Executive Board – Results of elections. UNESCO General Conference, November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- ^ Table_2013-2015.pdf UNESCO Membership by Electoral Groups. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- ^ "List of All UNESCO Field Offices by Region with Descriptions of Member State Coverage". UNESCO.
- ^ "City of Quito – UNESCO World Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- ^ "UNESCO Office in Brasilia | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- ^ "Oficina de la UNESCO en Quito | Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- ^ Grahm, S. E. (April 2006). "The (Real)politiks of Culture: U.S. Cultural Diplomacy in UNESCO, 1946–1954". Diplomatic History. 30 (2): 231–251. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2006.00548.x.
- ^ Singapore to withdraw from UNESCO, The Telegraph, 28 December 1984
- ^ "Hebron clashes over Israel's West Bank heritage list". BBC News. 26 February 2010.
- ^ "Executive Board adopts five decisions concerning UNESCO's work in the occupied Palestinian and Arab Territories". UNESCO. 21 October 2010.
- ^ "THE TWO PALESTINIAN SITES OF AL-HARAM AL-IBRAHIMI/TOMB OF THE PATRIARCHS IN AL-KHALIL/HEBRON AND THE BILAL BIN RABAH MOSQUE/RACHEL'S TOMB IN BETHLEHEM" (PDF).
- ^ Hillel Fendel (1 November 2010). "UNESCO Erases Israeli Protests from Rachel's Tomb Protocol". Arutz Sheva.
- ^ Maayana Miskin (29 October 2010). "UN Org.: Rachel's Tomb is a Mosque". Arutz Sheva.
- ^ "Ayalon: Israel will no longer cooperate with UNESCO". The Jerusalem Post. 3 November 2010.
- ^ Shalom, Rabbi. "Cooperation with UNESCO only partially suspended". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
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- ^ a b "UNESCO adopts anti-Israel resolution on al-Aqsa Mosque". aljazeera.com.
- ^ http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002462/246215e.pdf
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- ^ "UNESCO chief ‘received death threats’ for opposing Jerusalem motion". Times of Israel. 17 October 2016.
- ^ "Statement by the Director-General of UNESCO on the Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls on the occasion of the 40th session of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO in Istanbul - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization".
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- ^ "UNESCO Chair in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences (964), established in 2012 at The Islamic University of Gaza (Palestine).". UNESCO. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
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- ^ Higgins, Michael (12 July 2012). "UNESCO establishes chair at Gaza university accused of housing Hamas bomb labs". National Post. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
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- ^ UNESCO Once Again Makes a Mockery of its Own Ideals by Glorifying Mass Murderer Che Guevara, Says Ros-Lehtinen (22 July 2013)
- ^ UNESCO honors executioner Che Guevara, UN Watch, 21 July 2013 (retrieved 11 July 2016)
- ^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Japan furious at UNESCO listing Nanjing Massacre documents - Asia - DW.COM - 19.10.2015".
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- ^ "Information Processing Tools".
- ^ "OpenIDAMS".
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