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Type approval
requirements for a given product will vary around the world. Processes and certifications known as Type Approval in English are generally called Homologation,

View Wikipedia Article

For Declaration of Conformity see Conformance mark

Type Approval or Certificate of Conformity is granted to a product that meets a minimum set of regulatory, technical and safety requirements. Generally, type approval is required before a product is allowed to be sold in a particular country, so the requirements for a given product will vary around the world. Processes and certifications known as Type Approval in English are generally called Homologation, or some cognate expression, in other European languages.

Compliance to type-approval requirements can be denoted by a third-party marking on the back of the product (e.g. ABS, TUV,UL, CSA), or by a Type-Approval certificate obtained by a manufacturer and kept on file. The CE mark found on the back of many electronic devices does not mean that the product has obtained Type Approval in the European Union. The CE mark is the manufacturer's declaration that the system/assembly meets the MINIMUM safety requirements of all the Directives (laws) applicable to it, and of itself, does not signify any Third Party involvement in the design or testing of a system/assembly. Many of the New Approach safety directives do not mandate third party involvement at all (e.g. LVD, EMD), and the ones that do (e.g. PED, MDD, ATEX) only require Notified Body (NoBo) involvement above a certain degree of risk category. When the risk category mandates this involvement, the CE Marking on the system/assembly will be followed by the NoBo number, which right to use is granted by the NoBo after the required design review, testing or auditing, as spelled out in the Conformity Assessment options of each Directive. See http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/single-market-goods/cemarking/about-ce-marking/index_en.htm. On the other hand, in China type approval is denoted by the CCC mark.

Type Approval is not a term confined to a particular industry. Type Approval requirements exist for products as diverse as marine equipment, mobile phones, automotive industry, or medical equipment. Type approval simply means that the product is certified to meet certain requirements for its type, whatever that may be.

Contents
  • 1 In the automotive industry
  • 2 In telecommunications
  • 3 Certificate of Conformity, Conformance or Compliance
    • 3.1 American Commerce
    • 3.2 American nuclear business
    • 3.3 European Commerce
      • 3.3.1 History and legislation
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

In the automotive industry Main articles: Motor vehicle type approval and Vehicle category

Vehicle Type Approval is the confirmation that production samples of a design will meet specified performance standards. Traditionally, there are two systems of Type Approval in Europe. The first one bases on the EC Directives and regulates the approval of whole vehicles, vehicle systems, and separate components. The second one is part of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe regulations (UNECE) and also regulates the approval of whole vehicles, vehicle systems, and separate components. Recent changes to the requirements have seen the General Safety Regulation (GSR) EC661/2009 amending Directive 2007/46/EC by substituting the equivalent UNECE Regulations in place of the EC Directives. In effect the Directives are being replaced by UNECE Regulations. This now makes compliance with the UNECE Regulations for Type Approval submissions compulsory from 1 November 2012 and compulsory for all vehicles entering to service from 1 November 2014.

The new Framework Directive (Directive 2007/46/EC establishing a framework for the approval of motor vehicles and their trailers, and of systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles) rules the approval schemes of the new motor vehicles and their trailers in the European Union:

  • European Community Whole Vehicle Type Approval (ECWVTA), this currently applies to passenger cars. from the 29th October 2012, ECWVTA was extended to cover all new road vehicles and their trailers.
  • United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations.
  • National Small Series Type Approval (NSSTA) - the key advantages of this scheme are that some technical requirements may be reduced in comparison with ECWVTA; however, the number of vehicles that can be manufactured are limited.
  • Individual Vehicle Approval (IVA) (previously Single vehicle approval)
In telecommunications

Each jurisdiction that regulates communications requires all types of equipment, and especially radio communications equipment, that are not specifically exempted (by reason of low power output, for instance) to be tested for conformance to local regulations before it is approved for use in that jurisdiction. Such conformance might include power and noise characteristics, use of permitted frequencies only, frequency stability, and various other electrical parameters.

Certificate of Conformity, Conformance or Compliance American Commerce

A certificate of conformance is defined in American commerce as a document certified by a competent authority that the supplied good or service meets the required specifications. A certificate of conformance is a lot/datecode specific certification that provides traceability of the goods back to the point of manufacture.

American nuclear business

A certificate of conformity may be required of vendors of goods to nuclear generating stations to get the vendor to legally commit to stating compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

European Commerce

A CoC or EC Certificate of Conformity is an equal to a declaration of the conformity with the type approval of EC. It is produce to ensure the free movement of cars within the European Union, specifically for those cars that are subject to homologation or registration.

A CoC is a producer’s declaration car or motorcycles comply with the given approved type. This document contains information about the vehicle and its producer’s identification, type approval number, other technical specifications. The content of a CoC is defined by the European regulation (Amendment IX, Regulation 92/53). Vehicles which do not comply with the EU specification (as vehicle manufactured for the U.S. or Japanese market) and older vehicles that have not been given the type approval of the EC yet, cannot have an existing CoC. Similarly, it is not possible to issue a CoC for converted vehicles; in this case another technical document might help register your car. Only car and motorcycles are eligible.

History and legislation

Certificates of Conformity have been defined in EU’s Single Internal Market and Type Approval Directive (EC-92). EU’s single internal market became official on 1 January 1993. Part of the “EC-92” effort was to remove the technical barriers preventing the free movement of products within the EU market. The greatest impact of this effort has been in the area of standards in the automotive sector. The EU Commission is seeking to harmonise the automotive, technical and environmental standards between all the member states. EU legislation defines the standards in the areas of noise, particle emissions and safety. In addition, the EU’s directive on Type Approval (EU Council Directive 92/53) eliminates the need for national type approval requirements by establishing one set of rules for automobiles and their components throughout the EU. This directive aims at the clarification of the type approval procedure for motor vehicles, separate technical units (i.e., trailers), and components.

It simplifies the documentation, designates the type approval number of a separate technical unit by a certificate of conformity, and defines the vehicles, individual technical unit(s), and component(s). Certificates of Conformity, as specified in Annex IX of EU Directive 92/53, will be required for an automobile to enter into service. For component approvals, an endorsement that is issued under the relevant regulations by the U.N. Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) is recognised as equivalent to an approval granted under comparable EU legislation. In March 1992, the EU Council formally adopted the few remaining pieces of component-related legislation that are necessary to make the whole-vehicle type approval a reality for passenger cars. In June 1992, EU member state officials approved the adoption of EU legislation creating a single system for the certification of passenger cars, in turn defining the safety, and other technical, requirements. Legislation established an EU type approval system to replace the national schemes of the twelve member states. In 1996, the EU type approval system became mandatory.

Vehicles with an EU type approval can be marketed anywhere in the European Community. Therefore, a vehicle only needs to receive the type approval certification in one EU country in order to be accepted in all of the other member countries. To receive a type approval, products may either be brought to a testing facility or manufacturers may opt to maintain their own testing equipment. Nevertheless, US and EU automobiles still must be certified to this single set of rules by an authorised member state agency. A similar system was adopted for the type approval of two- and three-wheeled vehicles, which became effective on 1 January 1994.

See also
  • American Bureau of Shipping
  • Aftermarket kit
  • EuroNCAP
  • Lloyd's Register
  • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
  • Type certificate - for aircraft
  • Vehicle registration
References
  1. ^ VCA Offices Retrieved 08/29/2012
  2. ^ "Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 September 2007 establishing a framework for the approval of motor vehicles and their trailers, and of systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles (Framework Directive) Text with EEA relevance". EUR-Lex.europa.eu - Access to European Union law. publications.europa.eu - Publications Office of the European Union. 09/10/2007. Retrieved 27 September 2009.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  3. ^ "Motor Vehicle Approval Schemes". Ireland: National Standards Authority of Ireland. NSAI.ie. 1 April 2009. Archived from the original on June 17, 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2009. 
  4. ^ "EC Whole Vehicle Type Approval - Introduction". UK Vehicle Certification Agency, Department for Transport. VCA.gov.uk. 24 September 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2009. 
External links
Type Approval Specialist
  • Certificate of Conformity supplier
  • International Regulatory Approval Consultants.
  • NTS International Approvals service
  • International Type Approval services
  • Worldwide Type Approval Services for 315 MHz; 433 MHz; 2,4 GHz; 24 GHz; 77 GHz; GSM; UMTS; LTE; Wi-Fi devices; Bluetooth devices; Zigbee devices; WiMAX devices; RFID
  • China SRRC Type Approval Services
  • German Type Approval Services supplier
  • Country Type Approval Services
  • Regulatory updates
  • Compliance Advisor Global Type Approval services for Wireless and Telecommunications devices.


Approval Junkie: My Heartfelt (and Occasionally Inappropriate) Quest to Please Just About Everyone, and Ultimately Myself
Approval Junkie: My Heartfelt (and Occasionally Inappropriate) Quest to Please Just About Everyone, and Ultimately Myself
From comedian and journalist Faith Salie, of NPR's Wait Wait…Don't Tell Me! and CBS News Sunday Morning, a collection of daring, funny essays chronicling the author's adventures during her lifelong quest for approval  Faith Salie has done it all in the name of validation. Whether she’s trying to impress her parents with a perfect GPA, undergoing an exorcism to save her toxic marriage, or baking a 3D excavator cake for her son’s birthday, Salie is the ultimate approval seeker—an “approval junkie,” if you will.  In this collection of daring, honest essays, Salie shares stories from her lifelong quest for gold stars, recounting her strategy for winning (very Southern) high school beauty pageant; her struggle to pick the perfect outfit to wear to her divorce; and her difficulty falling in love again, and then conceiving, in the years following her mother’s death.   With thoughtful irreverence, Salie reflects on why she tries so hard to please others, and herself, highlighting a phenomenon that many people—especially women—experience at home and in the workplace. Equal parts laugh-out loud funny and poignant, Approval Junkie is one woman’s journey to realizing that seeking approval from others is more than just getting them to like you—it's challenging yourself to achieve, and survive, more than you ever thought you could.

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$3.38
-$12.62(-79%)



The Approval Fix: How to Break Free from People Pleasing
The Approval Fix: How to Break Free from People Pleasing
Everybody wants to be loved. We all need affirmation, acceptance, and approval. Let's face it: It feels good to be appreciated and admired. But when we depend on the approval of others to feel good about ourselves, it's impossible to have emotional stability or a healthy self-image. And when our value is based on how people see us rather than God's unconditional love for us, our desire for approval can become an addiction. In THE APPROVAL FIX, #1 New York Times bestselling author Joyce Meyer gives you practical insights that will help you learn how to accept who you are and become the unique individual God created you to be. You'll experience greater confidence, deeper emotional stability, and healthier relationships-the life you're really longing for. Today, discover the truth about God's love for you and approval of you. And enjoy the freedom to be the amazing person you can be in Him! Derived from material previously published in Approval Addiction.

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$4.95
-$5.05(-50%)



Webster's New World Portable Large Print Dictionary, Second Edition
Webster's New World Portable Large Print Dictionary, Second Edition
This large print book carries the seal of approval of N.A.V.H.  No more struggling with the fine print, thanks to Webster's New World Portable Large Print Dictionary, which has all the outstanding features of other Webster's New World dictionaries, including clear, precise definitions. Based on the acclaimed Webster's New World Dictionary, Fourth College Edition, this offers  * Over 35,000 entries  * Precise definitions  * Syllable breaks, accents, and pronunciation for difficult words  * Clear, highly readable type  With its authoritative, current, and accessible information in a compact, easy-to-use format, Webster's New World Portable Large Print Dictionary can be used anywhere: in the office, in the classroom, at home, and all the places in between.  

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$12.50
-$9.49(-43%)



JACK NICHOLSON FRAMED 8X10 PHOTO I AM WHO I AM YOUR APPROVAL ISNT NEEDED SMOKE
JACK NICHOLSON FRAMED 8X10 PHOTO I AM WHO I AM YOUR APPROVAL ISNT NEEDED SMOKE
8X10 PHOTO CUSTOM FRAMED OVERALL SIZE 13X16

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Albanese World's Best Gummi Candy Assorted - 6 Packs by Albanese Confectionery
Albanese World's Best Gummi Candy Assorted - 6 Packs by Albanese Confectionery
For over 30 years Albanese has been making the World's Best Gummies & Candies right here in the United States. It's not surprising to see how quickly our company & our World's Best & Gold Label brands have grown. For years we've had a simple recipe for success putting flavor & texture first, always finding a better way & never taking ourselves too seriously. Our gummies & candies taste different (and by different we mean better) because we are different. All of our gummies & candies are made at our factory located in the heart of the Midwest and produced with only the highest quality ingredients sourced exclusively from American & European growers -- sorry China. From nut clusters made with Virginia peanuts to Chocolate covered Michigan cherries - you'll taste the difference that better ingredients make. Don't be fooled (we're pretty sure your taste buds won't be) but you can always spot the World's Best Gummies by checking the belly - all Albanese Bears get the "A" of approval stamped right on their belly before they leave our factory!

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$15.80



Father's Approval
Father's Approval
Many have struggled under the need in our hearts for approval. When we finally experience this hard-to-find state, it is usually fleeting and mostly conditional on performance. As we follow Mark’s journey, we find that this cry in our hearts is not only a legitimate one, but there is an enduring answer available for each one of us that we can experience and return to again and again.When sold by Amazon.com, this product will be manufactured on demand using CD-R recordable media. Amazon.com's standard return policy will apply.

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$15.95



World Imports 9096-89 Dark Sky Kingston Collection Wall-Mount Outdoor Sconce, Bronze
World Imports 9096-89 Dark Sky Kingston Collection Wall-Mount Outdoor Sconce, Bronze
Aluminum and Brass construction in Bronze Finish. Dark Sky compliant. Family features new hanger and small backdoor size with tighter extension. Back Plate 5" D. Number of Lights: 1. Number of Bulbs: 1. Watts: 100W. Type of Bulb: Medium (Regular). Installation Dimensions: 8" D, 8" H, 13" Ext.

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Snap Circuits Jr. SC-100 Electronics Discovery Kit
Snap Circuits Jr. SC-100 Electronics Discovery Kit
Create Working Electronic Circuits Snap Circuits Jr (SC-100) comes with over 30 components to create 101 different electronic projects. The pieces, which include snap wires, slide switches, an alarm circuit, a music integrated circuit, and a speaker, snap together easily on the included plastic grid--no soldering required. Each piece is numbered and color-coded to make identifying them easy. These components combine to create working circuit boards just like the ones found inside televisions, radios, and other electronic devices. With its easy-to-follow instructions, Snap Circuits gives your child a hands-on education in how electrical circuits work to run the everyday devices that they're familiar with. They'll also gain valuable lessons in building and in following instructions. The project manual includes large color illustrations and simple directions for each project. The projects include a sound-activated switch, a musical doorbell, a voice-controlled lamp, a flying saucer, and a light police siren. With these projects, children will experiment with things like electric switches, integrated circuits, digital circuits, fuses, and the transformation of circuit sounds into other sounds. Includes: Plastic snap-grid, 32 electrical components, and 1 project manual.Recommended for children 8 and older.

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$20.99
-$6.01(-22%)


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