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The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of then are called automakers. It is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.
The term automotive was created from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by SAE member Elmer Sperry.Contents
The automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929 before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 (140 models) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.Safety Main article: Automobile safety
Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage.
Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety.
In case of safety issues, danger, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material.
Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.Economy See also: Automotive industry by country
Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down. It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport. Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports (2012) confirmed the opposite; namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC countries. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units.World motor vehicle production World Motor Vehicle Production Production volume (1000 vehicles)
1960s; Post war increase
1970s; Oil crisis and tighter safety and emission regulation.
1990s; production started in NICs
2000s; rise of China as top producerAutomotive industry crisis of 2008–2010 to 1950; USA had produced more than 80% of motor vehicles.
1950s; UK, Germany and France restarted production.
1960s; Japan started production and increased volume through the 1980s. US, Japan, Germany, France and UK produced about 80% of motor vehicles through the 1980s.
1990s; Korea became a volume producer. In 2004, Korea became No. 5 passing France.
2000s; China increased its production drastically, and 2009 became the world largest producing country.2013; The share of China (25.4%), Korea, India, Brazil and Mexico rose to 43%, while the share of USA (12.7%), Japan, Germany, France and UK fell to 34%. By year See also: List of countries by motor vehicle production
Global production of motorvehicles
(cars and commercial vehicles)Year Production Change Source 1997 54,434,000 1998 52,987,000 -2.7% 1999 56,258,892 6.2% 2000 58,374,162 3.8% 2001 56,304,925 -3.5% 2002 58,994,318 4.8% 2003 60,663,225 2.8% 2004 64,496,220 6.3% 2005 66,482,439 3.1% 2006 69,222,975 4.1% 2007 73,266,061 5.8% 2008 70,520,493 -3.7% 2009 61,791,868 -12.4% 2010 77,857,705 26.0% 2011 79,989,155 3.1% 2012 84,141,209 5.3% 2013 87,300,115 3.7% 2014 89,747,430 2.6%
Car Exports by Country (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity By country Main article: Automotive industry by country
Rank of manufacturers by production in 2013Parts of this article (those related to http://www.oica.net/wp-content/uploads//Ranking-2014-Q4-Rev.-22-July.pdf) need to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2016) Rank Group Country Total Cars LCV HCV Heavy Bus 1 Toyota Japan 10,324,995 8,565,176 1,481,722 272,411 5,686 2 General Motors United States 9,628,912 6,733,192 2,890,958 4,762 3 Volkswagen Germany 9,379,229 9,259,506 119,723 4 Hyundai South Korea 7,233,080 6,909,194 242,021 67,290 14,575 5 Ford United States 6,077,126 3,317,048 2,667,220 92,858 6 Nissan Japan 4,950,924 4,090,677 837,331 22,916 7 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy 4,681,704 2,163,040 2,350,697 124,131 43,836 8 Honda Japan 4,298,390 4,263,239 35,151 9 Suzuki Japan 2,842,133 2,452,573 389,560 10 Groupe PSA France 2,833,781 2,445,889 387,892 11 Renault France 2,704,675 2,347,913 356,762 12 BMW Germany 2,006,366 2,006,366 13 SAIC China 1,992,250 1,685,392 231,374 74,431 1,053 14 Daimler Germany 1,781,507 1,631,502 150,005 15 Mazda Japan 1,264,173 1,175,443 88,730 16 Dongfeng China 1,238,948 642,092 226,319 357,414 13,123 17 Mitsubishi Japan 1,229,441 1,090,571 135,306 3,564 18 Changan China 1,109,889 873,794 166,056 70,039 19 Tata India 1,062,654 650,708 279,511 117,425 15,010 20 Geely China 969,896 969,896 21 BAIC China 918,879 243,437 285,947 384,425 5,070 22 Fuji (Subaru) Japan 808,919 808,919 23 Brilliance China 782,904 479,335 264,210 39,359 24 FAW China 717,883 448,290 61,822 203,895 3,876 25 Mahindra & Mahindra India 584,534 407,563 173,398 2,2337 1,236 26 Great Wall China 557,564 430,423 127,141 27 Isuzu Japan 532,966 36,094 494,907 1,965 28 JAC China 517,577 206,132 120,588 174,571 16,286 29 BYD China 510,950 510,950 30 AvtoVAZ Russia 507,242 495,013 12,229
OICA defines these entries as follows:
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.
Notable current relationships include:
The table below shows the world's largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2013 production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.Marque Country of origin Ownership Markets 1. Toyota Motor Corporation ( Japan) Daihatsu Subsidiary Europe, Asia (except South Korea), Africa, South America Hino Subsidiary South East Asia, Japan, North America, Central America, South America, Caribbean Lexus Business Unit South East Asia, China, Japan, South Korea, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Costa Rica, Panama, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India Ranz Business Unit China Toyota Division Global, except Iran 2. General Motors Company ( United States) Buick Business Unit North America, China, Israel Cadillac Business Unit North America, Europe, Middle East, China, Japan, South Korea Chevrolet Business Unit Global, except Australia, New Zealand GMC Business Unit North America, Middle East (except Israel) Holden Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand JieFang Business Unit China Opel Business Unit Europe (except United Kingdom), North Africa, South Africa, Middle East, China, Singapore, Chile Vauxhall Business Unit United Kingdom UzDaewoo Business Unit Central Asia, Russia Wuling Business Unit China 3. Volkswagen Group AG ( Germany) Audi Subsidiary Global, except Iran Bentley Subsidiary Global Bugatti Subsidiary Global Lamborghini Subsidiary Global MAN Subsidiary Global, except North America, Australia Porsche Subsidiary Global, except Iran SEAT Subsidiary Europe, Mexico, Central America, South America, Middle East, Northern Africa Škoda Subsidiary Europe, Asia, Central America, South America, Dominican Republic, Northern Africa, Western Africa, Australia, New Zealand Volkswagen Division Global Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Subsidiary Europe, Central America, South America, Australia, China VTB Business Unit Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa 4. Hyundai Motor Group ( South Korea) Genesis Business Unit South Korea, China, United States, Canada, Middle East Hyundai Division Global Kia Subsidiary Global, except Japan 5. Ford Motor Company ( United States) Ford Division Global Lincoln Business Unit North America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea, China Troller Veículos Especiais Subsidiary South America, Africa, Australia, Europe 6. Nissan ( Japan) Datsun Division Indonesia, India, Russia, South Africa Infiniti Subsidiary Global, except Japan, South America (excluding Chile), Africa (excluding South Africa) Nissan Division Global Venucia Business Unit China 7. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles ( Italy / United States) Abarth Subsidiary Global, except Iran Alfa Romeo Subsidiary Global, except Iran, China, Taiwan, the Philippines Chrysler Division Global, except Europe (excluding United Kingdom, Ireland), Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia Dodge Division Global, except Europe, Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia Ferrari Subsidiary Global, except Iran Fiat Subsidiary Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia Fiat Professional Business Unit Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia, United States, Canada Jeep Division Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia Lancia Division Europe (excluding United Kingdom, Ireland) Maserati Subsidiary Global Ram Division North America, Brazil, Middle East, Peru 8. Honda Motor Company ( Japan) Acura Division North America, China Everus Business Unit China Honda Division Global 9. Suzuki Motor Corporation ( Japan) Suzuki Division Global, except United States, Canada, North Korea, South Korea Maruti Suzuki Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America 10. PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A. ( France) Citroën Subsidiary Global,except North America, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh Peugeot Subsidiary Global, except United States, Canada, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh DS Automobiles Subsidiary Global, except North America, South Asia (excluding Malaysia) Car makes and their parent companies
The table below lists most car makes and their parent companies.Parent (Owner) Make Make Country Parent Country Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Abarth Italy Italy/ United States Honda Acura Japan Japan Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Alfa Romeo Italy Italy/ United States Renault Alpine France France General Motors Alpheon South Korea United States Aston Martin Aston Martin United Kingdom United Kingdom Volkswagen Group Audi Germany Germany SAIC-GM-Wuling Baojun China China/ United States Volkswagen Group Bentley United Kingdom Germany BMW BMW Germany Germany Brilliance Brilliance China China Volkswagen Group Bugatti France Germany General Motors Buick United States United States BYD BYD China China General Motors Cadillac United States United States Caterham Caterham United Kingdom United Kingdom Chang'an Chang'an China China General Motors Chevrolet United States United States Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Chrysler United States Italy/ United States PSA Peugeot Citroën Citroën France France Renault Dacia Romania France Toyota Daihatsu Japan Japan Nissan Datsun Japan Japan Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Dodge United States Italy/ United States Dongfeng Dongfeng China China PSA Peugeot Citroën DS France France Dongfeng Fengshen China China Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Ferrari Italy Italy/ United States Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Fiat Italy Italy/ United States Wanxiang Fisker United States China Ford Ford United States United States Geely Geely China China Hyundai Motor Group Genesis South Korea South Korea General Motors GMC United States United States Toyota Hino Motors Japan Japan General Motors Holden (HSV) Australia United States Honda Honda Japan Japan Hyundai Motor Group Hyundai South Korea South Korea Nissan Infiniti Japan Japan Isuzu Motors Isuzu Japan Japan Tata Motors Jaguar United Kingdom India Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Jeep United States Italy/ United States FAW Jie Fang / FAW-GM Jie Fang China China/ United States Kantanka Group Conglomerate Kantanka Ghana Ghana Koenigsegg Koenigsegg Sweden Sweden Hyundai Motor Group Kia South Korea South Korea AvtoVAZ Lada Russia Russia Volkswagen Group Lamborghini Italy Germany Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Lancia Italy Italy/ United States Tata Motors Land Rover United Kingdom India Toyota Lexus Japan Japan Ford Lincoln United States United States PROTON Lotus United Kingdom Malaysia Geely LTI United Kingdom China Yulon Motor Luxgen Taiwan Taiwan Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Maserati Italy Italy/ United States Mastretta Mastretta Mexico Mexico Daimler AG Maybach Germany Germany Mazda Mazda Japan Japan McLaren Automotive McLaren United Kingdom United Kingdom Daimler AG Mercedes-Benz Germany Germany SAIC Motor MG United Kingdom China BMW Mini United Kingdom Germany Nissan / Mitsubishi Group Mitsubishi Japan Japan Morgan Motor Company Morgan United Kingdom United Kingdom Nissan Nissan Japan Japan Peter Dyson Noble United Kingdom United Kingdom General Motors Opel Germany United States Pagani Automobili Pagani Italy Italy Perodua Perodua Malaysia Malaysia PSA Peugeot Citroën Peugeot France France Volkswagen Group Porsche Germany Germany Proton Holdings PROTON Malaysia Malaysia Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Ram United States Italy/ United States Renault Renault France France SAIC Motor Roewe China China BMW Rolls Royce United Kingdom Germany Saleen Saleen United States United States Iran Khodro (IKCO) Samand Iran Iran Renault Renault Samsung Motors South Korea France National Electric Vehicle Sweden (NEVS) Saab Sweden Sweden Toyota Scion Japan Japan Volkswagen Group SEAT Spain Germany BAIC Motor Senova China China Volkswagen Group Škoda Czech Republic Germany Daimler AG Smart Germany Germany Mahindra & Mahindra SsangYong South Korea India Fuji Heavy Industries Subaru Japan Japan Suzuki Suzuki Japan Japan Tata Motors Tata India India Tesla Tesla United States United States Saipa Tiba/Miniator Iran Iran Toyota Toyota Japan Japan General Motors Vauxhall United Kingdom United States Dongfeng-Nissan Venucia China China/ Japan Volkswagen Group Volkswagen Germany Germany Geely Volvo Cars Sweden China Vuhl Vuhl Mexico Mexico SAIC-GM-Wuling Wuling China China/ United States See also