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Automotive industry
Play media The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and

View Wikipedia Article

Play media A video showing new Škoda & Volkswagen cars being transported by rail at Kutná Hora město train station in the Czech Republic

The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of then are called automakers. It is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.

The term automotive was created from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by SAE member Elmer Sperry.

Contents
  • 1 History
  • 2 Safety
  • 3 Economy
  • 4 World motor vehicle production
    • 4.1 By year
    • 4.2 By country
    • 4.3 By manufacturer
  • 5 Company relationships
  • 6 Top vehicle manufacturing groups by volume
  • 7 Car makes and their parent companies
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links

History Main article: History of the automobile Thomas B. Jeffery automobile factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916 Citroën assembly line in 1918

The automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929 before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 (140 models) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.

Safety Main article: Automobile safety

Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage.

Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety.

In case of safety issues, danger, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material.

Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.

Economy See also: Automotive industry by country

Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down. It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport. Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports (2012) confirmed the opposite; namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC countries. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units.

World motor vehicle production World Motor Vehicle Production Production volume (1000 vehicles)

1960s; Post war increase

1970s; Oil crisis and tighter safety and emission regulation.

1990s; production started in NICs

2000s; rise of China as top producer

Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010 to 1950; USA had produced more than 80% of motor vehicles.

1950s; UK, Germany and France restarted production.

1960s; Japan started production and increased volume through the 1980s. US, Japan, Germany, France and UK produced about 80% of motor vehicles through the 1980s.

1990s; Korea became a volume producer. In 2004, Korea became No. 5 passing France.

2000s; China increased its production drastically, and 2009 became the world largest producing country.

2013; The share of China (25.4%), Korea, India, Brazil and Mexico rose to 43%, while the share of USA (12.7%), Japan, Germany, France and UK fell to 34%. By year See also: List of countries by motor vehicle production


Global production of motorvehicles

(cars and commercial vehicles)

Year Production Change Source 1997 54,434,000   1998 52,987,000 -2.7% 1999 56,258,892 6.2% 2000 58,374,162 3.8% 2001 56,304,925 -3.5% 2002 58,994,318 4.8% 2003 60,663,225 2.8% 2004 64,496,220 6.3% 2005 66,482,439 3.1% 2006 69,222,975 4.1% 2007 73,266,061 5.8% 2008 70,520,493 -3.7% 2009 61,791,868 -12.4% 2010 77,857,705 26.0% 2011 79,989,155 3.1% 2012 84,141,209 5.3% 2013 87,300,115 3.7% 2014 89,747,430 2.6%


Car Exports by Country (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity By country Main article: Automotive industry by country
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« previous year — Top 20 motor vehicle producing countries 2015 — next year » Motor vehicle production (units) Country 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000 8,000,000 9,000,000 10,000,000 11,000,000 12,000,000 13,000,000 14,000,000 15,000,000 16,000,000 17,000,000 18,000,000 19,000,000 20,000,000 21,000,000 22,000,000 23,000,000 24,000,000  China 24,503,326  United States 12,100,095  Japan 9,278,238  Germany 6,033,164  South Korea 4,555,957  India 4,125,744  Mexico 3,565,469  Spain 2,733,201  Brazil 2,429,463  Canada 2,283,474  France 1,970,000  Thailand 1,915,420  UK 1,682,156  Russia 1,384,399  Turkey 1,358,796  Czech Rep. 1,303,603  Indonesia 1,098,780  Italy 1,014,223  Slovakia 1,000,001  Iran 982,337 "Production Statistics". OICA.  By manufacturer

Rank of manufacturers by production in 2013

Parts of this article (those related to http://www.oica.net/wp-content/uploads//Ranking-2014-Q4-Rev.-22-July.pdf) need to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2016) Rank Group Country Total Cars LCV HCV Heavy Bus 1 Toyota  Japan 10,324,995 8,565,176 1,481,722 272,411 5,686 2 General Motors  United States 9,628,912 6,733,192 2,890,958 4,762 3 Volkswagen  Germany 9,379,229 9,259,506 119,723 4 Hyundai  South Korea 7,233,080 6,909,194 242,021 67,290 14,575 5 Ford  United States 6,077,126 3,317,048 2,667,220 92,858 6 Nissan  Japan 4,950,924 4,090,677 837,331 22,916 7 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  Italy 4,681,704 2,163,040 2,350,697 124,131 43,836 8 Honda  Japan 4,298,390 4,263,239 35,151 9 Suzuki  Japan 2,842,133 2,452,573 389,560 10 Groupe PSA  France 2,833,781 2,445,889 387,892 11 Renault  France 2,704,675 2,347,913 356,762 12 BMW  Germany 2,006,366 2,006,366 13 SAIC  China 1,992,250 1,685,392 231,374 74,431 1,053 14 Daimler  Germany 1,781,507 1,631,502 150,005 15 Mazda  Japan 1,264,173 1,175,443 88,730 16 Dongfeng  China 1,238,948 642,092 226,319 357,414 13,123 17 Mitsubishi  Japan 1,229,441 1,090,571 135,306 3,564 18 Changan  China 1,109,889 873,794 166,056 70,039 19 Tata  India 1,062,654 650,708 279,511 117,425 15,010 20 Geely  China 969,896 969,896 21 BAIC  China 918,879 243,437 285,947 384,425 5,070 22 Fuji (Subaru)  Japan 808,919 808,919 23 Brilliance  China 782,904 479,335 264,210 39,359 24 FAW  China 717,883 448,290 61,822 203,895 3,876 25 Mahindra & Mahindra  India 584,534 407,563 173,398 2,2337 1,236 26 Great Wall  China 557,564 430,423 127,141 27 Isuzu  Japan 532,966 36,094 494,907 1,965 28 JAC  China 517,577 206,132 120,588 174,571 16,286 29 BYD  China 510,950 510,950 30 AvtoVAZ  Russia 507,242 495,013 12,229

OICA defines these entries as follows:

  • Passenger cars are motor vehicles with at least four wheels, used for the transport of passengers, and comprising no more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat.
  • Light commercial vehicles (LCV) are motor vehicles with at least four wheels, used for the carriage of goods. Mass given in tons (metric tons) is used as a limit between light commercial vehicles and heavy trucks. This limit depends on national and professional definitions and varies between 3.5 and 7 tons. Minibuses, derived from light commercial vehicles, are used for the transport of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat and having a maximum mass between 3.5 and 7 tons.
  • Heavy trucks (HCV) are vehicles intended for the carriage of goods. Maximum authorised mass is over the limit (ranging from 3.5 to 7 tons) of light commercial vehicles. They include tractor vehicles designed for towing semi-trailers.
  • Buses and coaches are used for the transport of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat, and having a maximum mass over the limit (ranging from 3.5 to 7 tones) of light commercial vehicles.
Company relationships This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

Notable current relationships include:

  • AB Volvo and Eicher Motors has a 50-50% joint venture called VE Commercial Vehicles.
  • Anadolu Group and Isuzu have a 50-50% joint venture called Anadolu Isuzu.
  • Beijing Automotive Group has a joint venture with Daimler called Beijing Benz, both companies hold a 50-50% stake. both companies also have a joint venture called Beijing Foton Daimler Automobile. BAG also has a joint venture with Hyundai called Beijing Hyundai, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • BMW and Brilliance have a joint venture called BMW Brilliance. BMW owns a 50% stake, Brilliance owns a 40.5% stake, and the Shenyang municipal government owns a 9.5% stake.
  • Chang'an Automobile Group has three joint ventures, one with PSA Peugeot Citroen (CAPSA), both hold a 50-50% stake, one with Suzuki (Changan Suzuki), both hold a 50-50% stake, and one with Ford and Mazda (Changan Ford Mazda), CAG holds a 50% stake, Ford holds a 35% stake, and Mazda holds a 15% stake. Chang'an and Ford have a joint venture called Chang'an Ford Nanjing. Jiangling and Chang'an have a joint venture called Jiangxi Jiangling.
  • Chery has a joint venture with Tata Motors called Chery Jaguar Land Rover, both companies hold a 50-50% stake. Chery and Israel Corporation has a joint venture called Qoros, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Daimler AG holds a 20% stake in Eicher Motors, a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ, an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation, a 6.75% stake in Tata Motors and a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance, a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group, and an 85% stake in Master Motors. Daimler and BYD Auto have a joint venture called Denza, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Dongfeng Motor Corporation and Nissan have a 50-50% joint venture called Venucia, and another 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Motor Company. Dongfeng and PSA Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroen, a 50-50% joint venture with Honda called Dongfeng Honda, a joint venture with AB Volvo called Dongfeng Nissan-Diesel, a 50-50% joint venture with Renault named Dongfeng Renault in Wuhan, which was founded in the end of 2013
  • FCA holds a 90% stake in Ferrari, a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija and 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding.
  • Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks.
  • Fiat Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks.
  • Ford Motor Company holds a 3% stake in Mazda, a 12.1% share in Aston Martin, a 49% share in Jiangling Motors. Ford and Navistar International have a 50-50 joint venture called Blue Diamond Truck. Ford and Sollers JSC have a 50-50 joint venture called Ford Sollers. Both Ford and Koç Holding own a 41% stake in Ford Otosan. Ford and Lio Ho Group have a joint venture called Ford Lio Ho, Ford owns 70% and Lio Ho Group owns 30%.
  • FAW Group and GM has a 50-50 joint venture called FAW-GM, a 50-50 joint venture with Volkswagen Group called FAW-Volkswagen, and a 50-50 joint venture with Toyota called Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor and both companies also have another joint venture called Ranz. FAW Group owns 49% of Haima Automobile
  • Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, China Motor, and Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz. FMG, China Motor, and Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, and both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake.
  • Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company.
  • General Motors holds a 20% stake in Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines. General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC), and has two joint ventures in Shanghai General Motors and SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. Both also hold an equal 50% stake in General Motors India Private Limited. And General Motors holds a 94% stake in GM Korea and SAIC Group holds a 6% stake. General Motors and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called GM Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 75% and General Motors owns 25%. General Motors and UzAvtosanoat also have a joint venture called UzDaewooAvto both each hold a 50-50 stake. GM, AvtoVAZ, and EBRD have a joint venture called GM-AvtoVAZ, Both GM and AvtoVAZ owns 41.61% and EBRD owns 16.76%.
  • Hyundai Motor Company and Kibar Holding has a joint venture called Hyundai Assan Otomotiv, Hyundai Motor Group owns 70% and Kibar Holding owns 30%.
  • Isuzu and General Motors has a 50-50% joint venture called Isuzu Truck South Africa. Isuzu owns 10% of Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines. Isuzu, Sollers JSC, and Imperial Sojitz have a joint venture called Sollers-Isuzu, Sollers JSC owns66%, Isuzu owns 29%, and Imperial Sojitz owns 5%.
  • Mahindra & Mahindra and Navistar International has a joint venture called Mahindra Trucks and Buses Limited. Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and Navistar International owns 49%.
  • MAN SE holds a 17.01% voting stake in Scania. MAN and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called MAN Auto-Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 51% and MAN owns 49%.
  • Marcopolo owns 19% of New Flyer Industries.
  • Mitsubishi Group holds 20% of Mitsubishi.
  • Navistar International and JAC has a joint venture called Anhui Jianghuai Navistar.
  • Nissan owns 34% of Mitsubishi.
  • Nissan owns 43% of Nissan Shatai.
  • Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.74% voting stake in Volkswagen Group. The Porsche automotive business is fully owned by the Volkswagen Group.
  • PSA Groupe and Toyota have a 50-50% joint venture called Toyota Peugeot Citroen Automobile Czech, and another joint venture with Chang'an called Chang'an PSA automobile.
  • Renault and Nissan Motors have an alliance( Renault-Nissan Alliance ) involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 44.3% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares. The alliance holds a 3.1% share in Daimler AG.
  • Renault holds a 25% stake in AvtoVAZ and an 80.1% stake in Renault Samsung.
  • SAIPA holds a 51% stake in Pars Khodro.
  • Sollers JSC is involved in Joint ventures with Ford(Ford Sollers) and Mazda to produce cars.
  • Toyota holds a 51% stake in Daihatsu, 16.7% in Fuji Heavy Industries, parent company of Subaru, and a 10% stake in Tesla, .
  • Volkswagen Group holds a 37.73% stake in Scania (68.6% voting rights), a 53.7% stake in MAN SE (55.9% voting rights), and a 99.55% stake in the Audi Group. Volkswagen is integrating Scania, MAN and its own truck division into one division.
  • Paccar inc. has a 19% stake in Tatra.
  • Tata Motors also formed a joint venture with Fiat and gained access to Fiat's diesel engine technology. Tata Motors sells Fiat cars in India through a 50/50 joint venture Fiat Automobiles India Limited, and is looking to extend its relationship with Fiat and Iveco to other segments. Tata and Marcopolo have a Tata Marcopolo, Tata owns 51% and Marcopolo owns 49%.
  • ZAP owns 51% of Zhejiang Jonway.
Top vehicle manufacturing groups by volume

The table below shows the world's largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2013 production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.

Marque Country of origin Ownership Markets 1. Toyota Motor Corporation ( Japan) Daihatsu Subsidiary Europe, Asia (except South Korea), Africa, South America Hino Subsidiary South East Asia, Japan, North America, Central America, South America, Caribbean Lexus Business Unit South East Asia, China, Japan, South Korea, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Costa Rica, Panama, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India Ranz Business Unit China Toyota Division Global, except Iran 2. General Motors Company ( United States) Buick Business Unit North America, China, Israel Cadillac Business Unit North America, Europe, Middle East, China, Japan, South Korea Chevrolet Business Unit Global, except Australia, New Zealand GMC Business Unit North America, Middle East (except Israel) Holden Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand JieFang Business Unit China Opel Business Unit Europe (except United Kingdom), North Africa, South Africa, Middle East, China, Singapore, Chile Vauxhall Business Unit United Kingdom UzDaewoo Business Unit Central Asia, Russia Wuling Business Unit China 3. Volkswagen Group AG ( Germany) Audi Subsidiary Global, except Iran Bentley Subsidiary Global Bugatti Subsidiary Global Lamborghini Subsidiary Global MAN Subsidiary Global, except North America, Australia Porsche Subsidiary Global, except Iran SEAT Subsidiary Europe, Mexico, Central America, South America, Middle East, Northern Africa Škoda Subsidiary Europe, Asia, Central America, South America, Dominican Republic, Northern Africa, Western Africa, Australia, New Zealand Volkswagen Division Global Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Subsidiary Europe, Central America, South America, Australia, China VTB Business Unit Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa 4. Hyundai Motor Group ( South Korea) Genesis Business Unit South Korea, China, United States, Canada, Middle East Hyundai Division Global Kia Subsidiary Global, except Japan 5. Ford Motor Company ( United States) Ford Division Global Lincoln Business Unit North America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea, China Troller Veículos Especiais Subsidiary South America, Africa, Australia, Europe 6. Nissan ( Japan) Datsun Division Indonesia, India, Russia, South Africa Infiniti Subsidiary Global, except Japan, South America (excluding Chile), Africa (excluding South Africa) Nissan Division Global Venucia Business Unit China 7. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles ( Italy /  United States) Abarth Subsidiary Global, except Iran Alfa Romeo Subsidiary Global, except Iran, China, Taiwan, the Philippines Chrysler Division Global, except Europe (excluding United Kingdom, Ireland), Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia Dodge Division Global, except Europe, Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia Ferrari Subsidiary Global, except Iran Fiat Subsidiary Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia Fiat Professional Business Unit Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia, United States, Canada Jeep Division Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia Lancia Division Europe (excluding United Kingdom, Ireland) Maserati Subsidiary Global Ram Division North America, Brazil, Middle East, Peru 8. Honda Motor Company ( Japan) Acura Division North America, China Everus Business Unit China Honda Division Global 9. Suzuki Motor Corporation ( Japan) Suzuki Division Global, except United States, Canada, North Korea, South Korea Maruti Suzuki Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America 10. PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A. ( France) Citroën Subsidiary Global,except North America, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh Peugeot Subsidiary Global, except United States, Canada, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh DS Automobiles Subsidiary Global, except North America, South Asia (excluding Malaysia) Car makes and their parent companies

The table below lists most car makes and their parent companies.

Parent (Owner) Make Make Country Parent Country Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Abarth  Italy  Italy/ United States Honda Acura  Japan  Japan Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Alfa Romeo  Italy  Italy/ United States Renault Alpine  France  France General Motors Alpheon  South Korea  United States Aston Martin Aston Martin  United Kingdom  United Kingdom Volkswagen Group Audi  Germany  Germany SAIC-GM-Wuling Baojun  China  China/ United States Volkswagen Group Bentley  United Kingdom  Germany BMW BMW  Germany  Germany Brilliance Brilliance  China  China Volkswagen Group Bugatti  France  Germany General Motors Buick  United States  United States BYD BYD  China  China General Motors Cadillac  United States  United States Caterham Caterham  United Kingdom  United Kingdom Chang'an Chang'an  China  China General Motors Chevrolet  United States  United States Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Chrysler  United States  Italy/ United States PSA Peugeot Citroën Citroën  France  France Renault Dacia  Romania  France Toyota Daihatsu  Japan  Japan Nissan Datsun  Japan  Japan Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Dodge  United States  Italy/ United States Dongfeng Dongfeng  China  China PSA Peugeot Citroën DS  France  France Dongfeng Fengshen  China  China Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Ferrari  Italy  Italy/ United States Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Fiat  Italy  Italy/ United States Wanxiang Fisker  United States  China Ford Ford  United States  United States Geely Geely  China  China Hyundai Motor Group Genesis  South Korea  South Korea General Motors GMC  United States  United States Toyota Hino Motors  Japan  Japan General Motors Holden (HSV)  Australia  United States Honda Honda  Japan  Japan Hyundai Motor Group Hyundai  South Korea  South Korea Nissan Infiniti  Japan  Japan Isuzu Motors Isuzu  Japan  Japan Tata Motors Jaguar  United Kingdom  India Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Jeep  United States  Italy/ United States FAW Jie Fang / FAW-GM Jie Fang  China  China/ United States Kantanka Group Conglomerate Kantanka  Ghana  Ghana Koenigsegg Koenigsegg  Sweden  Sweden Hyundai Motor Group Kia  South Korea  South Korea AvtoVAZ Lada  Russia  Russia Volkswagen Group Lamborghini  Italy  Germany Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Lancia  Italy  Italy/ United States Tata Motors Land Rover  United Kingdom  India Toyota Lexus  Japan  Japan Ford Lincoln  United States  United States PROTON Lotus  United Kingdom  Malaysia Geely LTI  United Kingdom  China Yulon Motor Luxgen  Taiwan  Taiwan Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Maserati  Italy  Italy/ United States Mastretta Mastretta  Mexico  Mexico Daimler AG Maybach  Germany  Germany Mazda Mazda  Japan  Japan McLaren Automotive McLaren  United Kingdom  United Kingdom Daimler AG Mercedes-Benz  Germany  Germany SAIC Motor MG  United Kingdom  China BMW Mini  United Kingdom  Germany Nissan / Mitsubishi Group Mitsubishi  Japan  Japan Morgan Motor Company Morgan  United Kingdom  United Kingdom Nissan Nissan  Japan  Japan Peter Dyson Noble  United Kingdom  United Kingdom General Motors Opel  Germany  United States Pagani Automobili Pagani  Italy  Italy Perodua Perodua  Malaysia  Malaysia PSA Peugeot Citroën Peugeot  France  France Volkswagen Group Porsche  Germany  Germany Proton Holdings PROTON  Malaysia  Malaysia Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Ram  United States  Italy/ United States Renault Renault  France  France SAIC Motor Roewe  China  China BMW Rolls Royce  United Kingdom  Germany Saleen Saleen  United States  United States Iran Khodro (IKCO) Samand  Iran  Iran Renault Renault Samsung Motors  South Korea  France National Electric Vehicle Sweden (NEVS) Saab  Sweden  Sweden Toyota Scion  Japan  Japan Volkswagen Group SEAT  Spain  Germany BAIC Motor Senova  China  China Volkswagen Group Škoda  Czech Republic  Germany Daimler AG Smart  Germany  Germany Mahindra & Mahindra SsangYong  South Korea  India Fuji Heavy Industries Subaru  Japan  Japan Suzuki Suzuki  Japan  Japan Tata Motors Tata  India  India Tesla Tesla  United States  United States Saipa Tiba/Miniator  Iran  Iran Toyota Toyota  Japan  Japan General Motors Vauxhall  United Kingdom  United States Dongfeng-Nissan Venucia  China  China/ Japan Volkswagen Group Volkswagen  Germany  Germany Geely Volvo Cars  Sweden  China Vuhl Vuhl  Mexico  Mexico SAIC-GM-Wuling Wuling  China  China/ United States See also
  • Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
  • Automotive industry by country
  • Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010
  • Automotive market in the United States
  • Big Three (automobile manufacturers)
  • Effects of the 2008–10 automotive industry crisis on the United States
  • List of countries by motor vehicle production
  • Motocycle
  • List of largest automotive companies by revenue
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  16. ^ a b "1998 - 1997 WORLD MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCTION BY TYPE AND ECONOMIC AREA" (pdf). oica.net. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  17. ^ "1999 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  18. ^ "2000 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  19. ^ "2001 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  20. ^ "2002 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  21. ^ "2003 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  22. ^ "2004 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  23. ^ "2005 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  24. ^ "2006 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  25. ^ "2007 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  26. ^ "2008 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  27. ^ "2009 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  28. ^ "2010 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  29. ^ "2011 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  30. ^ "2012 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  31. ^ "2013 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  32. ^ "2014 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  33. ^ a b "World Motor Vehicle Production: World Ranking of Manufacturers Year 2013" (PDF). OICA. Retrieved 2014-11-23. 
  34. ^ "Definitions" (PDF). OICA. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  35. ^ "Nissan to take 34% stake in Mitsubishi Motors - BBC News". Retrieved 2016-07-01. 
  36. ^ "GM Slips to Number Two Worldwide, Ford to Fourth". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  37. ^ "TTAC Announces World's Top Ten Automakers". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
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