Jewelry
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Jewellery
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English) consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces

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For the 2009 Micachu album, see Jewellery (album). "Jewelry" redirects here. For the Korean band, see Jewelry (band).

Amber pendants Diamond temptation design

Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)[1] consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes, and the term is restricted to durable ornaments, excluding flowers for example. For many centuries metal, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewellery, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used. It is one of the oldest type of archaeological artefact – with 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells thought to be the oldest known jewellery.[2] The basic forms of jewellery vary between cultures but are often extremely long-lived; in European cultures the most common forms of jewellery listed above have persisted since ancient times, while other forms such as adornments for the nose or ankle, important in other cultures, are much less common.

The Daria-i-Noor (meaning: Sea of Light) Diamond from the collection of the national jewels of Iran at Central Bank of Islamic Republic of Iran

Jewellery may be made from a wide range of materials. Gemstones and similar materials such as amber and coral, precious metals, beads, and shells have been widely used, and enamel has often been important. In most cultures jewellery can be understood as a status symbol, for its material properties, its patterns, or for meaningful symbols. Jewellery has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings, and even genital jewellery. The patterns of wearing jewellery between the sexes, and by children and older people can vary greatly between cultures, but adult women have been the most consistent wearers of jewellery; in modern European culture the amount worn by adult males is relatively low compared with other cultures and other periods in European culture.

The word jewellery itself is derived from the word jewel, which was anglicised from the Old French "jouel",[3] and beyond that, to the Latin word "jocale", meaning plaything. In British English, Indian English, New Zealand English, Hiberno-English, Australian English, and South African English it is spelled jewellery, while the spelling is jewelry in American English.[1] Both are used in Canadian English, though jewelry prevails by a two to one margin. In French and a few other European languages the equivalent term, joaillerie, may also cover decorated metalwork in precious metal such as objets d'art and church items, not just objects worn on the person.

Contents
  • 1 Form and function
  • 2 Materials and methods
    • 2.1 Diamonds
    • 2.2 Other gemstones
    • 2.3 Metal finishes
  • 3 Impact on society
  • 4 History
    • 4.1 Prehistory
      • 4.1.1 Egypt
    • 4.2 Europe and the Middle East
      • 4.2.1 Mesopotamia
      • 4.2.2 Greece
      • 4.2.3 Rome
      • 4.2.4 Middle Ages
      • 4.2.5 Renaissance
      • 4.2.6 Romanticism
      • 4.2.7 18th Century / Romanticism/ Renaissance
      • 4.2.8 Art Nouveau
      • 4.2.9 Art Deco
    • 4.3 Asia
      • 4.3.1 China
      • 4.3.2 Indian subcontinent
    • 4.4 North and South America
    • 4.5 Native American
    • 4.6 Pacific
  • 5 Modern
  • 6 Masonic
  • 7 Body modification
  • 8 Jewellery market
  • 9 See also
  • 10 References
  • 11 Further reading
  • 12 External links
Form and function Kenyan man wearing tribal beads

Humans have used jewellery for a number of different reasons:

  • functional, generally to fix clothing or hair in place
  • as a marker of social status and personal status, as with a wedding ring
  • as a signifier of some form of affiliation, whether ethnic, religious or social
  • to provide talismanic protection (in the form of amulets)[4]
  • as an artistic display
  • as a carrier or symbol of personal meaning – such as love, mourning, or even luck

Most cultures at some point have had a practice of keeping large amounts of wealth stored in the form of jewellery. Numerous cultures store wedding dowries in the form of jewellery or make jewellery as a means to store or display coins. Alternatively, jewellery has been used as a currency or trade good;[5] an example being the use of slave beads.[6]

Many items of jewellery, such as brooches and buckles, originated as purely functional items, but evolved into decorative items as their functional requirement diminished.[7]

Jewellery can also symbolise group membership (as in the case, of the Christian crucifix or the Jewish Star of David) or status (as in the case of chains of office, or the Western practice of married people wearing wedding rings).

Wearing of amulets and devotional medals to provide protection or ward off evil is common in some cultures. These may take the form of symbols (such as the ankh), stones, plants, animals, body parts (such as the Khamsa), or glyphs (such as stylised versions of the Throne Verse in Islamic art).[8]

Materials and methods

In creating jewellery, gemstones, coins, or other precious items are often used, and they are typically set into precious metals. Platinum alloys range from 900 (90% pure) to 950 (95.0% pure). The silver used in jewellery is usually sterling silver, or 92.5% fine silver. In costume jewellery, stainless steel findings are sometimes used.

Bead embroidery design.

Other commonly used materials include glass, such as fused-glass or enamel; wood, often carved or turned; shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory; natural clay; polymer clay; Hemp and other twines have been used as well to create jewellery that has more of a natural feel. However, any inclusion of lead or lead solder will give an English Assay office (the building which gives English jewellery its stamp of approval, the Hallmark) the right to destroy the piece, however it is very rare for the assay office to do so.

Beads are frequently used in jewellery. These may be made of glass, gemstones, metal, wood, shells, clay and polymer clay. Beaded jewellery commonly encompasses necklaces, bracelets, earrings, belts and rings. Beads may be large or small; the smallest type of beads used are known as seed beads, these are the beads used for the "woven" style of beaded jewellery. Another use of seed beads is an embroidery technique where seed beads are sewn onto fabric backings to create broad collar neck pieces and beaded bracelets. Bead embroidery, a popular type of handwork during the Victorian era, is enjoying a renaissance in modern jewellery making. Beading, or beadwork, is also very popular in many African and indigenous North American cultures.

Silversmiths, goldsmiths, and lapidaries methods include forging, casting, soldering or welding, cutting, carving and "cold-joining" (using adhesives, staples and rivets to assemble parts).[9]

Diamonds Diamonds Main article: Diamond

Diamonds were first mined in India.[10] Pliny may have mentioned them, although there is some debate as to the exact nature of the stone he referred to as Adamas;[11] In 2005, Australia, Botswana, Russia and Canada ranked among the primary sources of gemstone diamond production.[12] There are negative consequences of the diamond trade in certain areas. Diamonds mined during the recent civil wars in Angola, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, and other nations have been labelled as blood diamonds when they are mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency.

The British crown jewels contain the Cullinan Diamond, part of the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found (1905), at 3,106.75 carats (621.35 g).

Now popular in engagement rings, this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary of Burgundy in 1477.[13]

Other gemstones Main article: Gemstone

Many precious and semiprecious stones are used for jewellery. Among them are:

Amber
Amber, an ancient organic gemstone, is composed of tree resin that has hardened over time. The stone must be at least one million years old to be classified as amber, and some amber can be up to 120 million years old.
Amethyst
Amethyst has historically been the most prized gemstone in the quartz family. It is treasured for its purple hue, which can range in tone from light to dark.
Spanish emerald and gold pendant at Victoria and Albert Museum.
Emerald
Emeralds are one of the three main precious gemstones (along with rubies and sapphires) and are known for their fine green to bluish green colour. They have been treasured throughout history, and some historians report that the Egyptians mined emerald as early as 3500 BC.
Jade
Jade is most commonly associated with the colour green but can come in a number of other colours as well. Jade is closely linked to Asian culture, history, and tradition, and is sometimes referred to as the stone of heaven.
Jasper
Jasper is a gemstone of the chalcedony family that comes in a variety of colours. Often, jasper will feature unique and interesting patterns within the coloured stone. Picture jasper is a type of jasper known for the colours (often beiges and browns) and swirls in the stone’s pattern.
Quartz
Quartz refers to a family of crystalline gemstones of various colours and sizes. Among the well-known types of quartz are rose quartz (which has a delicate pink colour), and smoky quartz (which comes in a variety of shades of translucent brown). A number of other gemstones, such as Amethyst and Citrine, are also part of the quartz family. Rutilated quartz is a popular type of quartz containing needle-like inclusions.
Ruby
Rubies are known for their intense red colour and are among the most highly valued precious gemstones. Rubies have been treasured for millennia. In Sanskrit, the word for ruby is ratnaraj, meaning king of precious stones.
Sapphire
The most popular form of sapphire is blue sapphire, which is known for its medium to deep blue colour and strong saturation. Fancy sapphires of various colours are also available. In the United States, blue sapphire tends to be the most popular and most affordable of the three major precious gemstones (emerald, ruby, and sapphire).
Turquoise
Turquoise is found in only a few places on earth, and the world’s largest turquoise producing region is the southwest United States. Turquoise is prized for its attractive colour, most often an intense medium blue or a greenish blue, and its ancient heritage. Turquoise is used in a great variety of jewellery styles. It is perhaps most closely associated with southwest and Native American jewellery, but it is also used in many sleek, modern styles. Some turquoise contains a matrix of dark brown markings, which provides an interesting contrast to the gemstone’s bright blue colour.

Some gemstones (like pearls, coral, and amber) are classified as organic, meaning that they are produced by living organisms. Others are inorganic, meaning that they are generally composed of and arise from minerals.

Some gems, for example, amethyst, have become less valued as methods of extracting and importing them have progressed. Some man-made gems can serve in place of natural gems, such as cubic zirconia, which can be used in place of diamond.[14]

Metal finishes An example of gold plated jewellery

For platinum, gold, and silver jewellery, there are many techniques to create finishes. The most common are high-polish, satin/matte, brushed, and hammered. High-polished jewellery is the most common and gives the metal a highly reflective, shiny look. Satin, or matte finish reduces the shine and reflection of the jewellery, and this is commonly used to accentuate gemstones such as diamonds. Brushed finishes give the jewellery a textured look and are created by brushing a material (similar to sandpaper) against the metal, leaving "brush strokes". Hammered finishes are typically created by using a rounded steel hammer and hammering the jewellery to give it a wavy texture.

Some jewellery is plated to give it a shiny, reflective look or to achieve a desired colour. Sterling silver jewellery may be plated with a thin layer of 0.999 fine silver (a process known as flashing) or may be plated with rhodium or gold. Base metal costume jewellery may also be plated with silver, gold, or rhodium for a more attractive finish.

Impact on society

Jewellery has been used to denote status. In ancient Rome, only certain ranks could wear rings;[15] later, sumptuary laws dictated who could wear what type of jewellery. This was also based on rank of the citizens of that time. Cultural dictates have also played a significant role. For example, the wearing of earrings by Western men was considered effeminate in the 19th century and early 20th century. More recently, the display of body jewellery, such as piercings, has become a mark of acceptance or seen as a badge of courage within some groups but is completely rejected in others. Likewise, hip hop culture has popularised the slang term bling-bling, which refers to ostentatious display of jewellery by men or women.

Conversely, the jewellery industry in the early 20th century launched a campaign to popularise wedding rings for men, which caught on, as well as engagement rings for men, which did not, going so far as to create a false history and claim that the practice had medieval roots. By the mid-1940s, 85% of weddings in the U.S. featured a double-ring ceremony, up from 15% in the 1920s.[16] Religion has also played a role in societies influence. Islam, for instance, considers the wearing of gold by men as a social taboo,[17] and many religions have edicts against excessive display.[18] In Christianity, the New Testament gives injunctions against the wearing of gold, in the writings of the apostles Paul and Peter. In Revelation 17, "the great whore" or false religious system, is depicted as being "decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand." (Rev. 17:4) For Muslims it is considered haraam for a man to wear gold.[19]

History

The history of jewellery is long and goes back many years, with many different uses among different cultures. It has endured for thousands of years and has provided various insights into how ancient cultures worked.

Prehistory

The earliest known Jewellery was actually created not by humans (Homo Sapiens) but by Neanderthal living in Europe. Specifically, perforated beads made from small sea shells have been found dating to 115,000 years ago in the Cueva de los Aviones, a cave along the southeast coast of Spain. Later in Kenya, at Enkapune Ya Muto, beads made from perforated ostrich egg shells have been dated to more than 40,000 years ago. In Russia, a stone bracelet and marble ring are attributed to a similar age.[20]

Later, the European early modern humans had crude necklaces and bracelets of bone, teeth, berries, and stone hung on pieces of string or animal sinew, or pieces of carved bone used to secure clothing together. In some cases, jewellery had shell or mother-of-pearl pieces. A decorated engraved pendant (the Star Carr Pendant) dating to around 11,000 BC, and thought to be the oldest Mesolithic art in Britain, was found at the site of Star Carr in North Yorkshire in 2015.[21] In southern Russia, carved bracelets made of mammoth tusk have been found. The Venus of Hohle Fels features a perforation at the top, showing that it was intended to be worn as a pendant.

Around seven-thousand years ago, the first sign of copper jewellery was seen.[7] In October 2012 the Museum of Ancient History in Lower Austria revealed that they had found a grave of a female jewellery worker – forcing archaeologists to take a fresh look at prehistoric gender roles after it appeared to be that of a female fine metal worker – a profession that was previously thought to have been carried out exclusively by men.[22]

Egypt Amulet pendant (1254 BC) made from gold, lapis lazuli, turquoise and carnelian, 14 cm wide. An Egyptian 18th dynasty pharaonic era princess' crown.

The first signs of established jewellery making in Ancient Egypt was around 3,000–5,000 years ago.[23] The Egyptians preferred the luxury, rarity, and workability of gold over other metals. In Predynastic Egypt jewellery soon began to symbolise political and religious power in the community. Although it was worn by wealthy Egyptians in life, it was also worn by them in death, with jewellery commonly placed among grave goods.

In conjunction with gold jewellery, Egyptians used coloured glass, along with semi-precious gems. The colour of the jewellery had significance. Green, for example, symbolised fertility. Lapis lazuli and silver had to be imported from beyond the country’s borders.

Egyptian designs were most common in Phoenician jewellery. Also, ancient Turkish designs found in Persian jewellery suggest that trade between the Middle East and Europe was not uncommon. Women wore elaborate gold and silver pieces that were used in ceremonies.[23]

Europe and the Middle East Mesopotamia Pair of Gold Hair Ornaments, Mesopotamian, circa 2000 BC (Isin-larsa period). Decorated with granulation and cloisonné. Walters Art Museum collections.

By approximately 5,000 years ago, jewellery-making had become a significant craft in the cities of Mesopotamia. The most significant archaeological evidence comes from the Royal Cemetery of Ur, where hundreds of burials dating 2900–2300 BC were unearthed; tombs such as that of Puabi contained a multitude of artefacts in gold, silver, and semi-precious stones, such as lapis lazuli crowns embellished with gold figurines, close-fitting collar necklaces, and jewel-headed pins. In Assyria, men and women both wore extensive amounts of jewellery, including amulets, ankle bracelets, heavy multi-strand necklaces, and cylinder seals.[24]

Jewellery in Mesopotamia tended to be manufactured from thin metal leaf and was set with large numbers of brightly coloured stones (chiefly agate, lapis, carnelian, and jasper). Favoured shapes included leaves, spirals, cones, and bunches of grapes. Jewellers created works both for human use and for adorning statues and idols. They employed a wide variety of sophisticated metalworking techniques, such as cloisonné, engraving, fine granulation, and filigree.[25]

Extensive and meticulously maintained records pertaining to the trade and manufacture of jewellery have also been unearthed throughout Mesopotamian archaeological sites. One record in the Mari royal archives, for example, gives the composition of various items of jewellery:

.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}
  • 1 necklace of flat speckled chalcedony beads including: 34 flat speckled chalcedony bead, 35 gold fluted beads, in groups of five.
  • 1 necklace of flat speckled chalcedony beads including: 39 flat speckled chalcedony beads, 41 fluted beads in a group that make up the hanging device.
  • 1 necklace with rounded lapis lazuli beads including: 28 rounded lapis lazuli beads, 29 fluted beads for its clasp.[26]
Greece Gold earring from Mycenae, 16th century BC. Gold Wreath

The Greeks started using gold and gems in jewellery in 1600 BC, although beads shaped as shells and animals were produced widely in earlier times. Around 1500 BC, the main techniques of working gold in Greece included casting, twisting bars, and making wire.[27] Many of these sophisticated techniques were popular in the Mycenaean period, but unfortunately this skill was lost at the end of the Bronze Age. The forms and shapes of jewellery in ancient Greece such as the armring (13th century BC), brooch (10th century BC) and pins (7th century BC), have varied widely since the Bronze Age as well. Other forms of jewellery include wreaths, earrings, necklace and bracelets. A good example of the high quality that gold working techniques could achieve in Greece is the ‘Gold Olive Wreath’ (4th century BC), which is modeled on the type of wreath given as a prize for winners in athletic competitions like the Olympic Games. Jewellery dating from 600 to 475 BC is not well represented in the archaeological record, but after the Persian wars the quantity of jewellery again became more plentiful.[28] One particularly popular type of design at this time was a bracelet decorated with snake and animal-heads Because these bracelets used considerably more metal, many examples were made from bronze. By 300 BC, the Greeks had mastered making coloured jewellery and using amethysts, pearl, and emeralds. Also, the first signs of cameos appeared, with the Greeks creating them from Indian Sardonyx, a striped brown pink and cream agate stone. Greek jewellery was often simpler than in other cultures, with simple designs and workmanship. However, as time progressed, the designs grew in complexity and different materials were soon used.

Pendant with naked woman, made from electrum, Rhodes, around 630–620 BC.

Jewellery in Greece was hardly worn and was mostly used for public appearances or on special occasions. It was frequently given as a gift and was predominantly worn by women to show their wealth, social status, and beauty. The jewellery was often supposed to give the wearer protection from the "Evil Eye" or endowed the owner with supernatural powers, while others had a religious symbolism. Older pieces of jewellery that have been found were dedicated to the Gods.

Ancient Greek jewellery from 300 BC.

They worked two styles of pieces: cast pieces and pieces hammered out of sheet metal. Fewer pieces of cast jewellery have been recovered. It was made by casting the metal onto two stone or clay moulds. The two halves were then joined together, and wax, followed by molten metal, was placed in the centre. This technique had been practised since the late Bronze Age. The more common form of jewellery was the hammered sheet type. Sheets of metal would be hammered to thickness and then soldered together. The inside of the two sheets would be filled with wax or another liquid to preserve the metal work. Different techniques, such as using a stamp or engraving, were then used to create motifs on the jewellery. Jewels may then be added to hollows or glass poured into special cavities on the surface. The Greeks took much of their designs from outer origins, such as Asia, when Alexander the Great conquered part of it. In earlier designs, other European influences can also be detected. When Roman rule came to Greece, no change in jewellery designs was detected. However, by 27 BC, Greek designs were heavily influenced by the Roman culture. That is not to say that indigenous design did not thrive. Numerous polychrome butterfly pendants on silver foxtail chains, dating from the 1st century, have been found near Olbia, with only one example ever found anywhere else.[29]

These Hellenistic bracelets from the 1st century BC show the influence of Eastern cultures. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore. Hexagonal gold pendant with double solidus of Constantine the Great, one of a set of four that date from 321 AD (British Museum)[30] Rome Roman Amethyst intaglio engraved gem, c. 212 AD; later regarded as of St. Peter.

Although jewellery work was abundantly diverse in earlier times, especially among the barbarian tribes such as the Celts, when the Romans conquered most of Europe, jewellery was changed as smaller factions developed the Roman designs. The most common artefact of early Rome was the brooch, which was used to secure clothing together. The Romans used a diverse range of materials for their jewellery from their extensive resources across the continent. Although they used gold, they sometimes used bronze or bone, and in earlier times, glass beads & pearl. As early as 2,000 years ago, they imported Sri Lankan sapphires and Indian diamonds and used emeralds and amber in their jewellery. In Roman-ruled England, fossilised wood called jet from Northern England was often carved into pieces of jewellery. The early Italians worked in crude gold and created clasps, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. They also produced larger pendants that could be filled with perfume.

Like the Greeks, often the purpose of Roman jewellery was to ward off the "Evil Eye" given by other people. Although women wore a vast array of jewellery, men often only wore a finger ring. Although they were expected to wear at least one ring, some Roman men wore a ring on every finger, while others wore none. Roman men and women wore rings with an engraved gem on it that was used with wax to seal documents, a practice that continued into medieval times when kings and noblemen used the same method. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the jewellery designs were absorbed by neighbouring countries and tribes.[23]

Middle Ages Merovingian fibulae, Bibliothèque nationale de France. 6th century bronze eagle-shaped Visigothic cloisonné fibula from Guadalajara, Spain, using glass-paste fillings in imitation of garnets.

Post-Roman Europe continued to develop jewellery making skills. The Celts and Merovingians in particular are noted for their jewellery, which in terms of quality matched or exceeded that of the Byzantine Empire. Clothing fasteners, amulets, and, to a lesser extent, signet rings, are the most common artefacts known to us. A particularly striking Celtic example is the Tara Brooch. The Torc was common throughout Europe as a symbol of status and power. By the 8th century, jewelled weaponry was common for men, while other jewellery (with the exception of signet rings) seemed to become the domain of women. Grave goods found in a 6th–7th century burial near Chalon-sur-Saône are illustrative. A young girl was buried with: 2 silver fibulae, a necklace (with coins), bracelet, gold earrings, a pair of hair-pins, comb, and buckle.[31] The Celts specialised in continuous patterns and designs, while Merovingian designs are best known for stylised animal figures.[32] They were not the only groups known for high quality work. Note the Visigoth work shown here, and the numerous decorative objects found at the Anglo-Saxon Ship burial at Sutton Hoo Suffolk, England are a particularly well-known example.[23] On the continent, cloisonné and garnet were perhaps the quintessential method and gemstone of the period.

Byzantine wedding ring.

The Eastern successor of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, continued many of the methods of the Romans, though religious themes came to predominate. Unlike the Romans, the Franks, and the Celts, however, Byzantium used light-weight gold leaf rather than solid gold, and more emphasis was placed on stones and gems. As in the West, Byzantine jewellery was worn by wealthier females, with male jewellery apparently restricted to signet rings. Woman's jewellery had some peculiarities like kolts that decorated headband. Like other contemporary cultures, jewellery was commonly buried with its owner.[33]

Renaissance Sardonyx cameo.

The Renaissance and exploration both had significant impacts on the development of jewellery in Europe. By the 17th century, increasing exploration and trade led to increased availability of a wide variety of gemstones as well as exposure to the art of other cultures. Whereas prior to this the working of gold and precious metal had been at the forefront of jewellery, this period saw increasing dominance of gemstones and their settings. An example of this is the Cheapside Hoard, the stock of a jeweller hidden in London during the Commonwealth period and not found again until 1912. It contained Colombian emerald, topaz, amazonite from Brazil, spinel, iolite, and chrysoberyl from Sri Lanka, ruby from India, Afghan lapis lazuli, Persian turquoise, Red Sea peridot, as well as Bohemian and Hungarian opal, garnet, and amethyst. Large stones were frequently set in box-bezels on enamelled rings.[34] Notable among merchants of the period was Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, who brought the precursor stone of the Hope Diamond to France in the 1660s.

When Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned as Emperor of the French in 1804, he revived the style and grandeur of jewellery and fashion in France. Under Napoleon’s rule, jewellers introduced parures, suites of matching jewellery, such as a diamond tiara, diamond earrings, diamond rings, a diamond brooch, and a diamond necklace. Both of Napoleon’s wives had beautiful sets such as these and wore them regularly. Another fashion trend resurrected by Napoleon was the cameo. Soon after his cameo decorated crown was seen, cameos were highly sought. The period also saw the early stages of costume jewellery, with fish scale covered glass beads in place of pearls or conch shell cameos instead of stone cameos. New terms were coined to differentiate the arts: jewellers who worked in cheaper materials were called bijoutiers, while jewellers who worked with expensive materials were called joailliers, a practice which continues to this day.

Romanticism Mourning jewellery in the form of a jet brooch, 19th century.

Starting in the late 18th century, Romanticism had a profound impact on the development of western jewellery. Perhaps the most significant influences were the public’s fascination with the treasures being discovered through the birth of modern archaeology and a fascination with Medieval and Renaissance art. Changing social conditions and the onset of the Industrial Revolution also led to growth of a middle class that wanted and could afford jewellery. As a result, the use of industrial processes, cheaper alloys, and stone substitutes led to the development of paste or costume jewellery. Distinguished goldsmiths continued to flourish, however, as wealthier patrons sought to ensure that what they wore still stood apart from the jewellery of the masses, not only through use of precious metals and stones but also though superior artistic and technical work. One such artist was the French goldsmith François-Désiré Froment-Meurice. A category unique to this period and quite appropriate to the philosophy of romanticism was mourning jewellery. It originated in England, where Queen Victoria was often seen wearing jet jewellery after the death of Prince Albert, and it allowed the wearer to continue wearing jewellery while expressing a state of mourning at the death of a loved one.[35]

In the United States, this period saw the founding in 1837 of Tiffany & Co. by Charles Lewis Tiffany. Tiffany's put the United States on the world map in terms of jewellery and gained fame creating dazzling commissions for people such as the wife of Abraham Lincoln. Later, it would gain popular notoriety as the setting of the film Breakfast at Tiffany's. In France, Pierre Cartier founded Cartier SA in 1847, while 1884 saw the founding of Bulgari in Italy. The modern production studio had been born and was a step away from the former dominance of individual craftsmen and patronage.

This period also saw the first major collaboration between East and West. Collaboration in Pforzheim between German and Japanese artists led to Shakudō plaques set into Filigree frames being created by the Stoeffler firm in 1885).[36] Perhaps the grand finalé – and an appropriate transition to the following period – were the masterful creations of the Russian artist Peter Carl Fabergé, working for the Imperial Russian court, whose Fabergé eggs and jewellery pieces are still considered as the epitome of the goldsmith’s art.

18th Century / Romanticism/ Renaissance

Many whimsical fashions were introduced in the extravagant eighteenth century. Cameos that were used in connection with jewellery were the attractive trinkets along with many of the small objects such as brooches, ear-rings and scarf-pins. Some of the necklets were made of several pieces joined with the gold chains were in and bracelets were also made sometimes to match the necklet and the brooch. At the end of the Century the jewellery with cut steel intermixed with large crystals was introduced by an Englishman, Matthew Boulton of Birmingham.[37]

Art Nouveau

In the 1890s, jewellers began to explore the potential of the growing Art Nouveau style and the closely related German Jugendstil, British (and to some extent American) Arts and Crafts Movement, Catalan Modernisme, Austro-Hungarian Sezession, Italian "Liberty", etc.

Art Nouveau jewellery encompassed many distinct features including a focus on the female form and an emphasis on colour, most commonly rendered through the use of enamelling techniques including basse-taille, champleve, cloisonné, and plique-à-jour. Motifs included orchids, irises, pansies, vines, swans, peacocks, snakes, dragonflies, mythological creatures, and the female silhouette.

René Lalique, working for the Paris shop of Samuel Bing, was recognised by contemporaries as a leading figure in this trend. The Darmstadt Artists' Colony and Wiener Werkstätte provided perhaps the most significant input to the trend, while in Denmark Georg Jensen, though best known for his Silverware, also contributed significant pieces. In England, Liberty & Co., (notably through the Cymric designs of Archibald Knox) and the British arts & crafts movement of Charles Robert Ashbee contributed slightly more linear but still characteristic designs. The new style moved the focus of the jeweller's art from the setting of stones to the artistic design of the piece itself. Lalique's dragonfly design is one of the best examples of this. Enamels played a large role in technique, while sinuous organic lines are the most recognisable design feature.

The end of World War I once again changed public attitudes, and a more sober style developed.[38]

Art Deco

Growing political tensions, the after-effects of the war, and a reaction against the perceived decadence of the turn of the 20th century led to simpler forms, combined with more effective manufacturing for mass production of high-quality jewellery. Covering the period of the 1920s and 1930s, the style has become popularly known as Art Deco. Walter Gropius and the German Bauhaus movement, with their philosophy of "no barriers between artists and craftsmen" led to some interesting and stylistically simplified forms. Modern materials were also introduced: plastics and aluminium were first used in jewellery, and of note are the chromed pendants of Russian-born Bauhaus master Naum Slutzky. Technical mastery became as valued as the material itself. In the West, this period saw the reinvention of granulation by the German Elizabeth Treskow, although development of the re-invention has continued into the 1990s. It is based on the basic shapes.

Asia Royal earrings, India, 1st Century BC. Indian king Bhupinder Singh of Patiala wearing Patiala Necklace which contained 2,930 diamonds, including as its centrepiece, the world's seventh largest diamond, the "De Beers", that had a 428 carat pre-cut weigh, and weighed 234.65 carats in its final setting. The piece also contained seven other diamonds ranging from 18 to 73 carats, and a number of Burmese rubies

In Asia, the Indian subcontinent has the longest continuous legacy of jewellery making anywhere,[citation needed] with a history of over 5,000 years.[39] One of the first to start jewellery making were the peoples of the Indus Valley Civilization, in what is now predominately modern-day Pakistan and part of northern and western India. Early jewellery making in China started around the same period, but it became widespread with the spread of Buddhism around 2,000 years ago.

China

The Chinese used silver in their jewellery more than gold. Blue kingfisher feathers were tied onto early Chinese jewellery and later, blue gems and glass were incorporated into designs. However, jade was preferred over any other stone. The Chinese revered jade because of the human-like qualities they assigned to it, such as its hardness, durability, and beauty.[7] The first jade pieces were very simple, but as time progressed, more complex designs evolved. Jade rings from between the 4th and 7th centuries BC show evidence of having been worked with a compound milling machine, hundreds of years before the first mention of such equipment in the west.[40]

Jade coiled serpent, Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) `Xin' Shape Jewellery from Ming Dynasty Tombs, (1368–1644)

In China, the most uncommon piece of jewellery is the earring, which was worn neither by men nor women.[citation needed] Amulets were common, often with a Chinese symbol or dragon. Dragons, Chinese symbols, and phoenixes were frequently depicted on jewellery designs.

The Chinese often placed their jewellery in their graves. Most Chinese graves found by archaeologists contain decorative jewellery.[41]

Indian subcontinent Two-Tiered Enamel Earrings, late 18th-early 19th century. Qajar Dynasty. Brooklyn Museum.

The Indian subcontinent (encompassing India, Pakistan and other countries of South Asia) has a long jewellery history, which went through various changes through cultural influence and politics for more than 5,000–8,000 years. Because India had an abundant supply of precious metals and gems, it prospered financially through export and exchange with other countries. While European traditions were heavily influenced by waxing and waning empires, India enjoyed a continuous development of art forms for some 5,000 years.[39] One of the first to start jewellery making were the peoples of the Indus Valley Civilization (encompassing present-day Pakistan and north and northwest India). By 1500 BC, the peoples of the Indus Valley were creating gold earrings and necklaces, bead necklaces, and metallic bangles. Before 2100 BC, prior to the period when metals were widely used, the largest jewellery trade in the Indus Valley region was the bead trade. Beads in the Indus Valley were made using simple techniques. First, a bead maker would need a rough stone, which would be bought from an eastern stone trader. The stone would then be placed into a hot oven where it would be heated until it turned deep red, a colour highly prized by people of the Indus Valley. The red stone would then be chipped to the right size and a hole bored through it with primitive drills. The beads were then polished. Some beads were also painted with designs. This art form was often passed down through the family. Children of bead makers often learned how to work beads from a young age. Persian style also played a big role in India’s jewellery. Each stone had its own characteristics related to Hinduism.

Jewellery in the Indus Valley was worn predominantly by females, who wore numerous clay or shell bracelets on their wrists. They were often shaped like doughnuts and painted black. Over time, clay bangles were discarded for more durable ones. In present-day India, bangles are made out of metal or glass.[42] Other pieces that women frequently wore were thin bands of gold that would be worn on the forehead, earrings, primitive brooches, chokers, and gold rings. Although women wore jewellery the most, some men in the Indus Valley wore beads. Small beads were often crafted to be placed in men and women’s hair. The beads were about one millimetre long.

A female skeleton (presently on display at the National Museum, New Delhi, India) wears a carlinean bangle (bracelet) on her left hand. Kada is a special kind of bracelet and is widely popular in Indian culture. They symbolizes animals like peacock, elephant,[43] etc.

According to Hindu belief, gold and silver are considered as sacred metals. Gold is symbolic of the warm sun, while silver suggests the cool moon. Both are the quintessential metals of Indian jewellery. Pure gold does not oxidise or corrode with time, which is why Hindu tradition associates gold with immortality. Gold imagery occurs frequently in ancient Indian literature. In the Vedic Hindu belief of cosmological creation, the source of physical and spiritual human life originated in and evolved from a golden womb (hiranyagarbha) or egg (hiranyanda), a metaphor of the sun, whose light rises from the primordial waters.[44]

Antique Pearl & Gold Nose Ring, India, 19th century

Jewellery had great status with India’s royalty; it was so powerful that they established laws, limiting wearing of jewellery to royalty. Only royalty and a few others to whom they granted permission could wear gold ornaments on their feet. This would normally be considered breaking the appreciation of the sacred metals. Even though the majority of the Indian population wore jewellery, Maharajas and people related to royalty had a deeper connection with jewellery. The Maharaja's role was so important that the Hindu philosophers identified him as central to the smooth working of the world. He was considered as a divine being, a deity in human form, whose duty was to uphold and protect dharma, the moral order of the universe.[45]

A Navaratna ring.

Navaratna (nine gems)is a powerful jewel frequently worn by a Maharaja (Emperor). It is an amulet, which comprises diamond, pearl, ruby, sapphire, emerald, topaz, cat’s eye, coral, and hyacinth (red zircon). Each of these stones is associated with a celestial deity, represented the totality of the Hindu universe when all nine gems are together. The diamond is the most powerful gem among the nine stones. There were various cuts for the gemstone. Indian Kings bought gemstones privately from the sellers. Maharaja and other royal family members value gem as Hindu God. They exchanged gems with people to whom they were very close, especially the royal family members and other intimate allies. "Only the emperor himself, his intimate relations, and select members of his entourage were permitted to wear royal turban ornament. As the empire matured, differing styles of ornament acquired the generic name of sarpech, from sar or sir, meaning head, and pech, meaning fastener."

India was the first country to mine diamonds, with some mines dating back to 296 BC. India traded the diamonds, realising their valuable qualities. Historically, diamonds have been given to retain or regain a lover’s or ruler’s lost favour, as symbols of tribute, or as an expression of fidelity in exchange for concessions and protection. Mughal emperors and Kings used the diamonds as a means of assuring their immortality by having their names and worldly titles inscribed upon them. Moreover, it has played and continues to play a pivotal role in Indian social, political, economic, and religious event, as it often has done elsewhere. In Indian history, diamonds have been used to acquire military equipment, finance wars, foment revolutions, and tempt defections. They have contributed to the abdication or the decapitation of potentates. They have been used to murder a representative of the dominating power by lacing his food with crushed diamond. Indian diamonds have been used as security to finance large loans needed to buttress politically or economically tottering regimes. Victorious military heroes have been honoured by rewards of diamonds and also have been used as ransom payment for release from imprisonment or abduction.[46] Today, many of the jewellery designs and traditions are used, and jewellery is commonplace in Indian ceremonies and weddings.[41]

North and South America

Jewellery played a major role in the fate of the Americas when the Spanish established an empire to seize South American gold. Jewellery making developed in the Americas 5,000 years ago in Central and South America. Large amounts of gold was easily accessible, and the Aztecs, Mixtecs, Mayans, and numerous Andean cultures, such as the Mochica of Peru, created beautiful pieces of jewellery.

With the Mochica culture, goldwork flourished. The pieces are no longer simple metalwork, but are now masterful examples of jewellery making. Pieces are sophisticated in their design, and feature inlays of turquoise, mother of pearl, spondylus shell, and amethyst. The nose and ear ornaments, chest plates, small containers and whistles are considered masterpieces of ancient Peruvian culture.[47]

Moche ear ornaments. 1–800 AD. Larco Museum Collection, Lima-Peru

Among the Aztecs, only nobility wore gold jewellery, as it showed their rank, power, and wealth. Gold jewellery was most common in the Aztec Empire and was often decorated with feathers from Quetzal birds and others. In general, the more jewellery an Aztec noble wore, the higher his status or prestige. The Emperor and his High Priests, for example, would be nearly completely covered in jewellery when making public appearances. Although gold was the most common and a popular material used in Aztec jewellery, jade, turquoise, and certain feathers were considered more valuable.[48] In addition to adornment and status, the Aztecs also used jewellery in sacrifices to appease the gods. Priests also used gem-encrusted daggers to perform animal and human sacrifices.[23][35]

Another ancient American civilization with expertise in jewellery making were the Maya. At the peak of their civilization, the Maya were making jewellery from jade, gold, silver, bronze, and copper. Maya designs were similar to those of the Aztecs, with lavish headdresses and jewellery. The Maya also traded in precious gems. However, in earlier times, the Maya had little access to metal, so they made the majority of their jewellery out of bone or stone. Merchants and nobility were the only few that wore expensive jewellery in the Maya region, much the same as with the Aztecs.[41]

In North America, Native Americans used shells, wood, turquoise, and soapstone, almost unavailable in South and Central America. The turquoise was used in necklaces and to be placed in earrings. Native Americans with access to oyster shells, often located in only one location in America, traded the shells with other tribes, showing the great importance of the body adornment trade in Northern America.[49]

Native American Main article: Native American jewelry Bai-De-Schluch-A-Ichin or Be-Ich-Schluck-Ich-In-Et-Tzuzzigi (Slender Silversmith) "Metal Beater," Navajo silversmith, photo by George Ben Wittick, 1883

Native American jewellery is the personal adornment, often in the forms of necklaces, earrings, bracelets, rings, pins, brooches, labrets, and more, made by the Indigenous peoples of the United States. Native American jewellery reflects the cultural diversity and history of its makers. Native American tribes continue to develop distinct aesthetics rooted in their personal artistic visions and cultural traditions. Artists create jewellery for adornment, ceremonies, and trade. Lois Sherr Dubin writes, "n the absence of written languages, adornment became an important element of Indian communication, conveying many levels of information." Later, jewellery and personal adornment "...signaled resistance to assimilation. It remains a major statement of tribal and individual identity."[50]

Metalsmiths, beaders, carvers, and lapidaries combine a variety of metals, hardwoods, precious and semi-precious gemstones, beadwork, quillwork, teeth, bones, hide, vegetal fibres, and other materials to create jewellery. Contemporary Native American jewellery ranges from hand-quarried and processed stones and shells to computer-fabricated steel and titanium jewellery.

Pacific Main article: Jewellery in the Pacific

Jewellery making in the Pacific started later than in other areas because of recent human settlement. Early Pacific jewellery was made of bone, wood, and other natural materials, and thus has not survived. Most Pacific jewellery is worn above the waist, with headdresses, necklaces, hair pins, and arm and waist belts being the most common pieces.

Jewellery in the Pacific, with the exception of Australia, is worn to be a symbol of either fertility or power. Elaborate headdresses are worn by many Pacific cultures and some, such as the inhabitants of Papua New Guinea, wear certain headdresses once they have killed an enemy. Tribesman may wear boar bones through their noses.

Island jewellery is still very much primal because of the lack of communication with outside cultures. Some areas of Borneo and Papua New Guinea are yet to be explored by Western nations. However, the island nations that were flooded with Western missionaries have had drastic changes made to their jewellery designs. Missionaries saw any type of tribal jewellery as a sign of the wearer's devotion to paganism. Thus many tribal designs were lost forever in the mass conversion to Christianity.[51]

A modern opal bracelet

Australia is now the number one supplier of opals in the world. Opals had already been mined in Europe and South America for many years prior, but in the late 19th century, the Australian opal market became predominant. Australian opals are only mined in a few select places around the country, making it one of the most profitable stones in the Pacific.[52]

The New Zealand Māori traditionally had a strong culture of personal adornment,[53] most famously the hei-tiki. Hei-tikis are traditionally carved by hand from bone, nephrite, or bowenite.

Nowadays a wide range of such traditionally inspired items such as bone carved pendants based on traditional fishhooks hei matau and other greenstone jewellery are popular with young New Zealanders of all backgrounds – for whom they relate to a generalized sense of New Zealand identity. These trends have contributed towards a worldwide interest in traditional Māori culture and arts.

Other than jewellery created through Māori influence, modern jewellery in New Zealand is multicultural and varied.[51]

Modern Contemporary jewellery design

Most modern commercial jewellery continues traditional forms and styles, but designers such as Georg Jensen have widened the concept of wearable art. The advent of new materials, such as plastics, Precious Metal Clay (PMC), and colouring techniques, has led to increased variety in styles. Other advances, such as the development of improved pearl harvesting by people such as Mikimoto Kōkichi and the development of improved quality artificial gemstones such as moissanite (a diamond simulant), has placed jewellery within the economic grasp of a much larger segment of the population.

The "jewellery as art" movement was spearheaded by artisans such as Robert Lee Morris and continued by designers such as Gill Forsbrook in the UK. Influence from other cultural forms is also evident. One example of this is bling-bling style jewellery, popularised by hip-hop and rap artists in the early 21st century, e.g. grills, a type of jewellery worn over the teeth.

The late 20th century saw the blending of European design with oriental techniques such as Mokume-gane. The following are innovations in the decades straddling the year 2000: "Mokume-gane, hydraulic die forming, anti-clastic raising, fold-forming, reactive metal anodising, shell forms, PMC, photoetching, and CAD/CAM."[54]

Also, 3D printing as a production technique gains more and more importance. With a great variety of services offering this production method, jewellery design becomes accessible to a growing number of creatives. An important advantage of using 3d printing are the relatively low costs for prototypes, small batch series or unique and personalized designs. Shapes that are hard or impossible to create by hand can often be realized by 3D printing. Popular materials to print include Polyamide, steel and wax (latter for further processing). Every printable material has its very own constraints that have to be considered while designing the piece of jewellery using 3D Modelling Software.

Artisan jewellery continues to grow as both a hobby and a profession. With more than 17 United States periodicals about beading alone, resources, accessibility, and a low initial cost of entry continues to expand production of hand-made adornments. Some fine examples of artisan jewellery can be seen at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.[55] The increase in numbers of students choosing to study jewellery design and production in Australia has grown in the past 20 years, and Australia now has a thriving contemporary jewellery community. Many of these jewellers have embraced modern materials and techniques, as well as incorporating traditional workmanship.

More expansive use of metal to adorn the wearer, where the piece is larger and more elaborate than what would normally be considered jewellery, has come to be referred to by designers and fashion writers as Metal Couture.[56][57]

Masonic

Freemasons attach jewels to their detachable collars when in Lodge to signify a Brothers Office held with the Lodge. For example, the square represents the Master of the Lodge and the dove represents the Deacon.

Masonic collar jewels Body modification A Padaung girl in Northern Thailand.

Jewellery used in body modification can be simple and plain or dramatic and extreme. The use of simple silver studs, rings, and earrings predominates. Common jewellery pieces such as, earrings are a form of body modification, as they are accommodated by creating a small hole in the ear.

Padaung women in Myanmar place large golden rings around their necks. From as early as five years old, girls are introduced to their first neck ring. Over the years, more rings are added. In addition to the twenty-plus pounds of rings on her neck, a woman will also wear just as many rings on her calves. At their extent, some necks modified like this can reach 10–15 in (25–38 cm) long. The practice has health impacts and has in recent years declined from cultural norm to tourist curiosity.[58] Tribes related to the Paduang, as well as other cultures throughout the world, use jewellery to stretch their earlobes or enlarge ear piercings. In the Americas, labrets have been worn since before first contact by Innu and First Nations peoples of the northwest coast.[59] Lip plates are worn by the African Mursi and Sara people, as well as some South American peoples.

In the late twentieth century, the influence of modern primitivism led to many of these practices being incorporated into western subcultures. Many of these practices rely on a combination of body modification and decorative objects, thus keeping the distinction between these two types of decoration blurred.

In many cultures, jewellery is used as a temporary body modifier; in some cases, with hooks or other objects being placed into the recipient's skin. Although this procedure is often carried out by tribal or semi-tribal groups, often acting under a trance during religious ceremonies, this practice has seeped into western culture. Many extreme-jewellery shops now cater to people wanting large hooks or spikes set into their skin. Most often, these hooks are used in conjunction with pulleys to hoist the recipient into the air. This practice is said to give an erotic feeling to the person and some couples have even performed their marriage ceremony whilst being suspended by hooks.[58]

Jewellery market

According to a 2007 KPMG study,[60] the largest jewellery market is the United States with a market share of 30.8%, Japan, India, China, and the Middle East each with 8–9%, and Italy with 5%. The authors of the study predict a dramatic change in market shares by 2015, where the market share of the United States will have dropped to around 25%, and China and India will increase theirs to over 13%. The Middle East will remain more or less constant at 9%, whereas Europe's and Japan's marketshare will be halved and become less than 4% for Japan, and less than 3% for the biggest individual European countries, Italy and the UK.

See also
  • Gemology and Jewelry portal
  • Art jewelry
  • Estate jewelry
  • Heirloom
  • List of jewellery types
  • Live insect jewelry
  • Gemology
  • Jewellery cleaning
  • Wire sculpture
  • Jewelry Television
  • Jewellery Quarter
  • Bronze and brass ornamental work
  • List of topics characterized as pseudoscience (healing jewelry)
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Further reading
  • Borel, F. 1994. The Splendor of Ethnic Jewelry: from the Colette and Jean-Pierre Ghysels Collection. New York: H.N. Abrams (ISBN 0-8109-2993-7).
  • Evans, J. 1989. A History of Jewellery 1100–1870 (ISBN 0-486-26122-0).
  • LaGamma, Alisa (1991). Metropolitan jewelry. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0870996169. 
  • Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea 1998. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (ISBN 0-313-29497-6).
  • Tait, H. 1986. Seven Thousand Years of Jewellery. London: British Museum Publications (ISBN 0-7141-2034-0).
External links
  • Works related to Jewellery at Wikisource
  • The dictionary definition of jewellery at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Jewellery at Wikimedia Commons
  • Media related to Jewellery shops at Wikimedia Commons
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ToolsFarming
  • Neolithic Revolution
    • founder crops
    • New World crops
  • Ard / plough
  • Celt
  • Digging stick
  • Domestication
  • Goad
  • Irrigation
  • Secondary products
  • Sickle
  • Terracing
Food processing
  • Fire
  • Basket
  • Cooking
    • Earth oven
  • Granaries
  • Grinding slab
  • Ground stone
  • Hearth
    • Aşıklı Höyük
    • Qesem Cave
  • Manos
  • Metate
  • Mortar and pestle
  • Pottery
  • Quern-stone
  • Storage pit
Hunting
  • Arrow
  • Boomerang
    • throwing stick
  • Bow and arrow
    • history
  • Nets
  • Spear
    • Spear-thrower
    • baton
    • harpoon
    • woomera
    • Schöningen Spears
Projectile points
  • Arrowhead
  • Bare Island
  • Cascade
  • Clovis
  • Cresswell
  • Cumberland
  • Eden
  • Folsom
  • Lamoka
  • Manis Site
  • Plano
  • Transverse arrowhead
Systems
  • Game drive system
    • Buffalo jump
Toolmaking
  • Earliest toolmaking
    • Oldowan
    • Acheulean
    • Mousterian
  • Clovis culture
  • Cupstone
  • Fire hardening
  • Gravettian culture
  • Hafting
  • Hand axe
    • Grooves
  • Langdale axe industry
  • Levallois technique
  • Lithic core
  • Lithic reduction
    • analysis
    • debitage
    • flake
  • Lithic technology
  • Magdalenian culture
  • Metallurgy
  • Microblade technology
  • Mining
  • Prepared-core technique
  • Solutrean industry
  • Striking platform
  • Tool stone
  • Uniface
  • Yubetsu technique
Other tools
  • Adze
  • Awl
    • bone
  • Axe
  • Bannerstone
  • Blade
    • prismatic
  • Bone tool
  • Bow drill
  • Burin
  • Canoe
    • Oar
    • Pesse canoe
  • Chopper
    • tool
  • Cleaver
  • Denticulate tool
  • Fire plough
  • Fire-saw
  • Hammerstone
  • Knife
  • Microlith
  • Quern-stone
  • Racloir
  • Rope
  • Scraper
    • side
  • Stone tool
  • Tally stick
  • Weapons
  • Wheel
    • illustration
ArchitectureCeremonial
  • Göbekli Tepe
  • Kiva
  • Standing stones
    • megalith
    • row
    • Stonehenge
  • Pyramid
Dwellings
  • Neolithic architecture
  • British megalith architecture
  • Nordic megalith architecture
  • Burdei
  • Cave
  • Cliff dwelling
  • Dugout
  • Hut
    • Quiggly hole
  • Jacal
  • Longhouse
  • Mud brick
    • Mehrgarh
  • Neolithic long house
  • Pit-house
  • Pueblitos
  • Pueblo
  • Rock shelter
    • Blombos Cave
    • Abri de la Madeleine
    • Sibudu Cave
  • Stone roof
  • Roundhouse
  • Stilt house
    • Alp pile dwellings
  • Wattle and daub
Water management
  • Check dam
  • Cistern
  • Flush toilet
  • Reservoir
  • Water well
Other architecture
  • Archaeological features
  • Broch
  • Burnt mound
    • fulacht fiadh
  • Causewayed enclosure
    • Tor enclosure
  • Circular enclosure
    • Goseck
  • Cursus
  • Henge
    • Thornborough
  • Oldest buildings
  • Megalithic architectural elements
  • Midden
  • Timber circle
  • Timber trackway
    • Sweet Track
Arts and cultureMaterial goods
  • Baskets
  • Beadwork
  • Beds
  • Chalcolithic
  • Clothing/textiles
    • timeline
  • Cosmetics
  • Glue
  • Hides
    • shoes
    • Ötzi
  • Jewelry
    • amber use
  • Mirrors
  • Pottery
    • Cardium
    • Grooved ware
    • Linear
    • Jōmon
    • Unstan ware
  • Sewing needle
  • Weaving
  • Wine
    • Winery
    • wine press
PrehistArt
  • Art of the Upper Paleolithic
  • Art of the Middle Paleolithic
    • Blombos Cave
  • List of Stone Age art
  • Bird stone
  • Bradshaw rock paintings
  • Cairn
  • Carved Stone Balls
  • Cave paintings
    • painting
    • pigment
  • Cup and ring mark
  • Geoglyph
  • Golden hats
  • Guardian stones
  • Megalithic art
  • Petroform
  • Petroglyph
  • Petrosomatoglyph
  • Pictogram
  • Rock art
    • Stone carving
  • Sculpture
  • Statue menhir
  • Stone circle
    • list
    • British Isles and Brittany
  • Venus figurines
Burial
  • Burial mounds
    • Bowl barrow
    • Round barrow
  • Mound Builders culture
    • U.S. sites
  • Chamber tomb
    • Severn-Cotswold
  • Cist
    • Dartmoor kistvaens
  • Clava cairn
  • Court tomb
  • Cremation
  • Dolmen
    • Great dolmen
  • Funeral pyre
  • Gallery grave
    • transepted
    • wedge-shaped
  • Grave goods
  • Jar burial
  • Long barrow
    • unchambered
    • Grønsalen
  • Megalithic tomb
  • Mummy
  • Passage grave
  • Rectangular dolmen
  • Ring cairn
  • Simple dolmen
  • Stone box grave
  • Tor cairn
  • Tumulus
  • Unchambered long cairn
Other cultural
  • Astronomy
    • sites
    • lunar calendar
  • Behavioral modernity
  • Origin of language
    • trepanning
  • Prehistoric medicine
  • Evolutionary musicology
    • music archaeology
  • Prehistoric music
    • Alligator drum
    • flutes
    • Divje Babe flute
    • gudi
  • Prehistoric numerals
  • Origin of religion
    • Paleolithic religion
    • Prehistoric religion
    • Spiritual drug use
  • Prehistoric warfare
  • Symbols
    • symbolism
  • v
  • t
  • e
JewelleryForms
  • Anklet
  • Barrette
  • Belt buckle
  • Belly chain
  • Bindi
  • Bolo tie
  • Bracelet
  • Brooch
  • Chatelaine
  • Collar pin
  • Crown
  • Cufflink
  • Earring
  • Ferronnière
  • Lapel pin
  • Necklace
  • Pectoral
  • Pendant
  • Ring
  • Tiara
  • Tie chain
  • Tie clip
  • Tie pin
  • Toe ring
  • Watch
    • pocket
    • strap
MakingPeople
  • Bench jeweler
  • Clockmaker
  • Goldsmith
  • Silversmith
  • Jewelry designer
  • Lapidary
  • Watchmaker
Processes
  • Carving
  • Casting
    • centrifugal
    • lost-wax
    • vacuum
  • Enameling
  • Engraving
  • Filigree
  • Kazaziye
  • Metal clay
  • Plating
  • Polishing
  • Repoussé and chasing
  • Soldering
  • Stonesetting
  • Wire sculpture
  • Wire wrapped jewelry
Tools
  • Draw plate
  • File
  • Hammer
  • Mandrel
  • Pliers
MaterialsPrecious metals
  • Gold
  • Palladium
  • Platinum
  • Rhodium
  • Silver
Precious metal alloys
  • Britannia silver
  • Colored gold
  • Crown gold
  • Electrum
  • Shakudō
  • Shibuichi
  • Sterling silver
  • Tumbaga
Base metals
  • Brass
  • Bronze
  • Copper
  • Mokume-gane
  • Pewter
  • Stainless steel
  • Titanium
  • Tungsten
Mineral gemstones
  • Aventurine
  • Agate
  • Amethyst
  • Beryl
  • Carnelian
  • Chrysoberyl
  • Chrysocolla
  • Diamond
  • Diopside
  • Emerald
  • Garnet
  • Howlite
  • Jade
  • Jasper
  • Lapis lazuli
  • Larimar
  • Malachite
  • Marcasite
  • Moonstone
  • Obsidian
  • Onyx
  • Opal
  • Peridot
  • Prasiolite
  • Quartz
  • Ruby
  • Sapphire
  • Sodalite
  • Spinel
  • Sunstone
  • Tanzanite
  • Tiger's eye
  • Topaz
  • Tourmaline
  • Turquoise
  • Variscite
  • Zircon
Organic gemstones
  • Abalone
  • Amber
  • Ammolite
  • Bog-wood
  • Copal
  • Coral
  • Ivory
  • Jet
  • Nacre
  • Operculum
  • Pearl
Other natural objects
  • Bog-wood
  • Hair
  • Shell jewelry
  • Toadstone
Terms
  • Carat (mass)
  • Carat (purity)
  • Finding
  • Millesimal fineness
  • Art jewelry
Related topics
Body piercing
Fashion
Gemology
Phaleristics
Metalworking
Wearable art
Authority control
  • BNF: cb12085942q (data)
  • GND: 4052945-9
  • NARA: 10637591


Klutz LEGO Chain Reactions Craft Kit
Klutz LEGO Chain Reactions Craft Kit
LEGO Chain Reactions is packed full of ideas, instructions, and inspiration for 10 LEGO machines that spin, swing, pivot, roll, lift, and drop. Each machine alone is awesome, but put them together and you get incredible chain reactions. Then, combine the machines in any order you like to create your own chain reactions. Our team of experts worked with educators and 11-year-olds to invent the machines, then wrote a book that teaches the skills (and some of the physics behind the fun) kids need to create their own amazing chain reaction machines.Our book includes 33 special LEGO elements that combine with basic bricks from your collection to make your machines go. But don’t worry that you won’t have the right bricks; we worked with the folks at LEGO to make sure you’ll need only the most common bricks, and that there are plenty of substitutes. The result is a chain reaction of fun, as one thing leads to another… and another… and another.Comes with: 78 page book, 33 LEGO elements, 6 LEGO balls, 6 feet of string, 8 paper ramps, 2 paper pop-up signs, 1 paper funnel ramp, 1 paper flag, 1 paper bucket, 1 platform

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$13.95
-$8.04(-37%)



Ready Player One: A Novel
Ready Player One: A Novel
Nominated as one of America’s best-loved novels by PBS’s The Great American ReadThe worldwide bestseller—now a major motion picture directed by Steven Spielberg.In the year 2045, reality is an ugly place. The only time teenage Wade Watts really feels alive is when he's jacked into the virtual utopia known as the OASIS. Wade's devoted his life to studying the puzzles hidden within this world's digital confines—puzzles that are based on their creator's obsession with the pop culture of decades past and that promise massive power and fortune to whoever can unlock them. But when Wade stumbles upon the first clue, he finds himself beset by players willing to kill to take this ultimate prize. The race is on, and if Wade's going to survive, he'll have to win—and confront the real world he's always been so desperate to escape.

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$5.29
-$10.71(-67%)



Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ
Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ
Everyone knows that high IQ is no guarantee of success, happiness, or virtue, but until Emotional Intelligence, we could only guess why. Daniel Goleman's brilliant report from the frontiers of psychology and neuroscience offers startling new insight into our “two minds”—the rational and the emotional—and how they together shape our destiny. Through vivid examples, Goleman delineates the five crucial skills of emotional intelligence, and shows how they determine our success in relationships, work, and even our physical well-being. What emerges is an entirely new way to talk about being smart. The best news is that “emotional literacy” is not fixed early in life. Every parent, every teacher, every business leader, and everyone interested in a more civil society, has a stake in this compelling vision of human possibility.Praise for Emotional Intelligence“A thoughtfully written, persuasive account explaining emotional intelligence and why it can be crucial to your career.”—USA Today“Good news to the employee looking for advancement [and] a wake-up call to organizations and corporations.”—The Christian Science Monitor“Anyone interested in leadership . . . should get a copy of this book. In fact, I recommend it to all readers anywhere who want to see their organizations in the phone book in the year 2001.”—Warren Bennis, The New York Times Book Review

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$6.00
-$12.00(-67%)



Friendship Bracelets 101: Fun to Make, Fun to Wear, Fun to Share (Can Do Crafts) (Design Originals) Step-by-Step Instructions; Colorful Knotted Bracelets Made with Embroidery Floss for Kids & Teens
Friendship Bracelets 101: Fun to Make, Fun to Wear, Fun to Share (Can Do Crafts) (Design Originals) Step-by-Step Instructions; Colorful Knotted Bracelets Made with Embroidery Floss for Kids & Teens
Easy-to-follow instructions for knotted bracelets with embroidery floss. Colorful bracelets are fun for kids and teens! Friendship knows no boundaries—it covers the world. It comes in all languages. The idea of making a bracelet to celebrate and share friendship began in Central and South America. The legend of the wish began with the bracelets: One person makes a bracelet and ties it around the arm of a friend, who makes a wish. When the bracelet falls off by itself, the wish will come true! Friendship Bracelets 101 is filled with all the basics you need to get started making friendship bracelets. Color photos and step-by-step instructions make it easy for the beginner, and a variety of fun designs and knots will keep you learning and creating. Make a unique gift to share with friends at school or church, or with your club or team mates!

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$4.98
-$3.01(-38%)



Metal Detecting: A Beginner's Guide: to Mastering the Greatest Hobby In the World
Metal Detecting: A Beginner's Guide: to Mastering the Greatest Hobby In the World
“Invaluable for the first timer! I wish I had this book when I was just starting the hobby of metal detecting!” - Josh in Florida “I have been metal detecting for over 5 years and this great metal detecting guide book taught me plenty of new tips and tricks.” - Mike in Texas “You can never learn too much about metal detecting. This book covers all the basics and some more advanced techniques too.” - Bill in California “The illustrations and pictures made it so much easier to understand pinpointing and recovering targets.”- Todd in Chicago “I found my first good coin site using the information in this book. I pulled over 25 pieces of silver out of the ground!” - Tim in Indiana “This metal detecting book turned me on to some new places to hunt that produced some very valuable finds.”- Bob in Tennessee There is an entire world of buried treasure right under our feet. This book shows you how to claim your share. Over 200 pages of valuable metal detecting information designed to get you out there finding treasure on your very first outing. Finding treasure with a metal detector is real and doing it is simple and easy once you read this book. There are people finding incredible old coins made from gold and silver, valuable historical relics and old jewelry made from gold, silver and platinum. But you won't find these great treasures unless you know where and how to look. Metal Detecting: A Beginner's Guide shows you this and much more.Veteran detectorist and treasure enthusiast Mark Smith continues to provide great information to anyone interested in the great hobby of metal detecting. In his second book on the subject, he manages to answer the common questions that every novice has when they are thinking about getting started. From choosing the right machine to identifying your valuable treasure, Mark Smith covers these subjects and everything in between in an easy to understand way.While this metal detecting book may be geared towards the novice treasure hunter, there are plenty of choice tips that even experienced treasure hunters can pick up. Mark Smith reveals some of his best guarded metal detecting secrets in this metal detecting guide that puts more treasure in your find's pouch.Fully illustrated diagrams and real life pictures describe in detail the easiest ways to not only locate treasure, but safely recover it as well.Learn how to find more treasure by: understanding common metal detecting terminology, understanding which metal detectors work the best and where, understanding how and why a metal detector works, other equipment you will need, proper etiquette, what you can expect to find, why you should never throw anything away, how to identify your finds, how to identify jewelry, how to tell if it is real gold, how to metal detect with children, which recovery tools work the best, how to recover treasure, how to metal detect private property, how to identify unknown metal detecting finds, metal detecting creeks, rivers and lakes, pinpointing, making weak targets stronger, cleaning your finds, the best places to use your metal detector, selling your finds and more!What are you waiting for? Find out how you can maximize your treasure with this informative metal detecting book today.

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$9.78
-$5.17(-35%)



Wine Life: A Snarky Adult Colouring Book
Wine Life: A Snarky Adult Colouring Book
2018 GIFT IDEAS | COLORING BOOKS FOR GROWN-UPS | HUMOROUS "They should put more wine in a bottle...so there is enough for two people." ---The Snarky Mandala Wine and girls' night. Wine and a good book. Wine and a bubble bath. Dare we say it? Wine goes with practically everything—as it should! Ignore those naysayers and pour that glass of vino. Grab your colored pencils and unwined with page after page of snarky adult humor every wine enthusiast is sure to enjoy. Happy coloring! Product Details: Printed single-sided on bright white paper Premium matte-finish cover design Soothing seamless patterns on reverse pages Perfect for all colouring mediums Black background reverse pages to reduce bleed-through High quality 60lb (90gsm) paper stock Large format 8.5"x11.0" (22x28cm) pages

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$8.09
-$0.90(-10%)



Rivoli Beadwork
Rivoli Beadwork
This 167 page book is crammed full of Rivoli beadwork using the sparkling, round, crystal cabochons much loved in the beading world. Featuring over 75 projects and variations (plus over a hundred more project variations & ideas) there is something for everyone. The projects range from small to large and cover earrings, bracelets, pendants, necklaces and even a beaded needle case cover and a scarf ring! The book begins with the basics of Rivoli bezelling (showing all of the materials, techniques, tips & information you need to get started). It then separates into 5 different chapters: Seed Beads, Pearls, Geometric, Extra Sparkle and Shaped Beads. Each chapter has multiple projects along with any necessary technique instructions specific to that area of beadwork. In addition to lots of full-page photos (so you can see all the detail) every project lists: the quantity and size of beads you will need, the colours used, the techniques needed, variation ideas and detailed step-by-step instructions using a mix of text, diagrams and photos.

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$35.94
-$3.06(-8%)



Great Book of Woodworking Projects: 50 Projects for Indoor Improvements and Outdoor Living from the Experts at American Woodworker (Fox Chapel Publishing) Plans & Instructions to Improve Every Room
Great Book of Woodworking Projects: 50 Projects for Indoor Improvements and Outdoor Living from the Experts at American Woodworker (Fox Chapel Publishing) Plans & Instructions to Improve Every Room
Shop-tested expert advice for woodworkers on how to build 50 attractive and functional woodworking projects for every room in your home! This ultimate collection of functional & attractive projects includes: Handy kitchen upgrades including drawers, shelves, racks, and trays Convenient storage solutions from bookcases to wall shelves Sturdy Adirondack chairs and garden benches to enhance any outdoor living space Classic furniture pieces in the Shaker, Stickley, and Craftsman styles Frames, puzzles, jewelry boxes, and more for gifts, heirlooms, and fun Small projects that can be done in just a few hours or a weekend Step-by-step illustrated instructions and workshop tips An ideal resource for woodworkers looking for a new project or wanting to spruce up their home! From kitchen improvements and storage solutions to classic furniture in the Craftsman and Adirondack styles, the experts at American Woodworker have provided plans and instructions for building 50 great-looking projects that will improve every space inside and outside your home. With a variety of styles covering every skill level, the Great Book of Woodworking Projects has something for everyone. Whether you want a challenging project that will beautify your home, such as a stunning Stickley chest of drawers, or you need a quick and easy project for a gift, such as a keepsake box or picture frame, you will find plans that will take a few hours or a weekend to complete. The step-by-step illustrated instructions, workshop tips, and detailed, shop-tested expert advice from American Woodworker will help you achieve woodworking success so your entire home and outdoor living space can be furnished with well-designed, handmade projects in no time.

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$6.00
-$18.95(-76%)



Cutting for Stone
Cutting for Stone
Marion and Shiva Stone are twin brothers born of a secret union between a beautiful Indian nun and a brash British surgeon. Orphaned by their mother’s death and their father’s disappearance, bound together by a preternatural connection and a shared fascination with medicine, the twins come of age as Ethiopia hovers on the brink of revolution.  Moving from Addis Ababa to New York City and back again, Cutting for Stone is an unforgettable story of love and betrayal, medicine and ordinary miracles--and two brothers whose fates are forever intertwined.

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$5.95
-$11.05(-65%)



The LEGO Christmas Ornaments Book, Volume 2: 16 Designs to Spread Holiday Cheer!
The LEGO Christmas Ornaments Book, Volume 2: 16 Designs to Spread Holiday Cheer!
Building instructions for 16 clever Christmas ornaments that can be built from standard LEGO parts that fans are likely to have in their collection. These small and uncomplicated ornaments are quick to build and a joy to display.Readers can build 16 classic Christmas designs including a gingerbread house, Santa, reindeer, a snowman, a wreath, a poinsettia, and traditional shapes like baubles and modern geometric swirls. With easy-to-follow instructions and stunning full color photography, The LEGO Christmas Ornaments Book, Volume 2 will help you spread some holiday cheer with LEGO in no time!

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$13.49
-$6.46(-32%)


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