Motorcycles
Motorcycles
motorcycles for sale, motorcycles, motorcycle superstore, motorcycles for women, motorcycles for beginners, motorcycles for sale mn, motorcycles for sale in pa, motorcycles of manchester, motorcycles for sale in ct, motorcycles for sale in ohio.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Go Back

Smartphone









Free the Animation VR / AR
Play to reveal 3D images and 3D models!
Demonstration A-Frame / Multiplayer
Android app on Google Play
 
vlrPhone / vlrFilter
Project of very low consumption, radiation and bitrate softphones, with the support of the spatial audio, of the frequency shifts and of the ultrasonic communications / Multifunction Audio Filter with Remote Control!



 

Vectors and 3D Models

City Images, Travel Images, Safe Images

Howto - How To - Illustrated Answers

 

Motorcycle
developing countries, motorcycles are considered utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are

View Wikipedia Article

For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). A classic Norton motorcycle 1952 Lambretta 125 D scooter

A motorcycle, often called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle.[1] Motorcycle design varies greatly to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, commuting, cruising, sport including racing, and off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies.

In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, and the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda, Yamaha (both from Japan), and Hero MotoCorp (India).[2]

In developing countries, motorcycles are considered utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are in the Asia-Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, excluding car-centric Japan.

According to the US Department of Transportation the number of fatalities per vehicle mile traveled was 37 times higher for motorcycles than for cars.[3]

Contents
  • 1 Types
  • 2 History
    • 2.1 Experimentation and invention
      • 2.1.1 Summary of early inventions
    • 2.2 First motorcycle companies
    • 2.3 First World War
    • 2.4 Postwar
    • 2.5 Today
  • 3 Technical aspects
    • 3.1 Construction
    • 3.2 Fuel economy
      • 3.2.1 Electric motorcycles
    • 3.3 Reliability
    • 3.4 Dynamics
    • 3.5 Accessories
  • 4 Safety
  • 5 Motorcycle rider postures
  • 6 Legal definitions and restrictions
  • 7 Environmental impact
    • 7.1 United States emissions limits
    • 7.2 Europe
  • 8 See also
  • 9 Notes
  • 10 References
  • 11 External links
Types Main article: Types of motorcycles A cruiser (front) and a sportbike (background) A Ural motorcycle with a sidecar French gendarme motorcyclist

The term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction (see #Legal definitions and restrictions).

There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, and dual purpose. Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes. There is often a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes.

Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes, scooters and mopeds, and many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well.

Each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, and each design creates a different riding posture.

In some countries the use of pillions (rear seats) is restricted.

History Main article: History of the motorcycle Experimentation and invention Replica of the Daimler-Maybach Reitwagen.

The first internal combustion, petroleum fueled motorcycle was the Daimler Reitwagen. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885.[4] This vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, and thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier. Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning.[5]

The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen ("riding car"). It was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle.[6][7]

Butler's Patent Velocycle

The first commercial design for a self-propelled cycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle, conceived of Edward Butler in England in 1884.[8] He exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884. The vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888.[9]

The Butler Petrol Cycle was a three-wheeled vehicle, with the rear wheel directly driven by a 5⁄8 hp (0.47 kW), 40 cc (2.4 cu in) displacement, 2 1⁄4 in × 5 in (57 mm × 127 mm) bore × stroke, flat twin four-stroke engine (with magneto ignition replaced by coil and battery) equipped with rotary valves and a float-fed carburettor (five years before Maybach) and Ackermann steering, all of which were state of the art at the time. Starting was by compressed air. The engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the rear driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a throttle valve lever. No braking system was fitted; the vehicle was stopped by raising and lowering the rear driving wheel using a foot-operated lever; the weight of the machine was then borne by two small castor wheels. The driver was seated between the front wheels. It wasn't, however, a success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing.[10]

Many authorities have excluded steam powered, electric motorcycles or diesel-powered two-wheelers from the definition of a 'motorcycle', and credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first motorcycle.[11][12][13] Given the rapid rise in use of electric motorcycles worldwide,[14] defining only internal-combustion powered two-wheelers as 'motorcycles' is increasingly problematic.

If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle, then the first motorcycles built seem to be the French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede which patent application was filled in December 1868,[6][7] constructed around the same time as the American Roper steam velocipede, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts.[6][7] who demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U.S. in 1867,[4] Roper built about 10 steam cars and cycles from the 1860s until his death in 1896.[13]

Summary of early inventions Year Vehicle Number of wheels Inventor Engine type Notes 1867–1868 Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede 2 Pierre Michaux
Louis-Guillaume Perreaux Steam
  • One made
1867–1868 Roper steam velocipede 2 Sylvester Roper Steam
  • One made
1885 Daimler Reitwagen 2 (plus 2 outriggers) Gottlieb Daimler
Wilhelm Maybach Petroleum internal-combustion
  • One made
1887 Butler Petrol Cycle 3 (plus 2 castors) Edward Butler Petroleum internal-combustion 1894 Hildebrand & Wolfmüller 2 Heinrich Hidebrand
Wilhelm Hidebrand
Alois Wolfmüller Petroleum internal-combustion
  • Modern configuration
  • First mass-produced motorcycle
  • First machine to be called "motorcycle"
First motorcycle companies Diagram of 1894 Hildebrand & Wolfmüller

In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, and the first to be called a motorcycle (German: Motorrad).[6][7][13][15] Excelsior Motor Company, originally a bicycle manufacturing company based in Coventry, England, began production of their first motorcycle model in 1896. The first production motorcycle in the US was the Orient-Aster, built by Charles Metz in 1898 at his factory in Waltham, Massachusetts.

In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine. As the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles often moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles.

At the turn of the 19th century the first major mass-production firms were set up. In 1898, Triumph Motorcycles in England began producing motorbikes, and by 1903 it was producing over 500 bikes. Other British firms were Royal Enfield, Norton and Birmingham Small Arms Company who began motorbike production in 1899, 1902 and 1910, respectively.[16] Indian began production in 1901 and Harley-Davidson was established two years later. By the outbreak of World War I, the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world was Indian,[17][18] producing over 20,000 bikes per year.[19]

First World War Triumph Motorcycles Model H, mass-produced for the war effort and notable for its reliability

During the First World War, motorbike production was greatly ramped up for the war effort to supply effective communications with front line troops. Messengers on horses were replaced with despatch riders on motorcycles carrying messages, performing reconnaissance and acting as a military police. American company Harley-Davidson was devoting over 50% of its factory output toward military contract by the end of the war. The British company Triumph Motorcycles sold more than 30,000 of its Triumph Type H model to allied forces during the war. With the rear wheel driven by a belt, the Model H was fitted with a 499 cc (30.5 cu in) air-cooled four-stroke single-cylinder engine. It was also the first Triumph without pedals.[20][better source needed]

The Model H in particular, is regarded by many as having been the first "modern motorcycle".[21] Introduced in 1915 it had a 550 cc side-valve four-stroke engine with a three-speed gearbox and belt transmission. It was so popular with its users that it was nicknamed the "Trusty Triumph."[22]

Postwar

By 1920, Harley-Davidson was the largest manufacturer,[23] with their motorcycles being sold by dealers in 67 countries.[24][25] By the late 1920s or early 1930s, DKW in Germany took over as the largest manufacturer.[26][27][28]

NSU Sportmax streamlined motorcycle, 250 cc class winner of the 1955 Grand Prix season

In the 1950s, streamlining began to play an increasing part in the development of racing motorcycles and the "dustbin fairing" held out the possibility of radical changes to motorcycle design. NSU and Moto Guzzi were in the vanguard of this development, both producing very radical designs well ahead of their time.[29] NSU produced the most advanced design, but after the deaths of four NSU riders in the 1954–1956 seasons, they abandoned further development and quit Grand Prix motorcycle racing.[30]

Moto Guzzi produced competitive race machines, and by 1957 nearly all the Grand Prix races were being won by streamlined machines.[citation needed] The following year, 1958, full enclosure fairings were banned from racing by the FIM in the light of the safety concerns.

From the 1960s through the 1990s, small two-stroke motorcycles were popular worldwide, partly as a result of East German MZs Walter Kaaden's engine work in the 1950s.[31]

Today Royal Enfield Bullet

In the 21st century, the motorcycle industry is mainly dominated by the Chinese motorcycle industry and by Japanese motorcycle companies. In addition to the large capacity motorcycles, there is a large market in smaller capacity (less than 300 cc) motorcycles, mostly concentrated in Asian and African countries and produced in China and India. A Japanese example is the 1958 Honda Super Cub, which went on to become the biggest selling vehicle of all time, with its 60 millionth unit produced in April 2008.[32] Today, this area is dominated by mostly Indian companies with Hero MotoCorp emerging as the world's largest manufacturer of two wheelers. Its Splendor model has sold more than 8.5 million to date.[33] Other major producers are Bajaj and TVS Motors.[34]

Technical aspects A Suzuki GS500 with a clearly visible frame, painted silver Construction See also: Motorcycle components and Motorcycle design

Motorcycle construction is the engineering, manufacturing, and assembly of components and systems for a motorcycle which results in the performance, cost, and aesthetics desired by the designer. With some exceptions, construction of modern mass-produced motorcycles has standardised on a steel or aluminium frame, telescopic forks holding the front wheel, and disc brakes. Some other body parts, designed for either aesthetic or performance reasons may be added. A petrol powered engine typically consisting of between one and four cylinders (and less commonly, up to eight cylinders) coupled to a manual five- or six-speed sequential transmission drives the swingarm-mounted rear wheel by a chain, driveshaft, or belt.

Fuel economy

Motorcycle fuel economy varies greatly with engine displacement and riding style.[35] A streamlined, fully faired Matzu Matsuzawa Honda XL125 achieved 470 mpg‑US (0.50 L/100 km; 560 mpg‑imp) in the Craig Vetter Fuel Economy Challenge "on real highways – in real conditions."[36] Due to low engine displacements (100–200 cc (6.1–12.2 cu in)), and high power-to-mass ratios, motorcycles offer good fuel economy. Under conditions of fuel scarcity like 1950s Britain and modern developing nations, motorcycles claim large shares of the vehicle market.

Electric motorcycles Main article: Electric motorcycles and scooters

Very high fuel economy equivalents are often derived by electric motorcycles. Electric motorcycles are nearly silent, zero-emission electric motor-driven vehicles. Operating range and top speed are limited by battery technology.[37] Fuel cells and petroleum-electric hybrids are also under development to extend the range and improve performance of the electric drive system.

Reliability

A 2013 survey of 4,424 readers of the US Consumer Reports magazine collected reliability data on 4,680 motorcycles purchased new from 2009 to 2012.[38] The most common problem areas were accessories, brakes, electrical (including starters, charging, ignition), and fuel systems, and the types of motorcycles with the greatest problems were touring, off-road/dual sport, sport-touring, and cruisers.[38] There were not enough sport bikes in the survey for a statistically significant conclusion, though the data hinted at reliability as good as cruisers.[38] These results may be partially explained by accessories including such equipment as fairings, luggage, and auxiliary lighting, which are frequently added to touring, adventure touring/dual sport and sport touring bikes.[39] Trouble with fuel systems is often the result of improper winter storage, and brake problems may also be due to poor maintenance.[38] Of the five brands with enough data to draw conclusions, Honda, Kawasaki and Yamaha were statistically tied, with 11 to 14% of those bikes in the survey experiencing major repairs.[38] Harley-Davidsons had a rate of 24%, while BMWs did worst, with 30% of those needing major repairs.[38] There were not enough Triumph and Suzuki motorcycles surveyed for a statistically sound conclusion, though it appeared Suzukis were as reliable as the other three Japanese brands while Triumphs were comparable to Harley-Davidson and BMW.[38] Three fourths of the repairs in the survey cost less than US$200 and two thirds of the motorcycles were repaired in less than two days.[38] In spite of their relatively worse reliability in this survey, Harley-Davidson and BMW owners showed the greatest owner satisfaction, and three fourths of them said they would buy the same bike again, followed by 72% of Honda owners and 60 to 63% of Kawasaki and Yamaha owners.[38]

Dynamics Racing motorcycles leaning in a turn. Main article: Bicycle and motorcycle dynamics

Different types of motorcycles have different dynamics and these play a role in how a motorcycle performs in given conditions. For example, one with a longer wheelbase provides the feeling of more stability by responding less to disturbances.[40] Motorcycle tyres have a large influence over handling.

Motorcycles must be leaned in order to make turns. This lean is induced by the method known as countersteering, in which the rider momentarily steers the handlebars in the direction opposite of the desired turn. This practice is counterintuitive and therefore often confusing to novices – and even many experienced motorcyclists.[41][42][43]

With such short wheelbase, motorcycles can generate enough torque at the rear wheel, and enough stopping force at the front wheel, to lift the opposite wheel off the road. These actions, if performed on purpose, are known as wheelies and stoppies (or endos) respectively.

Accessories Main article: Motorcycle accessories

Various features and accessories may be attached to a motorcycle either as OEM (factory-fitted) or aftermarket. Such accessories are selected by the owner to enhance the motorcycle's appearance, safety, performance, or comfort, and may include anything from mobile electronics to sidecars and trailers.

Safety Main articles: Motorcycle safety and Motorcycle safety clothing Wearing a motorcycle helmet reduces the risks of death or head injury in a motorcycle crash

Motorcycles have a higher rate of fatal accidents than automobiles or trucks and buses. United States Department of Transportation data for 2005 from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System show that for passenger cars, 18.62 fatal crashes occur per 100,000 registered vehicles. For motorcycles this figure is higher at 75.19 per 100,000 registered vehicles – four times higher than for cars.[44] The same data shows that 1.56 fatalities occur per 100 million vehicle miles travelled for passenger cars, whereas for motorcycles the figure is 43.47 which is 28 times higher than for cars (37 times more deaths per mile travelled in 2007).[3] Furthermore, for motorcycles the accident rates have increased significantly since the end of the 1990s, while the rates have dropped for passenger cars.

The most common configuration of motorcycle accidents in the United States is when a motorist pulls out or turns in front of a motorcyclist, violating their right-of-way.[45] This is sometimes called a SMIDSY, an acronym formed from the motorists' common response of "Sorry mate, I didn't see you".[46] Motorcyclists can anticipate and avoid some of these crashes with proper training, increasing their visibility to other traffic, keeping to the speed limits, and not consuming alcohol or other drugs before riding.[47]

Young woman riding a motorcycle in Laos, with four young children passengers

The United Kingdom has several organisations dedicated to improving motorcycle safety by providing advanced rider training beyond what is necessary to pass the basic motorcycle licence test. These include the Institute of Advanced Motorists (IAM) and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA). Along with increased personal safety, riders with these advanced qualifications may benefit from reduced insurance costs [48]

In South Africa, the Think Bike campaign is dedicated to increasing both motorcycle safety and the awareness of motorcycles on the country's roads. The campaign, while strongest in the Gauteng province, has representation in Western Cape, KwaZulu Natal and the Free State. It has dozens of trained marshals available for various events such as cycle races and is deeply involved in numerous other projects such as the annual Motorcycle Toy Run.[49]

An MSF rider course for novices

Motorcycle safety education is offered throughout the United States by organisations ranging from state agencies to non-profit organisations to corporations. Most states use the courses designed by the Motorcycle Safety Foundation (MSF), while Oregon and Idaho developed their own. All of the training programs include a Basic Rider Course, an Intermediate Rider Course and an Advanced Rider Course.

In Ireland, since 2010,[50] in the UK and some Australian jurisdictions, such as Victoria, New South Wales,[51] the Australian Capital Territory,[52] Tasmania[53] and the Northern Territory,[54] it is compulsory to complete a basic rider training course before being issued a Learners Licence, after which they can ride on public roads.

In Canada, motorcycle rider training is compulsory in Quebec and Manitoba only, but all provinces and territories have graduated licence programs which place restrictions on new drivers until they have gained experience. Eligibility for a full motorcycle licence or endorsement for completing a Motorcycle Safety course varies by province. The Canada Safety Council, a non-profit safety organisation, offers the Gearing Up program across Canada and is endorsed by the Motorcycle and Moped Industry Council.[55] Training course graduates may qualify for reduced insurance premiums.

Motorcycle rider postures BMW C1, with a more upright seating position Bombardier Can-Am Spyder, showing location of rider on the trike

The motorcyclist's riding position depends on rider body-geometry (anthropometry) combined with the geometry of the motorcycle itself. These factors create a set of three basic postures.[56]

  • Sport – the rider leans forward into the wind and the weight of the upper torso is supported by the rider's core at low speed and air pressure at high speed (e.g., above 50 mph (80 km/h)). The footpegs are below the rider or to the rear. The reduced frontal area cuts wind resistance and allows higher speeds. At low-speed this position throws the weight of the rider onto the arms, which can tire the rider's wrists.
  • Standard – the rider sits upright or leans forward slightly. The feet are below the rider. These are motorcycles that are not specialised to one task, so they do not excel in any particular area.[57][58] The standard posture is used with touring and commuting as well as dirt and dual-sport bikes, and may offer advantages for beginners.[59]
  • Cruiser – the rider sits at a lower seat height with the upper torso upright or leaning slightly rearward. Legs are extended forwards, sometimes out of reach of the regular controls on cruiser pegs. The low seat height can be a consideration for new or short riders. Handlebars tend to be high and wide. The emphasis is on comfort, while compromising cornering ability because of low ground clearance and the greater likelihood of scraping foot pegs, floor boards, or other parts if turns are taken at the speeds other motorcycles can more readily accomplish.[60][61]

Factors of a motorcycle's ergonomic geometry that determine the seating posture include the height, angle and location of footpegs, seat and handlebars. Factors in a rider's physical geometry that contribute to seating posture include torso, arm, thigh and leg length, and overall rider height.

Legal definitions and restrictions Main article: Legal definition of motorcycle

A motorcycle is broadly defined by law in most countries for the purposes of registration, taxation and rider licensing as a powered two-wheel motor vehicle. Most countries distinguish between mopeds of 49 cc and the more powerful, larger vehicles (scooters do not count as a separate category). Many jurisdictions include some forms of three-wheeled cars as motorcycles.

Environmental impact

Motorcycles and scooters' low fuel consumption has attracted interest in the United States from environmentalists and those affected by increased fuel prices.[62][63] Piaggio Group Americas supported this interest with the launch of a "Vespanomics" website and platform, claiming lower per-mile carbon emissions of 0.4 lb/mile (113 g/km) less than the average car, a 65% reduction, and better fuel economy.[64]

However, a motorcycle's exhaust emissions may contain 10–20 times more oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons than exhaust from a similar-year passenger car or SUV.[62][65] This is because many motorcycles lack a catalytic converter, and the emission standard is much more permissive for motorcycles than for other vehicles.[62] While catalytic converters have been installed in most gasoline-powered cars and trucks since 1975 in the United States, they can present fitment and heat difficulties in motorcycle applications.[62][better source needed]

United States Environmental Protection Agency 2007 certification result reports for all vehicles versus on highway motorcycles (which also includes scooters),[66] the average certified emissions level for 12,327 vehicles tested was 0.734. The average "Nox+Co End-Of-Useful-Life-Emissions" for 3,863 motorcycles tested was 0.8531. 54% of the tested 2007-model motorcycles were equipped with a catalytic converter.

United States emissions limits

The following table shows maximum acceptable legal emissions of the combination of hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon monoxide for new motorcycles sold in the United States with 280 cc or greater piston displacement.[67]

Tier Model year HC+NOx (g/km) CO (g/km) Tier 1 2006–2009 1.4 12.0 Tier 2 2010 and later 0.8 12.0

The maximum acceptable legal emissions of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide for new Class I and II motorcycles (50 cc–169 cc and 170 cc–279 cc respectively) sold in the United States are as follows:[67]

Model year HC (g/km) CO (g/km) 2006 and later 1.0 12.0 Europe

European emission standards for motorcycles are similar to those for cars.[citation needed] New motorcycles must meet Euro III standards,[68] while cars must meet Euro V standards. Motorcycle emission controls are being updated and it has been proposed to update to Euro IV in 2012 and Euro V in 2015.[69]

See also
  • Motorcycle racing portal
  • List of motorcycle manufacturers
  • Motorcycle industry in China
  • Streamlined motorcycle
Notes
  1. ^
    • "Definition of Motorcycle by Merriam-Webster". merriam-webster. Retrieved March 17, 2016. 
    • Foale, Tony (2006). Motorcycle Handling and Chassis Design. Tony Foale Designs. pp. 4–1. ISBN 978-84-933286-3-4. 
    • "Bureau of Motor Vehicles". BMV. Retrieved March 17, 2016. 
    • Cossalter, Vittore (2006). Motorcycle Dynamics. Lulu. ISBN 978-1-4303-0861-4. 
    • "cycle". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. ^ "Top Five Global Motorcycle Companies: Performance, Strategies and Competitive Analysis". researchandmarkets.com. August 2013. Retrieved 2016-01-24. 
  3. ^ a b "Traffic safety facts, 2008. Report no. DOT HS-811-159" (PDF). NHTSA's National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b "The Past – 1800s: First motorcycle". The History and Future of Motorcycles and motorcycling – From 1885 to the Future, Total Motorcycle Website. Retrieved June 28, 2007. 
  5. ^ Lienhard, John H. (2005). Inventing Modern: Growing Up with X-Rays, Skyscrapers, and Tailfins. Oxford University Press US. pp. 120–121. ISBN 0-19-518951-5. 
  6. ^ a b c d Setright, L.J.K. (1979). The Guinness book of motorcycling facts and feats. Guinness Superlatives. pp. 8–18. ISBN 978-0-85112-200-7. 
  7. ^ a b c d Falco, Charles M.; Guggenheim Museum Staff (1998). "Issues in the Evolution of the Motorcycle". In Krens, Thomas; Drutt, Matthew. The Art of the Motorcycle. Harry N. Abrams. pp. 24–31. ISBN 0-89207-207-5. 
  8. ^ "motorcycle (vehicle)". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  9. ^ G.N. Georgano, p. 22
  10. ^ G.N. Georgano, pp. 20-22
  11. ^ "motorcycle, n.". Oxford English Dictionary Online. Oxford University Press. March 2009. 1. A two-wheeled motor-driven road vehicle, resembling a bicycle but powered by an internal-combustion engine; (now) spec. one with an engine capacity, top speed, or weight greater than that of a moped. 
  12. ^ Long, Tony (August 30, 2007). "Aug. 30, 1885: Daimler Gives World First 'True' Motorcycle". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. 
  13. ^ a b c Kresnak, Bill (2008). Motorcycling for Dummies. Hoboken, New Jersey: For Dummies, Wiley Publishing. ISBN 0-470-24587-5. 
  14. ^ "Electric Bikes Drive Global Sales". Retrieved March 5, 2015. 
  15. ^ "Brief History of the Marque: Hildebrand & Wolfmuller". Hildebrand & Wolfmuller Motorad, European Motorcycle Universe. Retrieved June 28, 2007. 
  16. ^ "History of Motorbikes". 
  17. ^ Walker, Mick (2006). Motorcycle: Evolution, Design, Passion. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8530-3. 
  18. ^ George Hendee. The AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame Museum. Retrieved August 8, 2009. 
  19. ^ Youngblood, Ed (June 2001). "The Rise and Fall". American Motorcyclist. 55 (6). American Motorcyclist Assoc. 
  20. ^ "Triumph history". Archived from the original on September 8, 2008. Retrieved May 20, 2009. 
  21. ^ "Triumph Motorcycle History". 
  22. ^ Chadwick, Ian. "Triumph Motorcycles timeline". 
  23. ^ "History of Harley-Davidson Motor Company". 
  24. ^ Prashad, Sharda (April 16, 2006). "HOG WILD; U of T professor Brendan Calder is one of the legions of baby boomers who have helped to ensure the success of the Harley-Davidson brand name, not to mention its bottom line". Toronto Star. Toronto, Ont. p. A.16. 
  25. ^ Cato, Jeremy (August 8, 2003). "Harley-Davidson at 100". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, B.C. p. E.1.Fro. 
  26. ^ Vance, Bill (April 24, 2009). "Motoring Memories: DKW/Auto Union, 1928–1966". Canadian Driver. 
  27. ^ de Cet, Mirco (2002). The illustrated directory of motorcycles. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7603-1417-3. 
  28. ^ Walker, Mick (1999). Mick Walker's German Racing Motorcycles. Redline Books. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-9531311-2-9. 
  29. ^ Willoughby, Vic (1982). Exotic Motorcycles. London: Osprey Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0-85045-322-4. 
  30. ^ "Rupert Hollaus". Motorsport Memorial. Retrieved April 3, 2008. 
  31. ^ Youngblood, Ed. "Motocross goes International, 1947 through 1965". The History of Motocross, Part Two, Motorcycle Hall of Fame Museum. Archived from the original on 13 November 2007. Retrieved 29 June 2007. 
  32. ^ Squatriglia, Chuck (May 23, 2008). "Honda Sells Its 60 Millionth – Yes, Millionth – Super Cub". Autopia. Wired. Retrieved January 28, 2010. 
  33. ^ "Hero Honda splendor sells more than 8.5 million units". indiacar.net. Archived from the original on February 21, 2008. Retrieved August 10, 2008. 
  34. ^ O'Malley Greenburg, Zack (August 13, 2007). "World's Cheapest Car". Forbes. Retrieved January 28, 2010. 
  35. ^ "Motorcycle Fuel Consumption & Real World Performance Guide". MFC Website. Retrieved June 13, 2008. 
  36. ^ Vetter, Craig. "Doing More with Less Energy". The Craig Vetter Fuel Economy Contests – 1980 through 1985. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 15 August 2006. 
  37. ^ "Electric Motorcycles". Solo Moto. Retrieved May 15, 2016. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Most reliable motorcycles; Japanese bikes have fewer problems than BMW and Harley models", Consumer Reports, May 2013, retrieved March 26, 2013 
  39. ^ Bartlett, Jeff (March 26, 2013), "Motorcycle reliability survey shows what goes wrong", Consumer Reports, retrieved March 26, 2013 
  40. ^ Gaetano, Cocco (2004). Motorcycle Design and Technology. Minneapolis: MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-0-7603-1990-1. So with the same disturbance, the rider with a longer wheelbase will feel less oscillating movement on the handlebars, and therefore, will have a perception of greater stability on the motorcycle. 
  41. ^ Joel Fajans (July 2000). "Steering in bicycles and motorcycles" (PDF). American Journal of Physics. 68 (7): 654–59. doi:10.1119/1.19504. Retrieved August 4, 2006. 
  42. ^ Hurt, H.H.; Ouellet, J.V.; Thom, D.R (January 1981). "Motorcycle Accident Cause Factors and Identification of Countermeasures, Volume 1: Technical Report" (PDF). U.S. Department of Transportation, NHTSA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 August 2014. 
  43. ^ Crouch, Tom D. (1989). The Bishop's Boys. New York: W. W. Norton. p. 170. ISBN 0-393-30695-X. 
  44. ^ "MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTORS AND IDENTIFICATION OF COUNTERMEASURES VOLUME I: TECHNICAL REPORT, Traffic Safety Center - University of Southern California" (PDF). 1981. p. 416. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 August 2014. 
  45. ^ "The 'sorry mate I didn't see you' campaign". South Gloucestershire Council. Archived from the original on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008. 
  46. ^ Quick Tips: General guidelines for riding a motorcycle safely (PDF), Motorcycle Safety Foundation, October 2006, retrieved June 13, 2012 
  47. ^ "Motorcycling : THINK! : Roadsafety". think.direct.gov.uk. Retrieved 2016-06-01. 
  48. ^ "About Think Bike". Think Bike. Retrieved March 21, 2010. 
  49. ^ "GDL rollout". Road Safety Association of Ireland. Retrieved 2015-08-15. 
  50. ^ "Learner riders licence". Motorcycle Rider Training Scheme, Roads and Traffic Authority, NSW. Retrieved May 16, 2007. 
  51. ^ "Learner Licence". Road Transport Information Management, www.rego.act.gov.au. Retrieved May 16, 2007. 
  52. ^ "TAS Learner Licence". Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009. 
  53. ^ "Motorcyclist Education Training And Licensing (METAL)". Northern Territory Department of Planning and Infrastructure, www.ipe.nt.gov.au. Archived from the original on May 7, 2007. Retrieved May 16, 2007. 
  54. ^ "MMIC Information". Motorcycle and Moped Industry Council. Retrieved May 16, 2007. 
  55. ^ "A Three Dimensional Analysis of Riding Posture in Three Different Styles of Motorcycle" (PDF). Motorcycle Safety Foundation. March 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2008. 
  56. ^ Maher, Kevin; Greisler, Ben (1998), Chilton's Motorcycle Handbook, Haynes North America, pp. 2.2–2.18, ISBN 0-8019-9099-8 
  57. ^ Duglin Kennedy, Shirley (2005). The Savvy Guide to Motorcycles. Indy Tech Publishing. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-7906-1316-1. 
  58. ^ Stermer, Bill (2006). Streetbikes: Everything You Need to Know. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-7603-2362-5. 
  59. ^ Stermer, Bill (2006). Streetbikes: Everything You Need to Know. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7603-2362-5. 
  60. ^ Duglin Kennedy, Shirley (2005). The Savvy Guide to Motorcycles. Indy Tech Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7906-1316-1. 
  61. ^ a b c d Carpenter, Susan (June 11, 2008). "Motorcycles and emissions: The surprising facts". LA Times. Retrieved August 8, 2008. 
  62. ^ Dahl, Judy (September 2007). "Baby, You Can Drive My Vespa". Madison Magazine. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved August 8, 2008. 
  63. ^ "Vespanomics – Vespa Economics" (PDF). Piaggio Group USA. Retrieved February 8, 2010. 
  64. ^ Fisk, Umbra (May 28, 2003). "On motorcycles – Ask Umbra". Grist. 
  65. ^ "Certified Highway Motorcycle Test Result Report Data (2007)". US EPA. January 8, 2008. 
  66. ^ a b "EPA Emissions Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved December 7, 2013. 
  67. ^ Madson, Bart (February 15, 2007). "Motorcycle Emissions Regs Examined". Motorcycle-USA.com. Retrieved January 28, 2010. 
  68. ^ "EURO 5 Cycle Emissions Proposed for 2015". Dealernews.com. December 8, 2008. Retrieved January 28, 2010. 
References
  • Georgano, G.N. (2002). Early and Vintage Years, 1885-1930: The Golden Era of Coachbuilding. Mason Crest Publishers. 
External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Motorcycle. Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Motorcycling.
  • Motorcycles at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

  • v
  • t
  • e
Motorcycles and Motorcycling (outline)General topics
  • Definition
  • History
  • Museums
  • Motorcycle occupations
  • Safety
Types
  • Street
    • Cruiser
    • Sport
    • Touring / Sport touring
    • Universal Japanese Motorcycle
  • Custom
  • Dual-sport
  • Off-road
    • Enduro
    • Motocross
    • Track racing
    • Trials
Design
  • Components
    • Accessories
    • Brakes
    • Chassis
      • Frame
      • Suspension
      • Fork
    • Engine
    • Transmission
    • Saddle
    • Tires
    • Wheels
    • Fairing
  • Testing and measurement
Manufacturers
  • Bajaj
  • BMW
  • Ducati
  • Harley-Davidson
  • Hero
  • KTM
  • Japanese Big Four
    • Honda
    • Kawasaki
    • Suzuki
    • Yamaha
  • Peugeot
  • Triumph
  • TVS
Media
  • Books
  • Biker films
  • Magazines
Touring
  • Motorcycle rally
  • List of long-distance motorcycle riders
Equipment
  • Armor
  • Boots
  • Helmet
  • Jacket
Sport
  • Motorcycle land-speed record
  • Production motorcycles (by speed / by acceleration)
  • Freestyle Motocross
  • Racing
  • Stunting
  • Trials
Organizations
  • Motorcycle club
    • List of motorcycle clubs
  • Motorcycle gang
    • Colors
    • List of outlaw motorcycle clubs
  • v
  • t
  • e
Private transportMotorized
  • Car/Automobile
  • Motorboat
  • Electric bicycle
  • Electric skateboard
  • Hovercraft
  • Motorcycle
    • Moped
    • Scooter (motorcycle)
    • Mobility scooter
  • Private jet
  • Motor ship
  • Submarine
  • Motorized wheelchair
  • Private railroad car
  • Private spaceflight
Non-motorized
  • Bicycle/Cycling
  • Walking
  • Ice skates
  • Inline skates
  • Pack animal
  • Roller skates
  • Scooter
  • Skateboard
  • Wheelchair
  • Horse-drawn vehicle
  • Hot air balloon
Vehicles for hire
  • Car rental
  • Auto rickshaw
  • Boda-boda
  • Cycle rickshaw
  • Gondola
  • Hackney carriage
  • Motorcycle taxi
  • Paratransit
  • Personal rapid transit
  • Pulled rickshaw
  • Share taxi
  • Taxicab
Shared
  • Shared transport
  • Carsharing
  • Carpooling
  • Car jockey
  • Flexible carpooling
  • Real-time ridesharing
  • Slugging
  • Vanpool
  • Bicycle-sharing
Alternatives
  • Public transport
  • Personal public transport
  • Modal share
  • Personal rapid transit
Authority control
  • BNF: cb11932539c (data)
  • GND: 4040392-0
  • HDS: 13903
  • LCCN: sh85087665
  • NARA: 10662876
  • NDL: 00568991


LEGO Juniors Fire Patrol Suitcase 10740 Toy for 4-7-Year-Olds
LEGO Juniors Fire Patrol Suitcase 10740 Toy for 4-7-Year-Olds
Be prepared for a LEGO. City emergency wherever you are with this fun, easy-to-carry suitcase play set, featuring a fire pickup with adjustable cherry picker and motorcycle to put out the flames of the buildable abandoned house with opening door. This toy for 4-year-olds includes two minifigures.

Click Here to view in augmented reality

$24.99



Fisher-Price Harley-Davidson Tough Trike
Fisher-Price Harley-Davidson Tough Trike
Kids will love cruising along on this Harley-Davidson styled tricycle with durable and rugged tires that help take them wherever they want to go. Cool features like the secret storage compartment under the comfort-ride seat add to the fun! And the wide, stable wheel base, easy-grip handlebars and big foot pedals help even the littlest riders get rolling!

Click Here to view in augmented reality

$34.99
-$15.00(-30%)



LEGO DC Super Heroes Batman: The Attack of the Talons 76110 Building Kit (155 Piece)
LEGO DC Super Heroes Batman: The Attack of the Talons 76110 Building Kit (155 Piece)
Team up with Batman and ace the bat-hound to defeat the Talon assassins in LEGO DC Super heroes 76110 Batman: the attack of the talons, featuring batman’s bike with a dual stud shooter and attachment points for the included pack of assorted bat weapons and elements. This set includes 3 with weapons to boost the role-play battle action.

Click Here to view in augmented reality

$15.99
-$4.00(-20%)



Little Tikes Go and Grow Lil' Rollin' Giraffe - Amazon Exclusive
Little Tikes Go and Grow Lil' Rollin' Giraffe - Amazon Exclusive
Kids will love this adorable riding toy. The friendly face makes kids happy and the foot-to-floor format makes it easy for children to scoot and ride. An adjustable seat lets children use it longer. This toddler ride-on will help promote gross motor skills, active play and balance. Features: • Giraffe-themed ride and scoot toy with adjustable seat • The over-sized back wheel provides added stability and includes a wheel guard for safety • Wide front wheel base to help with balance • Controlled steering radius • Can be used indoors or out • Weight limit up to 50 lbs. • Assembly Required

Click Here to view in augmented reality

$29.99



LEGO Marvel Spider-Man: Spider-Man Bike Rescue 76113 Building Kit (235 Piece)
LEGO Marvel Spider-Man: Spider-Man Bike Rescue 76113 Building Kit (235 Piece)
Speed through New York City streets and help Spider-Man and Miles Morales thwart evil Carnage’s mission to blow up the power generator in LEGO Marvel Spider-Man 76113 Spider-Man Bike Rescue. This fun building toy for kids features a Spider-Man bike with a tech spider shooter and web gun (non-shooting), and a buildable power generator with an explode function. Also includes 3 LEGO minifigures, plus 9 assorted web elements to customize your builds, minifigures and weapons for creative play.

Click Here to view in augmented reality

$18.99
-$1.00(-5%)



LEGO City Police Station 60141 Building Kit with Cop Car, Jail Cell, and Helicopter, Top Toy and Play Set for Boys and Girls (894 Pieces)
LEGO City Police Station 60141 Building Kit with Cop Car, Jail Cell, and Helicopter, Top Toy and Play Set for Boys and Girls (894 Pieces)
Inspire kids to create their own drama with the LEGO City Police as they try to keep the criminal crooks locked away in prison. Featuring a 3-level police station loaded with accessories like a jail set with exploding wall function, watchtower, garage and offices, helicopter, cop car, police motorbike, plus the crooks’ truck with rotating cherry picker. Includes 7 minifigures, plus a police dog.

Click Here to view in augmented reality

$94.90
-$5.09(-5%)



Hot Wheels Basic Car 50-Pack (Packaging May Vary)
Hot Wheels Basic Car 50-Pack (Packaging May Vary)
Reward your child— or inner child— with this massive pack of Hot Wheels cars! The collection of 50 vehicles features realistic details and authentic decos. From sleek sports cars to exotic racecars and popular roadsters. It’s the ultimate starter pack for collectors. Each vehicle is packaged individually, too so they can be handed out for any occasion, or kept as an entire collection. Packed in a Hot Wheels branded box, it makes an impressive gift. If you're looking to start a collection of the world's greatest cars, this set gets you racing on your way! Colors and decorations may vary. For ages 3 and older.

Click Here to view in augmented reality

$39.97
-$15.02(-27%)



LEGO City Off-Road Chase 60170 Building Kit (37 Piece)
LEGO City Off-Road Chase 60170 Building Kit (37 Piece)
Pick up your badge and join the LEGO City 60170 Off-Road Chase to help stop the crook! This creative police chase play toy for 5-12 year olds features a crook’s hideout with space for loot stash and greenery, plus a police motorbike with off-road tires and kickstand to stage a fun police chase. Includes 2 minifigures and a snake figure.

Click Here to view in augmented reality

$5.32
-$1.67(-24%)



Razor MX350 Dirt Rocket Electric Motocross Bike
Razor MX350 Dirt Rocket Electric Motocross Bike
The Razor Dirt Rocket MX350 is a miniature electric motocross bike. Scaled down dirt bike design carries riders up to 150 lbs. Geared for dirt with large 10" pneumatic knobby tires for maximum power transfer. Can travel over 10 miles on a single charge. Variable speed, chain driven motor for a super quiet yet powerful operation. At speeds up to 12 mph, the dirt rocket leaves similiar pocket dirt bikes in itsdust.

Click Here to view in augmented reality

$179.00
-$110.99(-38%)



Dynacraft Magna Gravel Blaster Boys BMX Street/Dirt Bike 12", Black/Green
Dynacraft Magna Gravel Blaster Boys BMX Street/Dirt Bike 12", Black/Green
The Gravel Blaster 12" Bicycle makes learning to ride a lot cooler. This BMX style bike, comes complete with handlebar pad and bold colors. Fun decals decorate the sturdy frame. Other features include a rear coaster brake, an adjustable seat, and a chain guard. This kids' bicycle also comes with removable training wheels for little learners.

Click Here to view in augmented reality

$43.99
-$46.00(-51%)


Twitter
 
Facebook
 
LinkedIn
 
 

 
 

WhmSoft Moblog
Copyright (C) 2006-2018 WhmSoft
All Rights Reserved