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Watch
Today most watches that are inexpensive and medium-priced, used mainly for timekeeping, have quartz movements. Expensive collectible watches, valued more

View Wikipedia Article

For other uses, see Watch (disambiguation).

A modern wristwatch

A watch is a timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person. It is designed to keep working despite the motions caused by the person's activities. A wristwatch is designed to be worn around the wrist, attached by a watch strap or other type of bracelet. A pocket watch is designed for a person to carry in a pocket.

Watches progressed in the 17th century from spring-powered clocks, which appeared as early as the 14th century. During most of its history the watch was a mechanical device, driven by clockwork, powered by winding a mainspring, and keeping time with an oscillating balance wheel. In the 1960s the electronic quartz watch was invented, which was powered by a battery and kept time with a vibrating quartz crystal. By the 1980s the quartz watch had taken over most of the market from the mechanical watch.

Today most watches that are inexpensive and medium-priced, used mainly for timekeeping, have quartz movements. Expensive collectible watches, valued more for their elaborate craftsmanship, aesthetic appeal and glamorous design than for simple timekeeping, often have traditional mechanical movements, even though they are less accurate and more expensive than electronic ones. Various extra features, called "complications", such as moon-phase displays and the different types of tourbillon, are sometimes included.[1] Modern watches often display the day, date, month and year, and electronic watches may have many other functions. Time-related features such as timers, chronographs and alarm functions are common. Some modern designs incorporate calculators, GPS[2] and Bluetooth technology or have heart-rate monitoring capabilities. Some watches use radio clock technology to regularly correct the time.

Developments in the 2010s include smartwatches, which are elaborate computer-like electronic devices designed to be worn on a wrist. They generally incorporate timekeeping functions, but these are only a small subset of the smartwatch's facilities.

The study of timekeeping is known as horology.

Contents
  • 1 History
    • 1.1 Wristwatch
      • 1.1.1 Quartz
  • 2 Movement
    • 2.1 Mechanical
      • 2.1.1 Automatic watches
    • 2.2 Electronic
  • 3 Display
    • 3.1 Analog
      • 3.1.1 Tactile
    • 3.2 Digital
    • 3.3 Illuminated
  • 4 Speech synthesis
  • 5 Handedness
  • 6 Functions
    • 6.1 Fashion
    • 6.2 Space
    • 6.3 Scuba diving
    • 6.4 Navigation
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 External links
History Main article: History of watches See also: History of timekeeping devices Early wrist watch by Waltham, worn by soldiers in World War I (German Clock Museum). The earliest dated watch known, from 1530

Watches evolved from portable spring-driven clocks, which first appeared in 15th century Europe. Watches were not widely worn in pockets until the 17th century. One account says that the word "watch" came from the Old English word woecce which meant "watchman", because it was used by town watchmen to keep track of their shifts at work.[3] Another says that the term came from 17th century sailors, who used the new mechanisms to time the length of their shipboard watches (duty shifts).[4]

Drawing of one of his first balance springs, attached to a balance wheel, by Christiaan Huygens, published in his letter in the Journal des Sçavants of 25 February 1675. The application of the spiral balance spring (spiral hairspring) for watches ushered in a new era of accuracy for portable timekeepers, similar to that which the pendulum had introduced for clocks.[5]

A great leap forward in accuracy occurred in 1657 with the addition of the balance spring to the balance wheel, an invention disputed both at the time and ever since between Robert Hooke and Christiaan Huygens. This innovation increased watches' accuracy enormously, reducing error from perhaps several hours per day[6] to perhaps 10 minutes per day,[7] resulting in the addition of the minute hand to the face from around 1680 in Britain and 1700 in France[8].

The increased accuracy of the balance wheel focused attention on errors caused by other parts of the movement, igniting a two-century wave of watchmaking innovation. The first thing to be improved was the escapement. The verge escapement was replaced in quality watches by the cylinder escapement, invented by Thomas Tompion in 1695 and further developed by George Graham in the 1720s. Improvements in manufacturing such as the tooth-cutting machine devised by Robert Hooke allowed some increase in the volume of watch production, although finishing and assembling was still done by hand until well into the 19th century.

A major cause of error in balance wheel timepieces, caused by changes in elasticity of the balance spring from temperature changes, was solved by the bimetallic temperature compensated balance wheel invented in 1765 by Pierre Le Roy and improved by Thomas Earnshaw. The lever escapement was the single most important technological breakthrough, and was invented by Thomas Mudge in 1759 and improved by Josiah Emery in 1785, although it only gradually came into use from about 1800 onwards, chiefly in Britain.

A watch drawn in Acta Eruditorum, 1737

The British had predominated in watch manufacture for much of the 17th and 18th centuries, but maintained a system of production that was geared towards high-quality products for the elite.[9] Although there was an attempt to modernise clock manufacture with mass production techniques and the application of duplicating tools and machinery by the British Watch Company in 1843, it was in the United States that this system took off. Aaron Lufkin Dennison started a factory in 1851 in Massachusetts that used interchangeable parts, and by 1861 it was running a successful enterprise incorporated as the Waltham Watch Company.[10]

Wristwatch Mappin & Webb's wristwatch, advertised as having been in production since 1898.

The concept of the wristwatch goes back to the production of the very earliest watches in the 16th century. Elizabeth I of England received a wristwatch from Robert Dudley in 1571, described as an armed watch. The oldest surviving wristwatch (then described as a bracelet watch) is one made in 1806 and given to Joséphine de Beauharnais.[11] From the beginning, wristwatches were almost exclusively worn by women, while men used pocket watches up until the early 20th century.[12]

Wristwatches were first worn by military men towards the end of the 19th century, when the importance of synchronizing maneuvers during war, without potentially revealing the plan to the enemy through signaling, was increasingly recognized. The Garstin Company of London patented a "Watch Wristlet" design in 1893, but they were probably producing similar designs from the 1880s. Officers in the British Army began using wristwatches during colonial military campaigns in the 1880s, such as during the Anglo-Burma War of 1885.[12] During the First Boer War, the importance of coordinating troop movements and synchronizing attacks against the highly mobile Boer insurgents became paramount, and the use of wristwatches subsequently became widespread among the officer class. The company Mappin & Webb began production of their successful "campaign watch" for soldiers during the campaign at Sudan in 1898 and accelerated production for the Second Boer War a few years later.[12] In continental Europe Girard-Perregaux and other Swiss watchmakers began supplying German naval officers with wristwatches in about 1880.[11]

Early models were essentially standard pocket-watches fitted to a leather strap but, by the early 20th century, manufacturers began producing purpose-built wristwatches. The Swiss company Dimier Frères & Cie patented a wristwatch design with the now standard wire lugs in 1903. Hans Wilsdorf moved to London in 1905 and set up his own business, Wilsdorf & Davis, with his brother-in-law Alfred Davis, providing quality timepieces at affordable prices; the company later became Rolex.[13] Wilsdorf was an early convert to the wristwatch, and contracted the Swiss firm Aegler to produce a line of wristwatches.[14]

The impact of the First World War dramatically shifted public perceptions on the propriety of the man's wristwatch and opened up a mass market in the postwar era. The creeping barrage artillery tactic, developed during the war, required precise synchronization between the artillery gunners and the infantry advancing behind the barrage. Service watches produced during the War were specially designed for the rigours of trench warfare, with luminous dials and unbreakable glass. The War Office began issuing wristwatches to combatants from 1917.[15] By the end of the war, almost all enlisted men wore a wristwatch and after they were demobilized, the fashion soon caught on: the British Horological Journal wrote in 1917 that "the wristlet watch was little used by the sterner sex before the war, but now is seen on the wrist of nearly every man in uniform and of many men in civilian attire." By 1930, the ratio of a wrist to pocket watches was 50 to 1. The first successful self-winding system was invented by John Harwood in 1923.

Quartz

The introduction of the quartz watch in 1967, (the Beta 1 and the Astron) was a revolutionary improvement in watch technology. In place of a balance wheel which oscillated at perhaps 5 or 6 beats per second, it used a quartz crystal resonator which vibrated at 8,192 Hz, driven by a battery-powered oscillator circuit. Since the 1980s, more quartz watches than mechanical ones have been marketed.

Movement Different kinds of movements move the hands differently as shown in this 2 second exposure. The left watch has a 24-hour analog dial with a mechanical 1/6 s movement, the right one has a more common 12-hour dial and a "1 s" quartz movement A Russian mechanical watch movement A so-called mystery watch, it is the first transparent watch,[16] c. 1890. The movement is fitted with a cylinder escapement.

A movement of a watch is the mechanism that measures the passage of time and displays the current time (and possibly other information including date, month and day). Movements may be entirely mechanical, entirely electronic (potentially with no moving parts), or they might be a blend of both. Most watches intended mainly for timekeeping today have electronic movements, with mechanical hands on the watch face indicating the time.

Mechanical Main article: Mechanical watch

Compared to electronic movements, mechanical watches are less accurate, often with errors of seconds per day, and they are sensitive to position, temperature[17] and magnetism.[18] They are also costly to produce, require regular maintenance and adjustments, and are more prone to failures. Nevertheless, the craftsmanship of mechanical watches still attracts interest from part of the watch-buying public, especially among the watch collectors. Skeleton watches are designed to leave the mechanism visible for aesthetic purposes.

A mechanical movement uses an escapement mechanism to control and limit the unwinding and winding parts of a spring, converting what would otherwise be a simple unwinding into a controlled and periodic energy release. A mechanical movement also uses a balance wheel together with the balance spring (also known as a hairspring) to control the motion of the gear system of the watch in a manner analogous to the pendulum of a pendulum clock. The tourbillon, an optional part for mechanical movements, is a rotating frame for the escapement, which is used to cancel out or reduce the effects of gravitational bias to the timekeeping. Due to the complexity of designing a tourbillon, they are very expensive, and only found in prestigious watches.

The pin-lever escapement (called the Roskopf movement after its inventor, Georges Frederic Roskopf), which is a cheaper version of the fully levered movement, was manufactured in huge quantities by many Swiss manufacturers as well as by Timex, until it was replaced by quartz movements.[19][20][21]

Tuning-fork watches use a type of electromechanical movement. Introduced by Bulova in 1960, they use a tuning fork with a precise frequency (most often 360 hertz) to drive a mechanical watch. The task of converting electronically pulsed fork vibration into rotary movements is done via two tiny jeweled fingers, called pawls. Tuning-fork watches were rendered obsolete when electronic quartz watches were developed. Quartz watches were cheaper to produce besides being more accurate.

Main article: Mainspring

Traditional mechanical watch movements use a spiral spring called a mainspring as a power source. In manual watches the spring must be rewound periodically by the user by turning the watch crown. Antique pocketwatches were wound by inserting a separate key into a hole in the back of the watch and turning it. Most modern watches are designed to run 40  hours on a winding and thus must be wound daily, but some run for several days and a few have 192-hour mainsprings and are wound weekly.

Automatic watches Main article: Automatic watch Automatic watch: An eccentric weight, called a rotor, swings with the movement of the wearer's body and winds the spring Seiko 5 Automatic Watch 21 Jewels

A self-winding or automatic watch is one that rewinds the mainspring of a mechanical movement by the natural motions of the wearer's body. The first self-winding mechanism was invented for pocket watches in 1770 by Abraham-Louis Perrelet,[22] but the first "self-winding", or "automatic", wristwatch was the invention of a British watch repairer named John Harwood in 1923. This type of watch winds itself without requiring any special action by the wearer. It uses an eccentric weight, called a winding rotor, which rotates with the movement of the wearer's wrist. The back-and-forth motion of the winding rotor couples to a ratchet to wind the mainspring automatically. Self-winding watches usually can also be wound manually to keep them running when not worn or if the wearer's wrist motions are inadequate to keep the watch wound.

In April 2014 the Swatch Group launched the sistem51 wristwatch. It has a purely mechanical movement consisting of only 51 parts, including a novel self-winding mechanism with a transparent oscillating weight. So far, it is the only mechanical movement manufactured entirely on a fully automated assembly line.[23] The low parts count and the automated assembly make it an inexpensive mechanical Swiss watch, which can be considered a successor to Roskopf movements, although of higher quality.[24]

Electronic See also: Electric watch and Quartz clock First quartz wristwatch BETA 1 developed by CEH, Switzerland, 1967

Electronic movements, also known as quartz movements, have few or no moving parts, except a quartz crystal which is made to vibrate by the piezoelectric effect. A varying electric voltage is applied to the crystal, which responds by changing its shape so, in combination with some electronic components, it functions as an oscillator. It resonates at a specific highly stable frequency, which is used to accurately pace a timekeeping mechanism. Most quartz movements are primarily electronic but are geared to drive mechanical hands on the face of the watch to provide a traditional analog display of the time, a feature most consumers still prefer.

In 1959 Seiko placed an order with Epson (a daughter company of Seiko and the 'brain' behind the quartz revolution) to start developing a quartz wristwatch. The project was codenamed 59A. By the 1964 Tokyo Summer Olympics, Seiko had a working prototype of a portable quartz watch which was used as the time measurements throughout the event.

The first prototypes of an electronic quartz wristwatch (not just portable quartz watches as the Seiko timekeeping devices at the Tokyo Olympics in 1964) were made by the CEH research laboratory in Neuchâtel, Switzerland. From 1965 through 1967 pioneering development work was done on a miniaturized 8192  Hz quartz oscillator, a thermo-compensation module, and an in-house-made, dedicated integrated circuit (unlike the hybrid circuits used in the later Seiko Astron wristwatch). As a result, the BETA 1 prototype set new timekeeping performance records at the International Chronometric Competition held at the Observatory of Neuchâtel in 1967.[25] In 1970, 18 manufacturers exhibited production versions of the beta 21 wristwatch, including the Omega Electroquartz as well as Patek Philippe, Rolex Oysterquartz and Piaget.

Quartz Movement of the Seiko Astron, 1969 (Deutsches Uhrenmuseum, Inv. 2010-006)

The first quartz watch to enter production was the Seiko 35 SQ Astron, which hit the shelves on 25 December 1969, swiftly followed by the Swiss Beta 21, and then a year later the prototype of one of the world's most accurate wristwatches to date: the Omega Marine Chronometer. Since the technology having been developed by contributions from Japanese, American and Swiss,[26] nobody could patent the whole movement of the quartz wristwatch, thus allowing other manufacturers to participate in the rapid growth and development of the quartz watch market. This ended—in less than a decade—almost 100 years of dominance by the mechanical wristwatch legacy. Modern quartz movements are produced in very large quantities, and even the cheapest wristwatches typically have quartz movements. Whereas mechanical movements can typically be off by several seconds a day, an inexpensive quartz movement in a child's wristwatch may still be accurate to within half a second per day—ten times more accurate than a mechanical movement.[27]

After a consolidation of the mechanical watch industry in Switzerland during the 1970s, mass production of quartz wristwatches took off under the leadership of the Swatch Group of companies, a Swiss conglomerate with vertical control of the production of Swiss watches and related products. For quartz wristwatches, subsidiaries of Swatch manufacture watch batteries (Renata), oscillators (Oscilloquartz, now Micro Crystal AG) and integrated circuits (Ebauches Electronic SA, renamed EM Microelectronic-Marin). The launch of the new SWATCH brand in 1983 was marked by bold new styling, design, and marketing. Today, the Swatch Group maintains its position as the world's largest watch company.

Seiko's efforts to combine the quartz and mechanical movements bore fruit after 20 years of research, leading to the introduction of the Seiko Spring Drive, first in a limited domestic market production in 1999 and to the world in September 2005. The Spring Drive keeps time within quartz standards without the use of a battery, using a traditional mechanical gear train powered by a spring, without the need for a balance wheel either.

In 2010, Miyota (Citizen Watch) of Japan introduced a newly developed movement that uses a 3 pronged quartz crystal that was exclusively produced for Bulova to be used in the Precisionist or Accutron II line, a new type of quartz watch with ultra-high frequency (262.144 kHz) which is claimed to be accurate to +/- 10 seconds a year and has a smooth sweeping second hand rather than one that jumps each second.[28]

Radio time signal watches are a type of electronic quartz watch which synchronizes (time transfers) its time with an external time source such as in atomic clocks, time signals from GPS navigation satellites, the German DCF77 signal in Europe, WWVB in the US, and others. Movements of this type may—among others—synchronize the time of day and the date, the leap-year status and the state of daylight saving time (on or off). However, other than the radio receiver, these watches are normal quartz watches in all other aspects.

Electronic watches require electricity as a power source, and some mechanical movements and hybrid electronic-mechanical movements also require electricity. Usually, the electricity is provided by a replaceable battery. The first use of electrical power in watches was as a substitute for the mainspring, to remove the need for winding. The first electrically powered watch, the Hamilton Electric 500, was released in 1957 by the Hamilton Watch Company of Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

Watch batteries (strictly speaking cells, as a battery is composed of multiple cells) are specially designed for their purpose. They are very small and provide tiny amounts of power continuously for very long periods (several years or more). In most cases, replacing the battery requires a trip to a watch-repair shop or watch dealer; this is especially true for watches that are water-resistant, as special tools and procedures are required for the watch to remain water-resistant after battery replacement. Silver-oxide and lithium batteries are popular today; mercury batteries, formerly quite common, are no longer used, for environmental reasons. Cheap batteries may be alkaline, of the same size as silver-oxide cells but providing shorter life. Rechargeable batteries are used in some solar-powered watches.

Some electronic watches are powered by the movement of the wearer. For instance, Seiko's kinetic-powered quartz watches use the motion of the wearer's arm: turning a rotating weight which causes a tiny generator to supply power to charge a rechargeable battery that runs the watch. The concept is similar to that of self-winding spring movements, except that electrical power is generated instead of mechanical spring tension.

Solar powered watches are powered by light. A photovoltaic cell on the face (dial) of the watch converts light to electricity, which is used to charge a rechargeable battery or capacitor. The movement of the watch draws its power from the rechargeable battery or capacitor. As long as the watch is regularly exposed to fairly strong light (such as sunlight), it never needs a battery replacement. Some models need only a few minutes of sunlight to provide weeks of energy (as in the Citizen Eco-Drive). Some of the early solar watches of the 1970s had innovative and unique designs to accommodate the array of solar cells needed to power them (Synchronar, Nepro, Sicura and some models by Cristalonic, Alba, Seiko, and Citizen). As the decades progressed and the efficiency of the solar cells increased while the power requirements of the movement and display decreased, solar watches began to be designed to look like other conventional watches.[29]

A rarely used power source is the temperature difference between the wearer's arm and the surrounding environment (as applied in the Citizen Eco-Drive Thermo).

Display Analog Poljot chronograph Casio AE12 LCA (liquid-crystal-analog) watch

Traditionally, watches have displayed the time in analog form, with a numbered dial upon which are mounted at least a rotating hour hand and a longer, rotating minute hand. Many watches also incorporate a third hand that shows the current second of the current minute. Watches powered by quartz usually have a second hand that snaps every second to the next marker. Watches powered by a mechanical movement appears to have a gliding second hand, although it is actually not gliding; the hand merely moves in smaller steps, typically 1/5 of a second, corresponding to the beat (half period) of the balance wheel. In some escapements (for example the duplex escapement), the hand advances every two beats (full period) of the balance wheel, typically 1/2 second in those watches, or even every four beats (two periods, 1 second), in the double duplex escapement. A truly gliding second hand is achieved with the tri-synchro regulator of Spring Drive watches. All of the hands are normally mechanical, physically rotating on the dial, although a few watches have been produced with "hands" that are simulated by a liquid-crystal display.

Analog display of the time is nearly universal in watches sold as jewelry or collectibles, and in these watches, the range of different styles of hands, numbers, and other aspects of the analog dial is very broad. In watches sold for timekeeping, analog display remains very popular, as many people find it easier to read than digital display; but in timekeeping watches the emphasis is on clarity and accurate reading of the time under all conditions (clearly marked digits, easily visible hands, large watch faces, etc.). They are specifically designed for the left wrist with the stem (the knob used for changing the time) on the right side of the watch; this makes it easy to change the time without removing the watch from the wrist. This is the case if one is right-handed and the watch is worn on the left wrist (as is traditionally done). If one is left-handed and wears the watch on the right wrist, one has to remove the watch from the wrist to reset the time or to wind the watch.

Analog watches, as well as clocks, are often marketed showing a display time of approximately 1:50 or 10:10. This creates a visually pleasing smile-like face on upper half of the watch, in addition to enclosing the manufacturer's name. Digital displays often show a time of 12:08, where the increase in the number of active segments or pixels gives a positive feeling.[30][31]

Tactile

Tissot, a Swiss luxury watchmaker, makes the Silen-T wristwatch with a touch-sensitive face that vibrates to help the user to tell time eyes-free. The bezel of the watch features raised bumps at each hour mark; after briefly touching the face of the watch, the wearer runs a finger around the bezel clockwise. When the finger reaches the bump indicating the hour, the watch vibrates continuously, and when the finger reaches the bump indicating the minute, the watch vibrates intermittently.[32]

Eone Timepieces, Washington D.C.-based company, launched its first tactile analog wristwatch, the "Bradley", on 11 July 2013 on the Kickstarter website. The device is primarily designed for sight-impaired users, who can use the watch's two ball bearings to determine the time, but it is also suitable for general use. The watch features raised marks at each hour and two moving, magnetically attached ball bearings. One ball bearing, on the edge of the watch, indicates the hour, while the other, on the face, indicates the minute.[33][34]

Digital

A digital display shows the time as a number, e.g., 12:08 instead of a shorthand pointing towards the number 12 and a long hand 8/60 of the way around the dial. The digits are usually shown as a seven-segment display.

The first digital mechanical pocket watches appeared in the late 19th century. In the 1920s, the first digital mechanical wristwatches appeared.

The first digital electronic watch, a Pulsar LED prototype in 1970, was developed jointly by Hamilton Watch Company and Electro-Data, founded by George H. Thiess.[35] John Bergey, the head of Hamilton's Pulsar division, said that he was inspired to make a digital timepiece by the then-futuristic digital clock that Hamilton themselves made for the 1968 science fiction film 2001: A Space Odyssey. On 4 April 1972, the Pulsar was finally ready, made in 18-carat gold and sold for $2,100. It had a red light-emitting diode (LED) display.

Digital LED watches were very expensive and out of reach to the common consumer until 1975, when Texas Instruments started to mass-produce LED watches inside a plastic case. These watches, which first retailed for only $20,[36] reduced to $10 in 1976, saw Pulsar lose $6 million and the Pulsar brand sold to Seiko.[37]

An early LED watch that was rather problematic was The Black Watch made and sold by British company Sinclair Radionics in 1975. This was only sold for a few years, as production problems and returned (faulty) product forced the company to cease production.

Most watches with LED displays required that the user press a button to see the time displayed for a few seconds, because LEDs used so much power that they could not be kept operating continuously. Usually, the LED display color would be red. Watches with LED displays were popular for a few years, but soon the LED displays were superseded by liquid crystal displays (LCDs), which used less battery power and were much more convenient in use, with the display always visible and no need to push a button before seeing the time. Only in darkness, you had to press a button to light the display with a tiny light bulb, later illuminating LEDs.[38]

The first LCD watch with a six-digit LCD was the 1973 Seiko 06LC, although various forms of early LCD watches with a four-digit display were marketed as early as 1972 including the 1972 Gruen Teletime LCD Watch, and the Cox Electronic Systems Quarza.[39] In Switzerland, Ebauches Electronic SA presented a prototype eight-digit LCD wristwatch showing time and date at the MUBA Fair, Basle, in March 1973, using a Twisted Nematic LCD manufactured by Brown, Boveri & Cie, Switzerland, which became the supplier of LCDs to Casio for the CASIOTRON watch in 1974.[40]

A problem with Liquid Crystal Displays is that they use polarized light. If, for example, the user is wearing polarized sunglasses, the watch may be difficult to read because the plane of polarization of the display is roughly perpendicular to that of the glasses.[41][42] If the light that illuminates the display is polarized, for example if it comes from a blue sky, the display may be difficult or impossible to read.[43]

From the 1980s onward, digital watch technology vastly improved. In 1982 Seiko produced the Seiko TV Watch [44] that had a television screen built in,[45] and Casio produced a digital watch with a thermometer as well as another that could translate 1,500 Japanese words into English. In 1985, Casio produced the CFX-400 scientific calculator watch. In 1987 Casio produced a watch that could dial your telephone number and Citizen revealed one that would react to your voice. In 1995 Timex released a watch which allowed the wearer to download and store data from a computer to their wrist. Some watches, such as the Timex Datalink USB, feature dot matrix displays. Since their apex during the late 1980s to mid-1990s high technology fad, digital watches have mostly become simpler, less expensive time pieces with little variety between models.

Illuminated This subsection needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) An illuminated watch face, using tritium

Many watches have displays that are illuminated, so they can be used in darkness. Various methods have been used to achieve this.

Mechanical watches often have luminous paint on their hands and hour marks. In the mid-20th century, radioactive material was often incorporated in the paint, so it would continue to glow without any exposure to light. Radium was often used but produced small amounts of radiation outside the watch that might have been hazardous.[46] Tritium was used as a replacement, since the radiation it produces has such low energy that it cannot penetrate a watch glass. However, tritium is expensive—it has to be made in a nuclear reactor—and it has a half-life of only about 12 years so the paint remains luminous for only a few years. Nowadays, tritium is used in specialized watches, e.g., for military purposes (See Tritium illumination). For other purposes, luminous paint is sometimes used on analog displays, but no radioactive material is contained in it. This means that the display glows soon after being exposed to light and quickly fades.

Watches that incorporate batteries often have the electric illumination of their displays. However, lights consume far more power than electronic watch movements. To conserve the battery, the light is activated only when the user presses a button. Usually, the light remains lit for a few seconds after the button is released, which allows the user to move the hand out of the way.

Views of a liquid crystal display, both with electroluminescent backlight switched on (top) and switched off (bottom) Digital LCD wristwatch Casio type F-E10 with electroluminescent backlighting.

In some early digital watches, LED displays were used, which could be read as easily in darkness as in daylight. The user had to press a button to light up the LEDs, which meant that the watch could not be read without the button being pressed, even in full daylight.

In some types of watches, small incandescent lamps or LEDs illuminate the display, which is not intrinsically luminous. These tend to produce very non-uniform illumination. Incandescent lamps are very wasteful of electricity.

Other watches use electroluminescent material to produce uniform illumination of the background of the display, against which the hands or digits can be seen.

Speech synthesis

Talking watches are available, intended for the blind or visually impaired. They speak the time out loud at the press of a button. This has the disadvantage of disturbing others nearby or at least alerting the non-deaf that the wearer is checking the time. Tactile watches are preferred to avoid this awkwardness, but talking watches are preferred for those who are not confident in their ability to read a tactile watch reliably.

Handedness

Wristwatches with analog displays generally have a small knob, called the crown, that can be used to adjust the time and, in mechanical watches, wind the spring. Almost always, the crown is located on the right-hand side of the watch so it can be worn of the left wrist for a right-handed individual. This makes it inconvenient to use if the watch is being worn on the right wrist. Some manufacturers offer "left-hand drive", aka "destro", configured watches which move the crown to the left side[47] making wearing the watch easier for left-handed individuals.

A rarer configuration is the bullhead watch. Bullhead watches are generally, but not exclusively, chronographs. The configuration moves the crown and chronograph pushers to the top of the watch. Bullheads are commonly wristwatch chronographs that are intended to be used as stopwatches off the wrist. Examples are the Citizen Bullhead Change Timer[48] and the Omega Seamaster Bullhead[49].

Digital watches generally have push-buttons that can be used to make adjustments. These are usually equally easy to use on either wrist.

Functions The Rolex Submariner, an officially certified chronometer A Breguet squelette watch 2933 with tourbillon Perpetual calendar and moonphase wristwatch by Patek Philippe

All watches provide the time of day, giving at least the hour and minute, and usually the second. Most also provide the current date, and often the day of the week as well. However, many watches also provide a great deal of information beyond the basics of time and date. Some watches include alarms. Other elaborate and more expensive watches, both pocket and wrist models, also incorporate striking mechanisms or repeater functions, so that the wearer could learn the time by the sound emanating from the watch. This announcement or striking feature is an essential characteristic of true clocks and distinguishes such watches from ordinary timepieces. This feature is available on most digital watches.

A complicated watch has one or more functions beyond the basic function of displaying the time and the date; such a functionality is called a complication. Two popular complications are the chronograph complication, which is the ability of the watch movement to function as a stopwatch, and the moonphase complication, which is a display of the lunar phase. Other more expensive complications include Tourbillon, Perpetual calendar, Minute repeater, and Equation of time. A truly complicated watch has many of these complications at once (see Calibre 89 from Patek Philippe for instance). Some watches can both indicate the direction of Mecca[50] and have alarms that can be set for all daily prayer requirements.[51] Among watch enthusiasts, complicated watches are especially collectible. Some watches include a second 12-hour or 24-hour display for UTC or GMT.

The similar-sounding terms chronograph and chronometer are often confused, although they mean altogether different things. A chronograph is a watch with an added duration timer, often a stopwatch complication (as explained above), while a chronometer watch is a timepiece that has met an industry standard test for performance under pre-defined conditions: a chronometer is a high quality mechanical or a thermo-compensated movement that has been tested and certified to operate within a certain standard of accuracy by the COSC (Contrôle Officiel Suisse des Chronomètres). The concepts are different but not mutually exclusive; so a watch can be a chronograph, a chronometer, both, or neither.

Timex Datalink USB Dress edition from 2003 with a dot matrix display; the Invasion video game is on the screen

Many computerized wristwatches have been developed, but none have had long-term sales success, because they have awkward user interfaces due to the tiny screens and buttons, and a short battery life. As miniaturized electronics became cheaper, watches have been developed containing calculators, tonometers, barometers, altimeters, a compass using both hands to show the N/S direction, video games, digital cameras, keydrives, GPS receivers and cellular phones. A few astronomical watches show phase of the Moon and other celestial phenomena. In the early 1980s Seiko marketed a watch with a television in it. Such watches have also had the reputation as unsightly and thus mainly geek toys. Several companies have however attempted to develop a computer contained in a wristwatch (see also wearable computer).

Electronic sports watches, combining timekeeping with GPS and/or activity tracking, address the general fitness market and have the potential for commercial success (Garmin forerunner, Garmin Vivofit, Epson,[2] announced model of Swatch Touch series[52]).

Braille watches have analog displays with raised bumps around the face to allow blind users to tell the time. Their digital equivalents use synthesised speech to speak the time on command.

Fashion

Wristwatches and antique pocket watches are often appreciated as jewelry or as collectible works of art rather than just as timepieces.[53] This has created several different markets for wristwatches, ranging from very inexpensive but accurate watches (intended for no other purpose than telling the correct time) to extremely expensive watches that serve mainly as personal adornment or as examples of high achievement in miniaturization and precision mechanical engineering.

Traditionally, men's dress watches appropriate for informal (business), semi-formal, and formal attire are gold, thin, simple, and plain, but increasingly rugged, complicated, or sports watches are considered by some to be acceptable for such attire. Some dress watches have a cabochon on the crown and many women's dress watches have faceted gemstones on the face, bezel, or bracelet. Some are made entirely of faceted sapphire (corundum).[54]

Many fashions and department stores offer a variety of less-expensive, trendy, "costume" watches (usually for women), many of which are similar in quality to basic quartz timepieces but which feature bolder designs. In the 1980s, the Swiss Swatch company hired graphic designers to redesign a new annual collection of non-repairable watches.

Trade in counterfeit watches, which mimic expensive brand-name watches, constitutes an estimated US$1 billion market per year.[55]

Space The Omega Speedmaster, selected by U.S. space agencies

The zero-gravity environment and other extreme conditions encountered by astronauts in space require the use of specially tested watches.

The first ever watch to be sent into space was a Russian "Pobeda" watch from the Petrodvorets Watch Factory. It was sent on a single orbit flight on the spaceship Korabl-Sputnik 4 on 9 March 1961. The watch had been attached without authorisation to the wrist of Chernuchka, a dog that successfully did exactly the same trip as Yuri Gagarin, with exactly the same rocket and equipment, just a month before Gagarin's flight.[56]

On 12 April 1961, Yuri Gagarin wore a Shturmanskie (a transliteration of Штурманские which actually means "navigator's") wristwatch during his historic first flight into space. The Shturmanskie was manufactured at the First Moscow Factory. Since 1964, the watches of the First Moscow Factory have been marked by the trademark "Полёт", transliterated as "POLJOT", which means "flight" in Russian and is a tribute to the many space trips its watches have accomplished. In the late 1970s, Poljot launched a new chrono movement, the 3133. With a 23 jewel movement and manual winding (43 hours), it was a modified Russian version of the Swiss Valjoux 7734 of the early 1970s. Poljot 3133 were taken into space by astronauts from Russia, France, Germany and Ukraine. On the arm of Valeriy Polyakov, a Poljot 3133 chronograph movement-based watch set a space record for the longest space flight in history.[57]

Astronaut Nancy J. Currie wears the Timex Ironman Triathlon Datalink model 78401 during STS 88.

Through the 1960s, a large range of watches was tested for durability and precision under extreme temperature changes and vibrations. The Omega Speedmaster Professional was selected by NASA, the U.S. space agency. Heuer became the first Swiss watch in space thanks to a Heuer Stopwatch, worn by John Glenn in 1962 when he piloted the Friendship 7 on the first manned U.S. orbital mission. The Breitling Navitimer Cosmonaute was designed with a 24-hour analog dial to avoid confusion between AM and PM, which are meaningless in space. It was first worn in space by U.S. astronaut Scott Carpenter on 24 May 1962 in the Aurora 7 mercury capsule.[58]

Since 1994 Fortis is the exclusive supplier for manned space missions authorized by the Russian Federal Space Agency. China National Space Administration (CNSA) astronauts wear the Fiyta[59] spacewatches. At BaselWorld, 2008, Seiko announced the creation of the first watch ever designed specifically for a space walk, Spring Drive Spacewalk. Timex Datalink is flight certified by NASA for space missions and is one of the watches qualified by NASA for space travel. The Casio G-Shock DW-5600C and 5600E, DW 6900, and DW 5900 are Flight-Qualified for NASA space travel.[60][61][62][63]

Various Timex Datalink models were used both by cosmonauts and astronauts.

Scuba diving Seiko 7002–7020 Diver's 200 m on a 4-ring NATO style strap

Watches may be crafted to become water resistant. These watches are sometimes called diving watches when they are suitable for scuba diving or saturation diving. The International Organization for Standardization issued a standard for water resistant watches which also prohibits the term "waterproof" to be used with watches, which many countries have adopted.

Water resistance is achieved by the gaskets which forms a watertight seal, used in conjunction with a sealant applied on the case to help keep water out. The material of the case must also be tested in order to pass as water resistant.[64]

None of the tests defined by ISO 2281 for the Water Resistant mark are suitable to qualify a watch for scuba diving. Such watches are designed for everyday life and must be water resistant during exercises such as swimming. They can be worn in different temperature and pressure conditions but are under no circumstances designed for scuba diving.

The standards for diving watches are regulated by the ISO 6425 international standard. The watches are tested in static or still water under 125% of the rated (water) pressure, thus a watch with a 200-metre rating will be water resistant if it is stationary and under 250 metres of static water. The testing of the water resistance is fundamentally different from non-dive watches, because every watch has to be fully tested. Besides water resistance standards to a minimum of 100 metre depth rating ISO 6425 also provides eight minimum requirements for mechanical diver's watches for scuba diving (quartz and digital watches have slightly differing readability requirements). For diver's watches for mixed-gas saturation diving two additional requirements have to be met.

Watches are classified by their degree of water resistance, which roughly translates to the following (1 metre = 3.281 feet):[65]

Main Article ISO 6425 Water-resistance rating Suitability Remarks Water Resistant or 30 m Suitable for everyday use. Splash/rain resistant. NOT suitable for diving, swimming, snorkeling, water-related work, or fishing. Water Resistant 50 m Suitable for swimming, white-water rafting, non-snorkeling water related work, and fishing. NOT suitable for diving. Water Resistant 100 m Suitable for recreational surfing, swimming, snorkeling, sailing, and water sports. NOT suitable for diving. Water Resistant 200 m Suitable for professional marine activity and serious surface water sports. Suitable for diving. Diver's 100 m Minimum ISO standard for scuba diving at depths not requiring helium gas. Diver's 100 m and 150 m watches are generally old(er) watches. Diver's 200 m or 300 m Suitable for scuba diving at depths not requiring helium gas. Typical ratings for contemporary diver's watches. Diver's 300+ m helium safe Suitable for saturation diving (helium-enriched environment). Watches designed for helium mixed-gas diving will have additional markings to point this out.

Some watches use bar instead of meters, which may then be multiplied by 10, and then subtract 10 to be approximately equal to the rating based on metres. Therefore, a 5 bar watch is equivalent to a 40-metre watch. Some watches are rated in atmospheres (atm), which are roughly equivalent to bar.

Navigation Main article: Cardinal direction § Watch dial

There is a traditional method by which an analog watch can be used to locate north and south. The Sun appears to move in the sky over a 24-hour period while the hour hand of a 12-hour clock face takes twelve hours to complete one rotation. In the northern hemisphere, if the watch is rotated so that the hour hand points toward the Sun, the point halfway between the hour hand and 12 o'clock will indicate south. For this method to work in the southern hemisphere, the 12 is pointed toward the Sun and the point halfway between the hour hand and 12 o'clock will indicate north. During daylight saving time, the same method can be employed using 1 o'clock instead of 12. This method is accurate enough to be used only at fairly high latitudes.

See also
  • Time portal
  • Technology portal
  • American Watchmakers-Clockmakers Institute
  • Coin watch
  • Smartwatch
  • List of watch manufacturers
  • Marine chronometer
  • National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors
  • Tachymeter (watch)
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Further reading
  • Beckett, Edmund, A Rudimentary Treatise on Clocks, Watches and Bells, 1903, from Project Gutenberg
  • Berner, G.A., Illustrated Professional Dictionary of Horology, Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry FH 1961–2012
  • Daniels, George, Watchmaking, London: Philip Wilson Publishers, 1981 (reprinted 15 June 2011)
  • De Carle, Donald, (Illustrations by E. A. Ayres), Practical Watch Repairing, 3rd edition, New York : Skyhorse Pub., 2008. ISBN 978-1-60239-357-8. Significant information on watches, their history, and inner workings.
  • Denn, Mark, "The Tourbillon and How It Works", IEEE Control Systems Magazine, June 2010, IEEE Control Systems Society, DOI 10.1109/MCS.2010.936291.
  • Grafton, Edward, Horology, a popular sketch of clock and watch making, London: Aylett and Jones, 1849
External links Look up watch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Watches.
  • American and Swiss Watchmaking in 1876 by Jacques David
  • The Watch Factories of America Past and Present by Henry G. Abbott (1888)
  • Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry FH
  • UK patent GB218487, Improvements relating to wrist watches, 1923 patent resulting from John Harwood's invention of a practical self-winding watch mechanism.
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other subject
areas
  • Chronological dating
  • Chronobiology
  • Circadian rhythms
  • Dating methodologies in archaeology
  • Time geography
Related topics
  • Carpe diem
  • Clock position
  • Space
  • System time
  • Tempus fugit
  • Time capsule
  • Time complexity
  • Time signature
  • Time travel
  • Time portal
  • Category
Authority control
  • GND: 4002937-2
  • NDL: 01136932


Fire TV Stick with Alexa Voice Remote | Streaming Media Player
Fire TV Stick with Alexa Voice Remote | Streaming Media Player
Fire TV Stick connects your HDTV to a world of online entertainment. Stream a massive selection of movies and TV episodes from Netflix, Amazon Video, Hulu, and more, and easily find and control content with the Alexa Voice Remote. Plus, get universal search results across top apps, and enjoy live sports, music, photos, games, and more. Just plug Fire TV Stick into your HDTV and start streaming in minutes. Use the included Alexa Voice Remote to find the best way to watch across more than 190 channels and apps with universal search. With the fastest Wi-Fi and most accurate voice search of any streaming media stick, shows and movies start faster and stream smoother than ever. With access to Netflix, Hulu, HBO NOW, Amazon Video, and more—there are over 500,000 TV episodes and movies ready to stream. Watch live TV (including sports and news) as it happens. Directly access millions of websites such as YouTube, Facebook, and Reddit with browsers like Silk and Firefox. Subscription fees may apply. Your Alexa Voice Remote can easily find, launch, and control content. Simply say, “Alexa, find suspense thrillers” and Alexa will show you results. Alexa, the brain behind Amazon Echo, doesn't stop there. Just press the microphone button and ask to play music from Pandora, order a pizza from Domino's, shop for popcorn and snacks, and more. Plus, Alexa on Fire TV is always getting smarter. With newly expanded voice control in apps like Bravo, CBS All Access, Hulu, NBC, PlayStation Vue, and SHOWTIME, Alexa can help you do even more. Use your voice to search, control playback, and even change the channel within supported apps. You can also pair Fire TV and Echo devices, allowing you to control your Fire TV with Alexa. Just ask Alexa to play and search for movies and TV shows, launch apps, and control playback from over 190 apps and channels on your Fire TV.  No cable? No problem. Watch live TV with subscriptions to Hulu, PlayStation Vue, Sling TV, and others, or use an indoor HD antenna connected directly to your TV to get broadcast networks like NBC and PBS for free. Even better with Prime Prime membership unlocks thousands more movies and TV episodes through Prime Video, including Thursday Night Football and Amazon Original Series like The Tick, The Grand Tour, Mozart in the Jungle, and Just Add Magic. Prime members can also add premium channels like HBO, SHOWTIME, and STARZ-no cable or satellite subscription necessary. Only pay for the channels you want to watch, with prices starting as low as $2.99 a month-and you can cancel anytime. Each channel starts with a free trial, so it's easy to discover new favorites.Take your TV with you Never miss an episode when you're away from home. Fire TV Stick works with any HDTV so you can take it over to a friend's house or bring it along to hotels and dorm rooms. Just plug and play anywhere - all you need is a Wi-Fi connection. Some content not available in all countries. Entertain your way Millions of songs are available to stream on Fire TV Stick through Pandora, Amazon Music, and iHeartRadio. Just press the microphone button on the Alexa Voice Remote and say what you'd like to hear next. Plus, watch videos from Facebook, Vevo, and Vimeo.

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$39.99



Fire TV with 4K Ultra HD and Alexa Voice Remote (Pendant Design) | Streaming Media Player
Fire TV with 4K Ultra HD and Alexa Voice Remote (Pendant Design) | Streaming Media Player
Fire TV connects you to a world of entertainment. With a compatible 4K Ultra HD and High Dynamic Range (HDR) TV, watch as thousands of movies and TV episodes come to life in vibrant colors and detailed contrast. Find your favorites with universal voice search across more than 190 integrated channels and apps or discover new content with personalized recommendations on the home screen. Watch what you want Watch over 500,000 movies and TV episodes from Netflix, Prime Video, Hulu, HBO, SHOWTIME, STARZ, and more. On Fire TV, it’s never been easier to access thousands of 4K Ultra HD movies and TV episodes from Netflix, Prime Video, and more. Enjoy live TV, including sports and news, as it airs. Directly access millions of websites such as YouTube, Facebook, and Reddit with browsers like Silk and Firefox. Plus, stream millions of songs through Prime Music, Spotify, and iHeartRadio. Subscription fees may apply. Say it. Play it. Your Alexa Voice Remote can easily find, launch, and control content. Simply press and say, “Alexa, find suspense thrillers” and Alexa will show you results. For hands-free control, pair Fire TV with your favorite Echo device and Alexa will hear you from across the room using far-field voice recognition.Plus, Alexa on Fire TV is always getting smarter. With newly expanded voice control in apps like Bravo, CBS All Access, Hulu, NBC, PlayStation Vue, and SHOWTIME, Alexa can help you do even more. Use your voice to search, control playback, and even change the channel within supported apps.  Immersive entertainment Enjoy stunning 4K Ultra HD streaming at up to 60 fps and HDR enabling more vivid, lifelike colors and exceptional clarity. Feel scenes come to life with three-dimensional Dolby Atmos audio when connected to compatible home audio systems. Go beyond streaming Use Alexa on your Fire TV to view camera feeds, control lights, thermostats, and other compatible smart home devices with your Alexa Voice Remote. Plus, play music, check the weather, listen to the news and more—just ask. Better with Prime Prime membership unlocks thousands more movies and TV episodes through Prime Video, including Thursday Night Football and Amazon Original Series like The Tick, The Grand Tour, Mozart in the Jungle, and Just Add Magic. Prime members can also add premium channels like HBO, SHOWTIME, and STARZ—no cable or satellite subscription necessary. Only pay for the channels you want to watch, with prices starting as low as $2.99 a month—and you can cancel anytime. Each channel starts with a free trial, so it's easy to discover new favorites. No cable? No problem. Watch live TV through Fire TV with subscriptions to Hulu, PlayStation Vue, Sling TV, and others, or use an indoor HD antenna connected directly to your TV to get broadcast networks like NBC and PBS for free. Simple, fast, and fluid Simply plug into your HDTV's HDMI port and connect to the internet via Wi-Fi or the optional Amazon Ethernet Adapter to start enjoying your favorite content. With an ultra-fast 1.5 GHz quad-core processor, Fire TV is 40% more powerful than Fire TV Stick. And with a compact and portable design, it's easy to bring your movies and TV shows with you when you travel.

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$69.99



Echo Show - Black
Echo Show - Black
Voice responses from Alexa are now enhanced with visuals and optimized for visibility across the room. Call or message your family and friends that also have an Echo or the Alexa App, get the news with a video flash briefing, see your Prime Photos, shop with your voice, see lyrics with Amazon Music, browse and listen to Audible audiobooks, and more. All you have to do is ask. Echo Show has eight microphones and beamforming technology so it can hear you from across the room—even while music is playing. Echo Show is also an expertly tuned speaker that can fill any room with immersive audio powered by Dolby. When you want to use Echo Show, just say the wake word "Alexa" and Echo Show responds instantly. Make hands-free voice calls to almost anyone, or video calls to friends and family who have an Echo Spot, Echo Show, or the Alexa App. Use the Drop In feature when you want to connect instantly with other compatible Echo devices in your home. For example, you can drop in to ask what time dinner will be ready, see the baby's nursery, or check in with a close relative. With Alexa Announcements you can also use Echo Show to broadcast a quick, one-way message to all other Echo devices in your home. Making calls with Alexa is easy. Set up your voice profile and teach Alexa to recognize your voice. When you say, “Alexa, call Mom”, Alexa will call your mom, even if you have multiple users in your home. When you're busy making dinner, just ask Alexa to place a call from your Echo Show to almost anyone. For news and information you can see and hear, just ask Alexa for your video flash briefing from CNN. Curious about the latest movie trailers or need a how-to video? Just ask. Echo Show helps keep you organized at home. Start a timer in the kitchen and watch as it counts down, or easily see and manage your family’s calendar. Sign in to the Alexa App to take your to-do and shopping lists with you. Just add an item to the list from home, and whoever is out shopping will see it added instantly on their Alexa App. Voice control your music Powered by Dolby, Echo Show is fine-tuned to deliver crisp vocals with dynamic bass response and expansive sound. Watch as the display comes alive to show song lyrics, custom stations, curated playlists, and album art with Amazon Music. Listen to tens of millions of songs with Amazon Music Unlimited. Echo Show also connects to Spotify, Pandora, iHeartRadio, and TuneIn—giving you voice control for all of your music. Echo Show is Bluetooth-enabled so you can stream other popular music services like Apple Music from your phone or tablet. Far-field voice recognition Equipped with eight microphones, beamforming technology, and noise cancellation, Echo Show hears you from any direction–even while music is playing. When you want to use Echo Show, simply say the wake word, "Alexa" and Echo Show lights up and streams audio to the cloud. The Alexa Voice Service is then leveraged to recognize and respond to your request instantly. If you have more than one Echo Show, Echo, or Echo Dot, Alexa responds from the Echo you're closest to. If you want to limit your interaction with Alexa, simply turn the mic/camera button off. Control your smart home Use Echo Show to see a live camera feed from the nursery or your front door. Turn on the fan or dim the lights from the couch—all without lifting a finger. Control multiple devices at scheduled times or with a single voice command, like locking the doors and turning off the lights when you go to bed (Coming soon). Echo Show works with smart home devices such as cameras, lights, fans, thermostats, garages, sprinklers, and more. Always getting smarter Alexa—the brain behind Echo Show—is built in the cloud, so she is always getting smarter. The more you use Echo Show, the more it adapts to your speech patterns, vocabulary, and personal preferences. And because Echo Show is always connected, updates are delivered automatically. Skills add even more capabilities like making a dinner reservation with OpenTable, requesting a ride from Uber, tracking your steps with Fitbit, trying a new recipe from Allrecipes, and more. New skills are being added all the time. You can also see ratings and reviews to learn what other customers are saying about skills in the Alexa App.

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$129.99
-$100.00(-43%)



Fire HD 10 Tablet with Alexa Hands-Free, 10.1" 1080p Full HD Display, 32 GB, Black - with Special Offers
Fire HD 10 Tablet with Alexa Hands-Free, 10.1" 1080p Full HD Display, 32 GB, Black - with Special Offers
The all-new Fire HD 10 features our largest display, now in 1080p Full HD, 32 GB storage, 2 GB RAM, and up to 10 hours of battery. Now with Alexa hands-free. Expansive and immersive Fire HD 10 features a brilliant 10.1" 1080p Full HD display (1920 x 1200) with over 2 million pixels (224 ppi). Enjoy widescreen movies, videos, and games with wide viewing angles, less glare, and more brightness thanks to a stunning IPS (in-plane-switching) LCD display. Fast and responsive Fire HD 10 is now 30% faster thanks to 2x the RAM over the previous generation and a more powerful quad-core processor. Two 1.8 GHz cores and two 1.4 GHz cores run simultaneously, delivering quick app launches, smooth games and videos, and great overall performance. No more worrying about storage space Fire HD 10 comes with the most internal storage of any Fire tablet at 32 or 64 GB, great for offline video watching. Expand your storage by up to 256 GB using a microSD card, and keep photos, favorite movies, and compatible games and apps with you. Plus enjoy free unlimited cloud storage for all your Amazon content and photos taken with your Fire tablet. Power when you need it Don't be tethered to an outlet—now with up to 10 hours of mixed-use battery life, Fire HD 10 gives you more flexibility to go where the day takes you. Capture life's moments Fire HD 10 features a 2 MP rear-facing camera for taking photos or shooting 720p video. The front-facing VGA camera is perfect for Skype calls with friends and family. Engineered by Amazon Amazon engineers Fire tablets to hold up against everyday life. As measured in tumble tests, Fire HD 10 is more durable than the latest iPad Pro 10.5" (and costs a lot less too). Alexa on Fire tablets Alexa, the brain behind Echo, provides quick access to the information and entertainment you want, including video, music, games, audiobooks, and more. Ask Alexa questions, see your calendar, get news, show sports scores, and even control your smart home—just ask. Now with hands-free mode When connected to Wi-Fi, simply say the wake word, "Alexa." Alexa will respond to you—even when the screen is asleep—and will show visual responses to certain questions. Everyday tasks made easier Alexa on Fire tablets helps make every day easier. Just ask to set alarms and timers, check traffic, your calendar, to-do or shopping lists, and more. You can order millions of items with your voice, such as household and personal care products. Be entertained Whether you are playing and pausing your favorite movie, starting a playlist, or need a quick joke, you can ask Alexa and stream directly over Wi-Fi. Alexa also provides voice control for Amazon Video, Prime Music, Pandora, iHeartRadio, TuneIn, and more. Voice control your smart home Alexa works with devices such as lights, switches, thermostats, security cameras (coming soon), and more from SmartThings, Insteon, Nest, ecobee, Arlo, Ring, and Wink. Dim the lights from the couch to watch a movie or change the temperature on your thermostat while reading in your favorite chair—all without lifting a finger. Alexa responds intelligently If you have more than one Alexa device nearby, Alexa responds intelligently from the Fire tablet or Alexa device you’re closest to. If you want a device other than your tablet to respond more often, you can do that too. Watch in 1080p Full HD Enjoy all your favorite movies and TV shows on Amazon Video, Netflix, HBO NOW, Sling TV, and more (subscription fees may apply). Discover hundreds of thousands of TV episodes and movies, plus fling Amazon Video content to your Fire TV using Second Screen. Enhance your video experience with features you only get from Amazon, including On Deck for watching videos anywhere, ASAP for fast video streaming, and X-Ray to go behind the scenes of your favorite movies and TV shows while you watch. Watch downloaded videos anywhere with a Prime membership, Netflix plan, or Showtime subscription—on a plane, on vacation, in the car, or wherever you don't have a wireless connection. Read Choose from millions of Kindle eBook and magazine titles that you won't be able to find anywhere else. Over 1 million titles are priced at $2.99 or less. Or read as much as you want with a Kindle Unlimited subscription for just $9.99 a month. Connect with the largest online community of book lovers on Goodreads. Read comfortably at night with Blue Shade, an exclusive Fire OS feature that automatically adjusts and optimizes the backlight for a more comfortable nighttime reading experience. Listen With millions of songs from thousands of artists, the Amazon Digital Music Store brings all your favorite music to your fingertips. Music you buy on your Fire tablet is saved to Your Music Library for free, and you can play or download it anytime. Unlock more music with Amazon Music Unlimited, just $7.99 per month for Prime members ($9.99 per month for non-Prime members). Audible offers more than 180,000 titles in audiobooks, including best sellers, romances, thrillers, and much more. Play Fire tablets feature instant access to over 600,000 of the most popular free and best-selling games, social media, premium TV and movie provider apps, and so much more. Choose from top titles including Candy Crush Saga, Township, Mobile Strike, and more. Try Prime free for a month If you haven't tried Amazon Prime in the past, we'll give you a 30-day free trial. Experience what millions of members already enjoy—unlimited streaming of thousands of hit movies and TV episodes, ad-free access to over a million songs, over a thousand Kindle books, and Free Two-Day Shipping on millions of items Unlimited reading on any device Prime Reading gives you unlimited access to over a thousand books, current magazines, comics, Kindle Singles, and more. With any device—including your phone, tablet, or Kindle—you can read however you want, whenever you want. Stream thousands of movies and TV episodes with Prime Video With Amazon Prime, members enjoy unlimited streaming of thousands of movies and TV episodes at no additional cost, including award-winning Amazon Original series Transparent, top HBO shows like True Blood, Girls, and Curb Your Enthusiasm. No Wi-Fi, no problem—Prime Video downloads Exclusive to Prime members, download thousands of Prime Video movies and TV episodes. Watch downloaded videos anywhere—on a plane, on vacation, in the car, or wherever you don't have a wireless connection. Prime Video offers offline viewing at no additional cost. Over 2 million songs free with Amazon Music Prime Music is a benefit of your Amazon Prime Membership, featuring a growing selection of 2 million songs, always ad-free and on-demand. Unlock more music with Amazon Music Unlimited, just $7.99 per month for Prime members. Add HBO, SHOWTIME and more to Prime With Amazon Channels, Prime members can also subscribe to over 100 premium and specialty channels like HBO and SHOWTIME to add and stream—no cable or satellite subscription necessary. Prime members can subscribe to any or all of these channels with a free trial.

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$149.99



Fitbit Charge 2 Heart Rate + Fitness Wristband, Black, Large (US Version)
Fitbit Charge 2 Heart Rate + Fitness Wristband, Black, Large (US Version)
Fitbit will not provide warranty on international version products sold in US

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$127.50
-$22.45(-15%)



Fitbit Versa Smartwatch, Black/Black Aluminium, One Size (S & L Bands Included)
Fitbit Versa Smartwatch, Black/Black Aluminium, One Size (S & L Bands Included)
Meet Fitbit Versa - an all-day companion that helps you live your best life. This lightweight, swimproof smartwatch empowers you to reach health and fitness goals with 24/7 heart rate, actionable insights, personalized guidance, on-screen workouts and more. Run your day with notifications, quick replies (android only), apps, phone-free music -- all with 4+ day battery life (varies with use and other factors). Plus, wear it your way with fresh accessories and clock faces.

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$197.95
-$2.00(-1%)



Amazon Cloud Cam Security Camera, Works with Alexa
Amazon Cloud Cam Security Camera, Works with Alexa
Catch every moment Amazon Cloud Cam features everything you need to help keep your home safe. When Cloud Cam sees any activity you’ll receive a notification, allowing you to keep tabs on your home from anywhere. Our always-ready motion detection feature helps to capture activities right from the start. Stay connected 24/7 Monitor your home, family, and pets in crisp 1080p Full HD, and catch activity as it happens. Use the Cloud Cam App to check in on your home anytime by viewing live video streams, replaying motion alert clips, and more. Watch 24 hours of motion alert video clips for free in the Cloud Cam App or in your Amazon Drive account with unlimited downloads and shares. See clearly in the dark Cloud Cam features eight infrared LEDs and Cloud Cam’s computer vision algorithms automatically activate night vision when lighting is dim. See the camera’s entire field of view at night—not just a spotlight. Turn on/off night vision LEDs in the Cloud Cam App. Two-way audio Cloud Cam's built-in mic and speaker let you stay in touch with your household. Check in with the kids after school, tell your dog to stop barking, or say hello through the Cloud Cam App. Intelligent alerts Cloud Cam's motion detection and computer vision technology provides customizable notifications so you only get the alerts that matter. Get intelligent alerts like person detection with a Cloud Cam subscription plan. Start your 30-day free trial today Upgrade to a Cloud Cam subscription for advanced features like person detection and get notified when Cloud Cam sees a person. Or set Zones, which lets you select areas that Cloud Cam should ignore, like a fish tank or a tree outside a window. Cloud Cam subscriptions include up to 30 days of video history and support for up to 10 cameras. See your entire home With Cloud Cam, it's easy to see all the areas in your home that you want to cover. Place Cloud Cam inside your front door to see who's arriving or in the living room to keep tabs on your pets while you're away. You can manage all of your cameras from the Cloud Cam App, making it easier for you to see more at all times. Works with Alexa Just ask Alexa to show Cloud Cam's live view on your Fire TV, Fire Tablet, Echo Show, or Echo Spot for a quick way to see what's happening in another room. You can also speak or listen through Echo Show or Echo Spot using Cloud Cam's two-way audio-an easy way to let your kids know it's time for dinner. Cloud Cam is built in the same cloud as Alexa so it's always getting smarter with more advanced alerts, detection, and features. Check in from anywhere With the free Cloud Cam App on Fire OS, Android, and iOS, you can access your Cloud Cam feed, anywhere you go. Use the Cloud Cam App to check in 24/7 and catch activity as it happens. Replay important motion detected activities that were captured throughout the day. Name your cameras to easily differentiate monitoring views, like Kitchen and Living Room. Check in with the family or let your kids know when it's time for bed with two-way audio. You can even customize alerts* and focus on areas that are most important by highlighting zones for Cloud Cam to ignore. *Cloud Cam subscription plan required. Find the right plan for you Cloud Cam comes with notifications that let you know when activity is detected. With a Cloud Cam subscription plan, you can unlock advanced features that include: * Person detection—notifies you when a person is detected. * Zones—reduce unwanted alerts by specifying areas to ignore. * Unlimited download & shares—for your video clips. Introducing Amazon Key Not at home? Not a problem. As a Prime member, get your Amazon packages securely delivered just inside your front door. Plus, grant access to the people you trust, like your family, friends, dog walker, or house cleaner—no more leaving a key under the mat. Amazon Key is exclusively for Prime members in select cities and surrounding areas. To get started, purchase the Amazon Key In-Home Kit, starting at $249.99. The kit includes: the Amazon Cloud Cam (Key Edition) indoor security camera and a compatible smart lock from Kwikset or Yale.

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$119.99



Echo Spot - Black
Echo Spot - Black
What is Echo Spot? Echo Spot brings you everything you love about Alexa, in a stylish and compact design that can show you things. Just ask to see the weather, get the news with a video flash briefing, set an alarm, see lyrics with Amazon Music, see your calendar, browse and listen to Audible audiobooks, and more. Personalize your Spot with a collection of clock faces to suit your style or set a photo background from Prime Photos. Plus, make calls to friends and family or make video calls to anyone with an Echo Spot, Echo Show, or the Alexa App. Echo Spot features 2nd generation far-field technology with four microphones, beamforming technology, and enhanced noise cancellation, so it can hear you from across the room—even while music is playing. If you have more than one Echo, Alexa responds intelligently from the Echo you're closest to with ESP (Echo Spatial Perception). Designed for any room Echo Spot is small and compact, and fits easily into any room of your home. The compact size and viewing angle of the screen make Echo Spot ideal for use on a nightstand or desk as a smart alarm clock that can also turn your lights on and off, show your commute time, get the weather, or show your calendar. Or use Spot in the kitchen to easily set and see timers, call friends and family, see shopping and to do lists, and more. Echo Spot can connect directly to speakers using a 3.5 mm stereo cable or Bluetooth to add voice control to your home stereo system in the living room or den. Plus, with multi-room music, play your favorites throughout your home across multiple Echo devices (Spotify and Sirius XM coming soon, Bluetooth not supported for multi-room music). Info at a glance For news and information you can see and hear, just ask Alexa for your video flash briefing from CNN, Bloomberg, and more. Curious about the latest movie trailers or showtimes? Just ask. Echo Spot helps keep you organized at home. Start a timer in the kitchen and watch as it counts down, or easily see and manage your family's calendar. Sign in to the Alexa App to take your to-do and shopping lists with you. Just add an item to the list from home, and whoever is out shopping will see it added instantly on their Alexa App. Voice control your music Echo Spot provides hands-free voice control for your music. Watch as the display comes alive to show song lyrics, custom stations, curated playlists, and album art with Amazon Music. Listen to tens of millions of songs with Amazon Music Unlimited. Echo Spot also connects to Spotify, Pandora, iHeartRadio, and TuneIn—giving you voice control for all of your music. Echo Spot is Bluetooth-enabled so you can stream other popular music services like Apple Music from your phone or tablet. Control your smart home Use Echo Spot to see a live camera feed from the nursery or your front door. Turn on the fan or dim the lights from the couch—all without lifting a finger. Control multiple devices at scheduled times or with a single voice command, like locking the doors and turning off the lights when you go to bed. Echo Spot works with smart home devices such as cameras, lights, TVs, fans, thermostats, garages, sprinklers, and more. Be together more Make hands-free voice calls to almost anyone, or video calls to friends and family who have an Echo Spot, Echo Show, or the Alexa App. Use the Drop In feature when you want to connect instantly with other compatible Echo devices in your home. For example, you can drop in to ask what time dinner will be ready, see the baby's nursery, or check in with a close relative. With Alexa Announcements you can also use Echo Spot to broadcast a quick, one-way message to all other Echo devices in your home. Making calls with Alexa is easy. Set up your voice profile and teach Alexa to recognize your voice. When you say, "Alexa, call Mom", Alexa will call your mom, even if you have multiple users in your home. With the Alexa App, conversations and contacts go where you go. When you're away from home, use the app to make a quick call or send a message to your family's Echo. Alexa has skills Echo Spot can use tens of thousands of skills and counting. Skills add even more capabilities like ordering a pizza from Domino's, requesting a ride from Uber, tracking your fitness with Fitbit, controlling your TV with Dish, and more. To enable new skills, just ask Alexa. New skills are being added all the time. You can also see ratings and reviews to learn what other customers are saying about the thousands of skills available in the Alexa App. Always getting smarter Alexa is always getting smarter—the more you use Echo Spot, the more Alexa adapts to your speech patterns, vocabulary, and personal preferences. And because Spot is always connected, updates are delivered automatically. Just in the last few months we've added Alexa calling and messaging, multi-room music, and reminders, along with skills from third-party developers.

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$129.99



Xbox One S 1TB Console - Starter Bundle
Xbox One S 1TB Console - Starter Bundle
Own the Xbox One S Starter Bundle (1TB), and dive into the very BEST of Xbox One. Get instant access to over 100 great games with 3 months of Xbox game Pass. Enjoy an expansive catalog of games carefully curated for high quality and fun gameplay, including fan favorites such as Halo 5: Guardians, Dirt Rally, and LEGO Batman. Games are added every month so there's always something new to play. Play with and against friends around the world with 3 months of Xbox live Gold, plus receive exclusive membership perks like free games each month and deep store discounts on Xbox One. This bundle Includes the Xbox One S Console with built-in 4K Ultra HD Blu-ray, 4K video streaming, high dynamic range, Premium audio, and an Xbox wireless Controller. With over 1, 300 great games including today's blockbusters, 200 Console exclusives, and 400 Xbox classics, there's never been a better time to game with Xbox One.

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$279.99
-$20.00(-7%)



Samsung Galaxy Watch (46mm) Silver (Bluetooth), SM-R800NZSAXAR – US Version with Warranty
Samsung Galaxy Watch (46mm) Silver (Bluetooth), SM-R800NZSAXAR – US Version with Warranty
Live a stronger, smarter life with Galaxy Watch at your wrist. Rest well, stay active and keep stress at bay with built-in health tracking. Go for days without charging your watch. —the Bluetooth connection keeps everything at your wrist. *Compatible with select Bluetooth-capable smartphones. Galaxy Watch supported features may vary by carrier and compatible device. For best results, connect with compatible Samsung Galaxy smartphones.) **Battery life for Bluetooth (46mm) model is roughly three to four days. Battery life for LTE model and Bluetooth (42mm) model is roughly two to three days. Your results may vary.

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$347.99
-$2.00(-1%)


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