Humor Definition
Humor Definition
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Black comedy
humor – Dictionary definition of black humor – FREE online dictionary". Retrieved 15 April 2018. "black humor

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For other uses, see Black comedy (disambiguation). "Black humor" redirects here. For the Spanish/Italian film, see Black Humor (film). "Dark comedy" redirects here. For the album by Open Mike Eagle, see Dark Comedy (album). Not to be confused with Black sitcom. Comic work based on subject matter that is generally considered taboo '"Hopscotch to oblivion", Barcelona, Spain

Black comedy, also known as dark comedy or gallows humor, is a comic style that makes light of subject matter that is generally considered taboo, particularly subjects that are normally considered serious or painful to discuss. Comedians often use it as a tool for exploring vulgar issues, thus provoking discomfort and serious thought as well as amusement in their audience. Popular themes of the genre include death and violence (murder, suicide, abuse, domestic violence, graphic violence, rape, torture, war, genocide, terrorism, corruption), discrimination (chauvinism, racism, sexism, homophobia), disease (anxiety, depression, nightmares, drug abuse, mutilation, disability, terminal illness, insanity), sexuality (sodomy, homosexuality, incest, infidelity, fornication), religion, and barbarism.

Black comedy differs from blue comedy which focuses more on crude topics such as nudity, sex, and bodily fluids. Although the two are interrelated, black comedy is also different from straightforward obscenity in that it is more subtle and does not necessarily have the explicit intention of offending people. In obscene humor, much of the humorous element comes from shock and revulsion, while black comedy might include an element of irony, or even fatalism. For example, an archetypal example of black comedy in the form of self-mutilation appears in the English novel Tristram Shandy. Tristram, five years old at the time, starts to urinate out of an open window for lack of a chamber pot. The sash falls and circumcises him; his family reacts with both hysteria and philosophical acceptance.

Literary critics have associated black comedy and black humor with authors as early as the ancient Greeks with Aristophanes.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

Whereas the term black comedy is a relatively broad term covering humor relating to many serious subjects, gallows humor tends to be used more specifically in relation to death, or situations that are reminiscent of dying.

The black humor can occasionally be related to the grotesque genre.[8]

  • 1 History and etymology
    • 1.1 Origin of the term
    • 1.2 Adoption in American literary criticism
  • 2 Nature and functions
  • 3 Examples
    • 3.1 Gallows speeches
    • 3.2 Military
    • 3.3 Emergency service workers
    • 3.4 Other
  • 4 In popular culture
  • 5 See also
  • 6 Notes
History and etymology An amusing play on words Origin of the term

The term black humor (from the French humour noir) was coined by the Surrealist theorist André Breton in 1935 while interpreting the writings of Jonathan Swift.[9][10] Breton's preference was to identify some of Swift's writings as a subgenre of comedy and satire[11][12] in which laughter arises from cynicism and skepticism,[9][13] often relying on topics such as death.[14][15]

Breton coined the term for his book Anthology of Black Humor (Anthologie de l'humour noir), in which he credited Jonathan Swift as the originator of black humor and gallows humor (particularly in his pieces Directions to Servants (1731), A Modest Proposal (1729), A Meditation Upon a Broom-Stick (1710), and in a few aphorisms).[10][13] In his book, Breton also included excerpts from 45 other writers, including both examples in which the wit arises from a victim with which the audience empathizes, as is more typical in the tradition of gallows humor, and examples in which the comedy is used to mock the victim. In the last cases, the victim's suffering is trivialized, which leads to sympathizing with the victimizer, as analogously found in the social commentary and social criticism of the writings of (for instance) Sade.

Adoption in American literary criticism

Among the first American writers who employed black comedy in their works were Nathanael West[16] and Vladimir Nabokov,[16] although at the time the genre was not widely known in the US. The concept of black humor first came to nationwide attention after the publication of a 1965 mass-market paperback titled Black Humor, of which the editor was Bruce Jay Friedman.[6][17] The paperback was one of the first American anthologies devoted to the concept of black humor as a literary genre.[7] With the paperback, Friedman labeled as "black humorists" a variety of authors, such as J.P. Donleavy,[6][7] Edward Albee,[6][7] Joseph Heller,[6][7] Thomas Pynchon,[6][7] John Barth,[6][7] Vladimir Nabokov,[6][7] Bruce Jay Friedman[6][7] himself, and Louis-Ferdinand Celine.[6][7] Among the writers labeled as black humorists by journalists and literary critics are today also Roald Dahl,[18] Kurt Vonnegut,[11] Warren Zevon, and Philip Roth.[11] The motive for applying the label black humorist to all the writers cited above is that they have written novels, poems, stories, plays, and songs in which profound or horrific events were portrayed in a comic manner. Comedians, like Lenny Bruce,[12] that since the late 1950s have been labeled for using "sick comedy" by mainstream journalists, have also been labeled with "black comedy".

Nature and functions Jewish humor book featuring Hershel of Ostropol

Sigmund Freud in his 1927 essay Humour (Der Humor) puts forth the following theory of black comedy: "The ego refuses to be distressed by the provocations of reality, to let itself be compelled to suffer. It insists that it cannot be affected by the traumas of the external world; it shows, in fact, that such traumas are no more than occasions for it to gain pleasure." Some other sociologists elaborated this concept further. At the same time, Paul Lewis warns that this "relieving" aspect of gallows jokes depends on the context of the joke: whether the joke is being told by the threatened person themselves or by someone else.[19]

Black comedy has the social effect of strengthening the morale of the oppressed and undermines the morale of the oppressors.[20][21] According to Wylie Sypher, "to be able to laugh at evil and error means we have surmounted them."[22]

Black comedy is a natural human instinct and examples of it can be found in stories from antiquity. Its use was widespread in middle Europe, from where it was imported to the United States.[23] It is rendered with the German expression Galgenhumor. The concept of gallows humor is comparable to the French expression rire jaune (lit. yellow laughing),[24][25][26] which also has a Germanic equivalent in the Belgian Dutch expression groen lachen (lit. green laughing).[27][28][29][30]

Italian comedian Daniele Luttazzi discussed gallows humour focusing on the particular type of laughter that it arouses (risata verde or groen lachen), and said that grotesque satire, as opposed to ironic satire, is the one that most often arouses this kind of laughter.[31][32][33] In the Weimar era Kabaretts, this genre was particularly common, and according to Luttazzi, Karl Valentin and Karl Kraus were the major masters of it.[33]


There are multiple recorded instances of humorous last words and final statements. For example, author and playwright Oscar Wilde was destitute and living in a cheap boarding house when he found himself on his deathbed. There are variations on what his exact words were, but his reputed last words were, "Either that wallpaper goes or I do."[34][35]

Gallows speeches

Examples of gallows speeches include:

  • In Edo period Japan, condemned criminals were occasionally executed by expert swordsmen, who used living bodies to test the quality of their blade (Tameshigiri). There is an apocryphal story of one who, after being told he was to be executed by a sword tester, calmly joked that if he had known that was going to happen, he would have swallowed large stones to damage the blade.[36]
  • One of the first convicts transported in Australia by the British Empire, John Caesar, escaped the penal colony in 1789 and lived as a bushranger in the wilderness. He survived by raiding garden patches with a stolen gun. When he was eventually caught, according to colonial governor David Collins he was "so indifferent about meeting death, that he declared in confinement that if he should be hanged he would create a laugh before he was turned off, by playing some trick upon the executioner."[37] He was reprieved but died six years later from gunshot wounds after escaping a second time.
  • Murderer James French has been attributed with famous last words before his death by electric chair: "How's this for a headline? 'French Fries'."
  • As Sir Thomas More climbed a rickety scaffold where he would be executed, he said to his executioner: "I pray you, Mr. Lieutenant, see me safe up; and for my coming down, let me shift for myself."[38]
  • At his public execution, the murderer William Palmer is said to have looked at the trapdoor on the gallows and asked the hangman, "Are you sure it's safe?"[39]
  • Sir Walter Raleigh was beheaded in the Old Palace Yard at the Palace of Westminster on 29 October 1618. "Let us dispatch", he said to his executioner. "At this hour my ague comes upon me. I would not have my enemies think I quaked from fear." After he was allowed to see the axe that would behead him, he mused: "This is a sharp Medicine, but it is a Physician for all diseases and miseries." According to many biographers – Raleigh Trevelyan in his book Sir Walter Raleigh (2002) for instance – Sir Walter's final words (as he lay ready for the axe to fall) were: "Strike, man, strike!"[citation needed]
  • Ronald Reagan, upon being transported to the emergency room after being shot by John Hinckley, Jr., is reported to have said to his doctors, "Please tell me you’re Republicans."[40]
  • The Prefect of Rome executed Saint Lawrence in a great gridiron prepared with hot coals beneath it. He had Lawrence placed on it, hence St Lawrence's association with the gridiron. After the martyr had suffered pain for a long time, the legend concludes, he cheerfully declared: "I'm well done. Turn me over!" From this derives his patronage of cooks, chefs, and comedians.

Military life is full of gallows humor, as those in the services continuously live in the danger of being killed, especially in wartime. For example:

  • The Imperial Japanese Navy Mitsubishi G4M Isshikirikkou (イッシキリッコウ) "Betty" bomber airplane was called "Hamaki" (葉巻 or はまき, meaning cigar) by the Japanese crews not only because its fuselage was cigar-shaped, but because it had a tendency to ignite on fire and burn violently when it was hit. The American nickname was "flying Zippo".
  • When the survivors of HMS Sheffield, sunk in 1982 in the Falklands War, were awaiting rescue, they were reported to have sung the Monty Python song, "Always Look on the Bright Side of Life".[41]
  • Soviet pilots in World War II joked that the true meaning of the type designation of the LaGG-3 was Lakirovanny Garantirovanny Grob, "varnished guaranteed coffin".
  • Soviet military vehicle BMP-1 was called Bratskaya Mogila Pekhoty ("mass grave of infantry") by soldiers, as the hit would kill all the crew.
  • In the Battle of Jutland (31 May – 1 June 1916), the destroyer HMS Tipperary was sunk in an overnight engagement with the heavily armed German dreadnought SMS Westfalen. Only 13 survived out of a crew of 197. The survivors were identified in the darkness by the crew of HMS Sparrowhawk because they were heard in the distance, singing, "It's a long way to Tipperary".[42]
  • During the Winter War the Soviet Union bombed Helsinki, and after Soviets claimed they were air-dropping food to the "starving people of Helsinki" the Finnish people dubbed the Soviet bombs "Molotov bread baskets", and in return called their firebombs Molotov cocktails, as "a drink to go with the food."
  • During World War II, the Soviet soldiers dubbed the 45 mm anti-tank gun M1937 (53-K) "Good bye, Motherland!", as its penetration was proving to be inadequate for the task of destroying German tanks, meaning a crew operating one was practically defenseless against the enemy tanks.
  • During World War II, United States ships in the escort carrier category were given the ship prefix "CVE". Crews joked that this stood for "Combustible, Vulnerable, Expendable" due to the ship's complete lack of armor and high numbers of ships constructed.
  • During World War II, British and American soldiers referred to the Landing Ship, Tank, abbreviated LST, as 'Long Slow Target' or 'Large Slow Target' when facing German forces. It was 382 feet (116 m) long, but some could only manage 10–12 knots (19–22 km/h; 12–14 mph) fully laden.
  • After the Finnish coastal defence ship Ilmarinen went down with 271 fatalities after hitting a mine on 13 September 1941 the 132 survivors were nicknamed "Ilmarisen uimaseura", "Ilmarinen's swimming club."
Emergency service workers

Workers in the emergency services are also known for using black comedy:

  • Graham Wettone, a retired police officer who wrote a book How To Be A Police Officer, noted the presence of black comedy in the police force. He described it as "often not the type of humour that can be understood outside policing or the other emergency services." For example, an officer who attended four cases of suicide by hanging in six months was nicknamed "Albert" (after the hangman Albert Pierrepoint) and encountered comments like "You hanging around the canteen today?"[43]

There are several titles It Only Hurts When I Laugh and Only When I Laugh, which allude to the punch of a joke which exists in numerous versions since at least 19th century. A typical setup is that someone badly hurt (e.g., a Wild West rancher with an arrow in his chest, a Jew crucified by the Nazis, etc.) is asked "Does it hurt?" — "A am fine; it only hurts when I laugh."[44][45]

In popular culture
  • In the conclusion to Monty Python's Life of Brian, a group of crucified criminals joyfully sing "Always Look on the Bright Side of Life".
  • The Shel Silverstein song, "25 Minutes to Go".
  • In Stephen King's science fiction novel The Tommyknockers (1987), the main character reflects on a joke he "heard once". In the joke, as a man is about to be executed, the firing squad leader offers him a cigarette. The man replies, "No thanks, I'm trying to quit."
  • From William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet, Act 3, Scene 1:
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Mercutio is stabbed in a swordfight by Tybalt, Juliet's cousin:

Romeo: "Courage, man; the hurt cannot be much."
Mercutio: "No, 'tis not so deep as a well, nor so wide as a church-door; but 'tis enough, 'twill serve: ask for me to-morrow, and you shall find me a grave man."

See also
  • Cringe comedy
  • Comedy horror
  • Macabre
  • Off-color humor
  1. ^ Dark Humor. Edited by Blake Hobby. Chealsea House Press.
  2. ^ "Black humour". Retrieved 15 April cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ Garrick, Jacqueline and Williams, Mary Beth (2006) Trauma treatment techniques: innovative trends pp.175–6
  4. ^ Lipman, Steve (1991) Laughter in hell: the use of humor during the Holocaust, Northvale, N.J:J Aronson Inc.
  5. ^ Kurt Vonnegut (1971) Running Experiments Off: An Interview, interview by Laurie Clancy, published in Meanjin Quarterly, 30 (Autumn, 1971), pp.46–54, and in Conversations with Kurt Vonnegut, quote:

    The term was part of the language before Freud wrote an essay on it—'gallows humor.' This is middle European humor, a response to hopeless situations. It's what a man says faced with a perfectly hopeless situation and he still manages to say something funny. Freud gives examples: A man being led out to be hanged at dawn says, 'Well, the day is certainly starting well.' It's generally called Jewish humor in this country. Actually it's humor from the peasants' revolt, the forty years' war, and from the Napoleonic wars. It's small people being pushed this way and that way, enormous armies and plagues and so forth, and still hanging on in the face of hopelessness. Jewish jokes are middle European jokes and the black humorists are gallows humorists, as they try to be funny in the face of situations which they see as just horrible.

  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bloom, Harold (2010) Dark Humor, ch. On dark humor in literature, pp.80–88
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Freud (1927) Humor
  8. ^ Merhi, Vanessa M. (2006) Distortion as identity from the grotesque to l'humour noir
  9. ^ a b Real, Hermann Josef (2005) The reception of Jonathan Swift in Europe, p.90 quote:

    At least, Swift's text is preserved, and so is a prefactory note by the French writer André Breton, which emphasizes Swift's importance as the originator of black humor, of laughter that arises from cynicism and scepticism.

  10. ^ a b Lezard, Nicholas (2009-02-21). "From the sublime to the surreal". The Guardian. London.
  11. ^ a b c "black humor – Dictionary definition of black humor – FREE online dictionary". Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  12. ^ a b "black humor – Hutchinson encyclopedia article about black humor". Retrieved 2010-06-24.
  13. ^ a b André Breton introduction to Swift in Anthology of Black Humor, quote:

    When it comes to black humor, everything designates him as the true initiator. In fact, it is impossible to coordinate the fugitive traces of this kind of humor before him, not even in Heraclitus and the Cynics or in the works of Elizabethan dramatic poets. historically justify his being presented as the first black humorist. Contrary to what Voltaire might have said, Swift was in no sense a "perfected Rabelais." He shared to the smallest possible degree Rabelais's taste for innocent, heavy-handed jokes and his constant drunken good humor. a man who grasped things by reason and never by feeling, and who enclosed himself in skepticism; Swift can rightfully be considered the inventor of "savage" or "gallows" humor.

  14. ^ Thomas Leclair (1975) Death and Black Humor in Critique, Vol. 17, 1975
  15. ^ Rowe, W. Woodin (1974). "Observations on Black Humor in Gogol' and Nabokov". The Slavic and East European Journal. 18 (4): 392–399. JSTOR 306869.
  16. ^ a b Merriam-Webster, Inc (1995) Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of literature, entry black humor, p.144
  17. ^ O'Neill, Patrick (2010). "The Comedy of Entropy: The Contexts of Black Humor". In Harold Bloom; Blake Hobby. Dark Humor. Bloom's Literary Themes. New York, New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 82. ISBN 9781438131023. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  18. ^ James Carter Talking Books: Children's Authors Talk About the Craft, Creativity and Process of Writing, Volume 2 p.97 Routledge, 2002
  19. ^ Paul Lewis, "Three Jews and a Blindfold: The Politics of Gallows Humor", In: "Semites and Stereotypes: Characteristics of Jewish Humor" (1993), ISBN 0-313-26135-0, p. 49
  20. ^ Obrdlik, Antonin J. (1942) "Gallows Humor"-A Sociological Phenomenon, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 47, No. 5 (Mar., 1942), pp. 709–716
  21. ^ Mariah Snyder, Ruth Lindquist Complementary and alternative therapies in nursing
  22. ^ Wylie Sypher quoted in ZhouRaymond, Jingqiong Carver's short fiction in the history of black humor p.132
  23. ^ Kurt Vonnegut (1971) Running Experiments Off: An Interview, in Conversations with Kurt Vonnegut quote:

    The term was part of the language before Freud wrote an essay on it – 'gallows humour.' This is middle European humour, a response to hopeless situations. It's what a man says faced with a perfectly hopeless situation and he still manages to say something funny. Freud gives examples: A man being led out to be hanged at dawn says, 'Well, the day is certainly starting well.' It's generally called Jewish humour in this country. Actually it's humour from the peasants' revolt, the thirty years' war, and from the Napoleonic wars. It's small people being pushed this way and that way, enormous armies and plagues and so forth, and still hanging on in the face of hopelessness. Jewish jokes are middle European jokes. And the black humourists are gallows humourists, as they try to be funny in the face of situations which they see as just horrible.

  24. ^ Redfern, W. D. and Redfern, Walter (2005) Calembours, ou les puns et les autres : traduit de l'intraduisible , p.211 quote:

    Des termes parents du Galgenhumor sont: : comédie noire, plaisanterie macabre, rire jaune. (J'en offre un autre: gibêtises).

  25. ^ Müller, Walter (1961) Französische Idiomatik nach Sinngruppen, p.178 quote:

    humour macabre, humeur de désespéré, (action de) rire jaune Galgenhumor propos guilleret etwas freie, gewagte Äußerung

  26. ^ Dupriez, Bernard Marie (1991) A dictionary of literary devices: gradus, A-Z, p.313 quote:

    Walter Redfern, discussing puns about death, remarks: 'Related terms to gallows humour are: black comedy, sick humour, rire jaune. In all, pain and pleasure are mixed, perhaps the definitive recipe for all punning' (Puns, p. 127).

  27. ^ Brachin, Pierre (1985) The Dutch language: a survey pp.101–2
  28. ^ Claude et Marcel De Grève, Françoise Wuilmart, TRADUCTION / Translation Archived 2011-05-19 at the Wayback Machine., section Histoire et théorie de la traduction – Recherches sur les microstructures, in: Grassin, Jean-Marie (ed.), DITL (Dictionnaire International des Termes Littéraires), "
  29. ^ (1950) Zaïre, Volume 4, Part 1, p.138 quote:

    En français on dit « rire jaune », en flamand « groen lachen »

  30. ^ Chédel, André (1965) Description moderne des langues du monde: le latin et le grec inutile? p.171 quote:

    Les termes jaune, vert, bleu évoquent en français un certain nombre d'idées qui sont différentes de celles que suscitent les mots holandais correspondants geel, groen, blauw. Nous disons : rire jaune, le Hollandais dit : rire vert ( groen lachen ) ; ce que le Néerlandais appelle un vert (een groentje), c'est ce qu'en français on désigne du nom de bleu (un jeune soldat inexpéribenté)... On voit que des confrontations de ce genre permettent de concevoir une étude de la psychologie des peuples fondée sur les associations d'idées que révèlent les variations de sens (sémantique), les expressions figurées, les proverbes et les dictions.

  31. ^ Pardo, Denise (2001) Interview with Daniele Luttazzi, in L'Espresso, February 1st, 2001 quote:

    Q: Critiche feroci, interrogazioni parlamentari: momenti duri per la satira.

    A: Satira è far ridere a spese di chi è più ricco e potente di te. Io sono specialista nella risata verde, quella dei cabaret di Berlino degli anni Venti e Trenta. Nasce dalla disperazione. Esempio: l'Italia è un paese dove la commissione di vigilanza parlamentare Rai si comporta come la commissione stragi e viceversa. Oppure: il mistero di Ustica è irrisolto? Sono contento: il sistema funziona.

  32. ^ Daniele Luttazzi (2004) Interview, in the Italian edition of Rolling Stone, November 2004. Quote:

    racconto di satira grottesca L'obiettivo del grottesco è far percepire l'orrore di una vicenda. Non è la satira cui siamo abituati in Italia: la si ritrova nel cabaret degli anni '20 e '30, poi è stata cancellata dal carico di sofferenze della guerra. Aggiungo che io avevo spiegato in apertura di serata che ci sarebbero stati momenti di satira molto diversi. Satira ironica, che fa ridere, e satira grottesca, che può far male. Perché porta alla risata della disperazione, dell'impotenza. La risata verde. Era forte, perché coinvolgeva in un colpo solo tutti i cardini satirici: politica, religione, sesso e morte. Quello che ho fatto è stato accentuare l'interazione tra gli elementi. Non era di buon gusto? Rabelais e Swift, che hanno esplorato questi lati oscuri della nostra personalità, non si sono mai posti il problema del buon gusto.

  33. ^ a b Marmo, Emanuela (2004) Interview with Daniele Luttazzi (March 2004) quote:

    Quando la satira poi riesce a far ridere su un argomento talmente drammatico di cui si ride perché non c'è altra soluzione possibile, si ha quella che nei cabaret di Berlino degli Anni '20 veniva chiamata la “risata verde”. È opportuno distinguere una satira ironica, che lavora per sottrazione, da una satira grottesca, che lavora per addizione. Questo secondo tipo di satira genera più spesso la risata verde. Ne erano maestri Kraus e Valentin.

  34. ^ "Famous Last Words". Thought Catalog. 2012-05-23. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  35. ^ Gover, Dominic (2013-09-03). "Seamus Heaney, Steve Jobs, Oscar Wilde, Karl Marx: Famous Last Words". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  36. ^ Man, John (10 February 2011). Samurai. Transworld. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-4090-1105-7.
  37. ^ Hughes, Robert. "The Fatal Shore." Vintage Books. New York. 1986. Page 196.
  38. ^ Roper, William (1909–14). The Life of Sir Thomas More. New York: Collier & Son.
  39. ^ Witticisms Of 9 Condemned Criminals Archived 2008-03-14 at the Wayback Machine. at Canongate Press
  40. ^ "Read President Reagan's Best Jokes About Being Shot". Time. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  41. ^ "Icons of England, "Always Look on the Bright Side of Life"". Archived from the original on 2011-07-17.
  42. ^ "The Fighting at Jutland". Kipling Society. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  43. ^ Wettone, Graham (2017). "1". How To Be A Police Officer. Biteback. p. 4. ISBN 9781785902192.
  44. ^ Leon Rappoport, Punchlines: The Case for Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Humor, p. 83
  45. ^ "The Joke Stops Here", Memphis Flyer
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  • Deadpan (dry humor)
  • Documentary
  • Gallows
  • High / low
  • Horror
  • Insult
  • Observational
  • Physical
  • Prop
  • Shock
  • Sick
  • Slapstick
    • Topics
  • Surreal
  • Zombie
  • Category
  • Portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Film genresBy style
  • Action
    • Arthouse
    • Heroic bloodshed
    • Hong Kong action
  • Adventure
    • Survival
  • Art
  • Biographical
  • Christian
  • Comedy
    • Black
    • Commedia all'italiana
    • Commedia sexy all'italiana
    • Bromantic
    • Dramedy
    • Gross out
    • Horror
    • Parody
    • Mo lei tau
    • Thriller
    • Remarriage
    • Romantic
    • Sex
    • Screwball
    • Silent
    • Slapstick
  • Documentary
    • Animated
    • Docudrama
    • Mockumentary
    • Mondo
    • Pseudo
    • Semi
    • Travel
  • Drama
    • Dramedy
    • Historical
    • Legal
    • Melodrama
      • Korean
  • Erotic
    • Commedia sexy all'italiana
    • Pink
    • Sexploitation
    • Thriller
  • Educational
  • Social guidance
  • Epic
    • Sword-and-sandal
  • Experimental
  • Exploitation
    • see Exploitation film template
  • Fantasy
    • Comic
    • Contemporary
    • Fairy tale
    • Fantastique
    • High
    • Historical
    • Magic realism
    • Science
  • Film noir
    • Bad girl
    • Neo-noir
    • Occult detective
    • Pulp noir
    • Tech noir
  • Gothic
    • Romance
    • Southern
    • Space
    • Suburban
    • Urban
  • Horror
    • Body
    • Cannibal
    • Comedy
    • Eco
    • Fantastique
    • Found footage
    • German underground
    • Ghost
    • Giallo
    • Holiday
    • Japanese
    • Korean
    • Lovecraftian
    • Mumblegore
    • Natural
    • New French Extremity
    • Occult detective
    • Psycho-biddy
    • Psychological
    • Religious
    • Science Fiction
    • Slasher
    • Splatter
    • Satanic
  • Mumblecore
    • Mumblegore
  • Musical
    • Backstage
    • Jukebox
    • Musicarello
    • Operetta
    • Sceneggiata
  • Mystery
    • Giallo
    • Occult detective
  • Pornographic
    • Hardcore pornography
    • Softcore pornography
  • Propaganda
  • Reality
  • Romantic
    • Comedy
      • Bromantic
    • Fantasy
    • Gothic
    • Paranormal
    • Thriller
  • Science fiction
    • Comic
    • Cyberpunk
    • Fantastique
    • Fantasy
    • Gothic
    • Horror
    • Military
    • Mundane
    • New Wave
    • Parallel universe
    • Planetary romance
    • Space opera
    • Steampunk
    • Western
  • Thriller
    • Comedy
    • Conspiracy
    • Erotic
    • Financial
    • Giallo
    • Legal
    • New French Extremity
    • Political
    • Psychological
    • Romantic
    • Techno
  • Transgressive
    • Cinema of Transgression
    • New French Extremity
  • Trick
By theme
  • Animals
  • Beach party
  • Blaxploitation
  • Body swap
  • Bourekas
  • Buddy
    • Buddy cop
    • Female
  • Cannibal
  • Chicano
  • Colonial
  • Coming-of-age
  • Concert
  • Crime
    • Gentleman thief
    • Gong'an
    • Heist
    • Hood
    • Gangster
    • Mafia
    • Mafia comedy
    • Poliziotteschi
    • Yakuza
    • Gokudō
  • Dance
  • Disaster
    • Apocalyptic
  • Drug
    • Psychedelic
    • Stoner
  • Dystopian
  • Economic
  • Ethnographic
  • Extraterrestrial
  • Food and drink
  • Funny animal
  • Gendai-geki
  • Ghost
  • Goona-goona epic
  • Gothic
    • Romance
    • Southern
    • Space
    • Suburban
    • Urban
  • Ecchi
  • Girls with guns
  • Harem
  • Hentai
    • Tentacle erotica
  • Lolicon
  • Kaitō
  • Magical girl
  • Mecha
  • Shotacon
  • Yaoi
  • Yuri
  • Homeland
  • Jidaigeki
  • LGBT
  • Luchador
  • Martial arts
    • Bruceploitation
    • Chopsocky
    • Gun fu
    • Kung fu
    • Wuxia
  • Mecha
  • Mexploitation
  • Monster
    • Giant monster
    • Jiangshi
    • Kaiju
    • Vampire
    • Werewolf
    • Zombie
  • Mountain
  • Mouth of Garbage
  • Muslim social
  • Nature
    • Environmental issues
  • Opera
  • Outlaw biker
  • Ozploitation
  • Partisan film
  • Pirate
  • Prison
    • Women
  • Race
  • Rape and revenge
  • Road
  • Rubble
  • Rumberas
  • Samurai
  • Sexploitation
    • Bavarian porn
    • Commedia sexy all'italiana
    • Mexican sex comedy
    • Nazi exploitation
    • Pornochanchada
    • Nunsploitation
    • Sex report
  • Shomin-geki
  • Slavery
  • Slice of life
  • Snuff
    • Crush
  • South Seas
  • Sports
  • Spy
    • Eurospy
  • Superhero
  • Surfing
  • Swashbuckler
  • Sword-and-sandal
  • Sword and sorcery
  • Travel
  • Trial
  • Vigilante
  • War
    • Anti-war
    • Euro War
    • Submarine
  • Western
    • Acid
    • Florida
    • Meat pie
    • Northern
    • Ostern
    • revisionist
    • Space
    • Spaghetti
    • Weird
  • Zombie
    • Zombie comedy
By movement
or period
  • Absolute
  • New Objectivity
  • Australian New Wave
  • Auteur films
  • Berlin School
  • Bourekas
  • Brighton School
  • British New Wave
    • Kitchen sink realism
  • Budapest school
  • Cannibal boom
  • Cinéma du look
  • Cinema Novo
  • Cinema of Transgression
  • Cinéma pur
  • Commedia all'italiana
  • Documentary Film Movement
  • Dogme 95
  • Erra Cinema
  • European art cinema
  • Film gris
  • Free Cinema
  • French New Wave
  • German Expressionist
  • German underground horror
  • Nigerian Golden Age
  • Grupo Cine Liberación
  • Heimatfilm
  • Hollywood on the Tiber
  • Hong Kong New Wave
  • Iranian New Wave
  • Italian futurist
  • Italian neorealist
  • Japanese New Wave
  • Kammerspielfilm
  • L.A. Rebellion
  • Lettrist
  • Mumblecore
  • Neorealist
  • New French Extremity
  • New German
  • New Generation
  • New Hollywood
  • New Nollywood
  • New Queer
  • No wave
  • Nuevo Cine Mexicano
  • Parallel cinema
  • Persian Film
  • Poetic realist
  • Polish Film School
  • Poliziotteschi
  • Praška filmska škola
  • Prussian film
  • Pure Film Movement
  • Remodernist
  • Romanian New Wave
  • Spaghetti Western
  • Socialist realist
  • Social realist
    • Kitchen sink realism
  • Soviet Parallel
  • Structural
  • Surrealist
  • Sword-and-sandal
  • Telefoni Bianchi
  • Third Cinema
  • Yugoslav Black Wave
By audience
  • Adult
  • Chick flick
  • Children's
  • Family
  • Guy-cry
  • Stag
  • Teen
  • Woman's
By format,
or production
  • 3D
  • Actuality
  • Animation
    • anime
    • cartoon
    • computer
    • stop-motion
    • traditional
  • Anthology
  • Art
  • B movie
  • Black-and-white
  • Blockbuster
  • Bollywood
  • Cinéma vérité
  • Classical Hollywood cinema
  • Collage
  • Color
  • Compilation
  • Composite
  • Cult
    • midnight movie
  • Database cinema
  • Docufiction
  • Ethnofiction
  • Experimental
    • Abstract
  • Feature
  • Featurette
  • Film à clef
  • Film noir
  • Film-poem
  • Found footage
  • Grindhouse
  • Hyperlink cinema
  • Independent
    • Guerrilla filmmaking
  • Interstitial art
  • Live action
    • animation
  • Low-budget
  • Major studio
  • Making-of
  • Masala
  • Message picture
  • Meta-film
  • Mockbuster
  • Musical short
  • Mythopoeia
  • Neorealist
  • No budget
  • Paracinema
  • Participatory
  • Poetry
  • Postmodernist
  • Reverse motion
  • Sceneggiata
  • Semidocumentary
  • Serial
  • Shinpa
  • Short
  • Silent
  • Socialist realist
  • Sound
  • Underground
  • Video nasty
  • Z movie

Wild Bobby Funcle T Shirt Fun Uncle Funcle Definition T-Shirt Mens Humor Graphic Tee, Heather Grey, Medium
Wild Bobby Funcle T Shirt Fun Uncle Funcle Definition T-Shirt Mens Humor Graphic Tee, Heather Grey, Medium
The Wild Bobby Brand has a variety of products that are suitable for any time. Celebrate your fun uncle with a cool and funky Funcle shirt with a clear definition below. Your uncle will love this shirt and will wear it with pride. A great gag gift, a great drinking shirt or a shirt to make those family photos even more awkward. Choose from multiple shirts, materials, fabrics and designs, these shirts are comfortable and long lasting. Wild Bobby is dedicated to creating novelty shirts that come in a variety of themes and colors. Their products spread joy and humor to all while providing comfort in the quality of their products. All shirts are made and printed here in the US. Recommended care for shirts is to wash in cold water inside out. There is often a variety of products from hoodies, crewnecks, men's women's and youth sizes and come in a range of colors. We love what we do at Wild Bobby, We press and ship each shirt in the US, We are passionate about creating new and eye catching designs, selecting the best types of shirts and fabrics and fusing the 2 together to create a quality shirt that you can be proud to wear! At Wild Bobby we care about you. We ship as fast as we can which is usually the same day. Wild Bobby is the brand that works around the clock to bring you the latest greatest graphics, trends, hot topics, on fashionable styles. Items for sale are not affiliated with or endorsed by any celebrities or public figures, is not associated with any existing intellectual property or trademark, and no infringement is intended and no endorsement is implied. All designs posted are believed to be posted within our rights according to the U.S. Copyright Fair Use Act. All rights reserved. Wild Bobby is the ONLY authorized seller of Wild Bobby brand items. These items and designs are produced EXCLUSIVELY for sale by Wild Bobby.

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Mens Tech Support Definition Humor - Support Engineer T-Shirt 2XL Black
Mens Tech Support Definition Humor - Support Engineer T-Shirt 2XL Black
A Funny Shirt for people who are the experts in IT, programming, scripting, databases and software, Computer Science, Troubleshoot management, hardware and software consultancy.

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4 Pack of Vinyl Decal Stickers for Disposable Cups / Fuck The Definition Humor Funny
4 Pack of Vinyl Decal Stickers for Disposable Cups / Fuck The Definition Humor Funny
A fun printed item designed and sold by Debbie's Designs

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3dRose Registered Dietitian Humor Definition Key Chains, Set of 2 (kc_110018_1)
3dRose Registered Dietitian Humor Definition Key Chains, Set of 2 (kc_110018_1)
Registered Dietitian Humor Definition Key Chain is available in sets of 2, 4 and 6; making them perfect for sharing. Image is printed on both sides and has a high gloss finish. Measures 2 3/8" x 2 3/8" x 3/8" and are made of heavy duty durable plastic. Rings and plastic clips included.

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Cycopath Mug - Humorous Funny Bicycle Cyclist Term Definition Humor Gift For Mountain Bikers, Cycling Fanatics Riders And BMX Road Racers Who Love To Bike And Ride Their Bicycles
Cycopath Mug - Humorous Funny Bicycle Cyclist Term Definition Humor Gift For Mountain Bikers, Cycling Fanatics Riders And BMX Road Racers Who Love To Bike And Ride Their Bicycles
Cycopath Mug - Humorous Funny Bicycle Cyclist Term Definition Humor Gift For Mountain Bikers, Cycling Fanatics Riders And BMX Road Racers Who Love To Bike And Ride Their Bicycles

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Creative Cuss Words Dictionary & Coloring Book: Collection of Hilarious and Unusual Swear Word Definitions For Adults who like Humor Curse Words and Coloring
Creative Cuss Words Dictionary & Coloring Book: Collection of Hilarious and Unusual Swear Word Definitions For Adults who like Humor Curse Words and Coloring
FUNNY AND UNIQUE 2018 ADULT GIFT IDEALaugh till it hurts reading these unique and unusual swear words and their definitions while coloring into a state of complete bliss and serenity. Up your cuss word game by expanding that colorful vocabulary of yours with the help of this hilarious coloring book. Each page features a beautiful pattern to color, a unique swear word, it's definition and an example sentence. Makes a great gift for adults who appreciate humor and a dirty mouth.Details:26 Over the top funny swear words and insults definition pages to colorVivid Matte CoverPrinted Single Sided so you can cut and frameContains Adult Content, Not suitable for children©2018 Pottymouth Press

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Snackcident Definition Funny Coffee Mug Humor - Nom Nom Nom
Snackcident Definition Funny Coffee Mug Humor - Nom Nom Nom
Dishwasher and microwave safe. 15oz white coffee mug

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Stuch Strength LLC Funny Mascara - All I Need is Football - Makeup Eyelash Definition Humor - Transparent Sticker
Stuch Strength LLC Funny Mascara - All I Need is Football - Makeup Eyelash Definition Humor - Transparent Sticker
Buy This Amazing Funny Mascara Themed Product, Great for anyone who loves Funny Mascara, Humor, All I Need Is Football And Mascara, mascara, eyelash, eyes, definition

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