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Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing (United States)
In the United States, the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, commonly known as the Triple Crown, is a title awarded to a three-year-old Thoroughbred

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For other Thoroughbred Triple Crowns, see Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing.

Justify, the 13th winner, at the 2018 Preakness Stakes.

In the United States, the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, commonly known as the Triple Crown, is a title awarded to a three-year-old Thoroughbred horse who wins the Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes, and Belmont Stakes. The three races were inaugurated in different years, the last being the Kentucky Derby in 1875. These races are now run annually in May and early June of each year. The Triple Crown Trophy, commissioned in 1950 but awarded to all previous winners as well as those after 1950, is awarded to a Triple Crown winner.

The first winner of all three Triple Crown races was Sir Barton in 1919. Some journalists began using the term Triple Crown to refer to the three races as early as 1923, but it was not until Gallant Fox won the three events in 1930 that Charles Hatton of the Daily Racing Form put the term into common use.

In the history of the Triple Crown, 13 horses have won all three races: Sir Barton (1919), Gallant Fox (1930), Omaha (1935), War Admiral (1937), Whirlaway (1941), Count Fleet (1943), Assault (1946), Citation (1948), Secretariat (1973), Seattle Slew (1977), Affirmed (1978), American Pharoah (2015), and Justify (2018). As of 2018, American Pharoah and Justify are the only living Triple Crown winners.

James E. "Sunny Jim" Fitzsimmons was the first trainer to win the Triple Crown more than once; he trained both Gallant Fox and his son Omaha for the Belair Stud breeding farm. Gallant Fox and Omaha are the only father-son duo to win the Triple Crown. Bob Baffert became the second trainer to win the Triple Crown twice, training American Pharoah and Justify. Belair Stud and Calumet Farm are tied as the owners with the most Triple Crown victories with two apiece. Calumet Farms won with Whirlaway and Citation. Eddie Arcaro rode both of Calumet Farms' Triple Crown champions and is the only jockey to win more than one Triple Crown.

Secretariat holds the stakes record time for each of the three races. His time of 2:24 for ​1 1⁄2 miles in the 1973 Belmont Stakes also set a world record that still stands.[1]

Contents
  • 1 Development
  • 2 Winners
    • 2.1 Records
    • 2.2 Other notable achievements
  • 3 Gaps between wins
  • 4 Unsuccessful bids
  • 5 Sponsorship and broadcasting
  • 6 Individual race winners
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links
Development

The three Triple Crown races had been run for decades before the series received its name; the Belmont Stakes was first run in 1867, the Preakness in 1873,[2] and the Kentucky Derby, in 1875. The term was in use at least by 1923, although Daily Racing Form writer Charles Hatton is commonly credited with originating the term in 1930.[3]

Their order has varied. Before 1931, the Preakness was run before the Kentucky Derby eleven times. On May 12, 1917, and May 13, 1922, the Kentucky Derby and Preakness were run on the same day. Since 1931, the Kentucky Derby has been run first, followed by the Preakness, and then the Belmont.[4]

Each Triple Crown race is open to both colts and fillies. Although fillies have won each of the individual Triple Crown races, none has won the Triple Crown itself.[5] Despite attempts to develop a "Filly Triple Crown" or a "Triple Tiara" for fillies only, no set series of three races has consistently remained in the public eye, and at least four different configurations of races have been used. Two fillies won the series of the Kentucky Oaks, the Pimlico Oaks (now the Black-Eyed Susan Stakes), and the Coaching Club American Oaks, in 1949 and 1952, but the racing press did not designate either accomplishment as a "Triple Crown". In 1961, the New York Racing Association created a filly Triple Crown of in-state races only, but the races changed over the years. Eight fillies won the NYRA Triple Tiara between 1968 and 1993.[6]

Gelded colts may run in any of the three races today, but they were prohibited from entering the Belmont between 1919 and 1957. Geldings have won each of the individual races,[7][8] but like fillies, no gelding has ever won the Triple Crown. The closest was Funny Cide, who won the Derby and the Preakness in 2003.[9]

All the races are held on dirt tracks, rather than the turf commonly used for important races in Europe.[citation needed]

Triple Crown races Race Date Current Track Location Distance Background Cite Trophy Kentucky Derby
"The Run for the Roses" First Saturday in May Churchill Downs Louisville, Kentucky 1 1⁄4 miles (2,000 m) Inaugurated in 1875, the race was originally 1 1⁄2 miles (2,400 m) until 1896 when it was shortened to its current distance. It is the only one of the three races to have been continuously run from its inception. Colts and geldings carry 126 pounds (57 kg) and fillies 121 pounds (55 kg). The field has been limited to 20 horses since 1975. [10]
The Kentucky Derby Trophy Preakness Stakes
"The Run for the Black-Eyed Susans" Third Saturday in May Pimlico Race Course Baltimore, Maryland 1 3⁄16 miles (1,900 m) Started in 1873 and continuously run since 1894, it is the shortest of the three races. Pimlico was the home of the race from 1873 to 1889 and again from 1908 until the present. The Preakness was not run from 1891 to 1893. Weights are the same as for the Derby. Field is limited to 14 horses. [11][12]
The Woodlawn Vase Belmont Stakes
"The Test of the Champion" Third Saturday following the Preakness
(first or second Saturday in June) Belmont Park Elmont, New York 1 1⁄2 miles (2,400 m) Begun in 1867, it is the oldest of the three races and the longest, though not held in 1911 and 1912 due to anti-gambling legislation in New York. Race was held at various New York tracks until 1905 when Belmont Park became the permanent location. Distance varied from 1 5⁄8 to 1 1⁄8 miles (2,600 to 1,800 m) until set at 1 1⁄2 miles (2,400 m) in 1926. Weight assignments are the same as the other two races. Field is limited to 16 horses. [13][14][15]
The August Belmont Trophy Winners The Triple Crown Trophy The sixth winner, Count Fleet, in the 1943 Kentucky Derby The seventh winner, Assault in 1946 with Warren Mehrtens, jockey Triple Crown winners[16] Year Winner Jockey Trainer Owner Breeder Colors 1919 Sir Barton Johnny Loftus H. Guy Bedwell J. K. L. Ross John E. Madden 1930 Gallant Fox Earl Sande Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud Belair Stud 1935 Omaha Willie "Smokey" Saunders Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud Belair Stud 1937 War Admiral Charles Kurtsinger George Conway Samuel D. Riddle Samuel D. Riddle 1941 Whirlaway Eddie Arcaro Ben A. Jones Calumet Farm Calumet Farm 1943 Count Fleet Johnny Longden Don Cameron Fannie Hertz Fannie Hertz 1946 Assault Warren Mehrtens Max Hirsch King Ranch King Ranch 1948 Citation Eddie Arcaro Horace A. "Jimmy" Jones Calumet Farm Calumet Farm 1973 Secretariat Ron Turcotte Lucien Laurin Meadow Stable Meadow Stable 1977 Seattle Slew Jean Cruguet William H. Turner, Jr. Mickey and Karen L. Taylor,
Tayhill Stable/Jim Hill, et al. Ben S. Castleman 1978 Affirmed Steve Cauthen Laz Barrera Harbor View Farm Harbor View Farm 2015 American Pharoah Victor Espinoza Bob Baffert Ahmed Zayat Ahmed Zayat 2018 Justify Mike Smith Bob Baffert China Horse Club
Head of Plains Partners
Starlight Racing
WinStar Farm John D. Gunther and † † During his 2018 bid for the Triple Crown, Justify used the colors of WinStar Farms (white, green and black star) for the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes. The colors of China Horse Club (red, yellow stars and sleeves) were used in the Belmont Stakes.

At completion of the 2016 season, the three Triple Crown races have attracted 4,224 entrants. Of these, 292 horses have won a single leg of the Triple Crown, 52 horses have won two of the races (23 the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, 18 the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes, and 11 the Kentucky Derby and Belmont Stakes), and 13 horses have won all three races. Pillory won both the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes in 1922, a year when it was impossible to win the Triple Crown because the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes were run on the same day.

10 of the 13 winners have been "homebreds", owned at the time of their win by their breeders.[17]

Jim Fitzsimmons and Bob Baffert are the only two trainers to have two horses win the Triple Crown, with Fitzsimmons training the sire/son combination of 1930 winner Gallant Fox and 1935 winner Omaha and Baffert training 2015 winner American Pharoah and 2018 winner Justify. The wins by Fitzsimmons were also the first time that an owner and the first time that a breeder, Belair Stud holding both duties, had a repeat win of the Triple Crown. Calumet Farm is the only other owner with two Triple Crown horses, 1941 winner Whirlaway and 1948 winner Citation. Eddie Arcaro is the only jockey to ride two horses to the Triple Crown, both for Calumet, Whirlaway and Citation. Those two horses' trainers, Ben Jones and Jimmy Jones, were father and son.

All 13 horses, and most owners, trainers, and jockeys were born in the United States. The exceptions were jockey Johnny Longden, born in England and raised in Canada; French-born jockey Jean Cruguet; trainer Laz Barrera, from Cuba; and jockey Victor Espinoza, from Mexico. Secretariat's trainer, Lucien Laurin and jockey, Ron Turcotte were both Canadians. Owner Fannie Hertz was married to John D. Hertz, who was born in Slovakia; owner Ahmed Zayat was born in Egypt. Jockey Willie Saunders is considered a Canadian jockey because he grew up and established his career there, but was born in Montana. The horse Sir Barton was foaled in the United States but had a Canadian owner, J. K. L. Ross, at the time of his Triple Crown win, while Justify's owners were from both the United States and China.

Records

Secretariat holds the stakes record for each of the Triple Crown races, the Kentucky Derby (1:59 2/5), the Preakness Stakes (1:53), and the Belmont Stakes (2:24).[18][19]

At 18, Steve Cauthen became the youngest jockey to win the Triple Crown, riding Affirmed in 1978. At 52, Mike Smith became the oldest jockey to win the Triple Crown, riding Justify in 2018.

Other notable achievements

Only one horse, Alydar, has placed (finished second) in all three races. He was defeated by Affirmed in all three races in 1978 by a combined margin of two lengths. His trainer John Veitch is the only trainer to have done this with one horse. In 1995, D. Wayne Lukas became the first and only major figure (owner, jockey, or trainer) to win all three Triple Crown races with different horses, Thunder Gulch in the Derby and Belmont, Timber Country in the Preakness. Lukas also is the only trainer to have won six straight Triple Crown races, adding his 1995 wins, having won the 1994 Preakness and Belmont with Tabasco Cat and the 1996 Derby with Grindstone.[20]

Like Veitch, only with two different horses, Bob Baffert also had second-place finishes in all three legs of the Triple Crown, both owned by Ahmed Zayat: in 2012, Bodemeister finished second in the Kentucky Derby and Preakness stakes to I'll Have Another, then Paynter was entered and finished second to Union Rags.[21] Baffert and Zayat teamed up again for the 2015 Triple Crown victory of American Pharoah.

Gallant Fox is the only Triple Crown winner to sire another U.S. Triple Crown winner, Omaha. Affirmed sired Peteski, winner of the 1993 Canadian Triple Crown.[22]

Julie Krone became the first (and currently only[23]) female jockey to win a Triple Crown race when she won the 1993 Belmont Stakes aboard Colonial Affair.

Whirlaway, in addition to winning the 1941 Triple Crown, also won the Travers Stakes that year, becoming the first and only horse to date to accomplish that feat.

American Pharoah, in addition to winning the 2015 Triple Crown, also won the Breeders' Cup Classic that year. As the Breeders' Cup was not established until 1984, American Pharoah was the first (and, as of 2018, only) horse to sweep all four races, a feat that came to be known as the Grand Slam.[24][25]

Gaps between wins California Chrome (second from right) was stepped on by the number 3 horse while leaving the starting gate at the 2014 Belmont Stakes

After the first Triple Crown winner, Sir Barton, in 1919, there was not another winner until Gallant Fox in 1930, a gap of 11 years. Between 1930 and 1948, seven horses won the Triple Crown, with five years being the longest gap between winners. However, following the 1948 win of Citation, there was a considerable gap of 25 years before Secretariat ended the drought of Triple Crown champions in 1973. Between 1973 and 1978, there were three Triple Crown winners.

After Affirmed's Triple Crown in 1978, the longest drought in Triple Crown history began in 1979 with Spectacular Bid's failed Triple Crown attempt at the Belmont Stakes, and lasted until American Pharoah won in 2015. Between 1979 and 2014 thirteen horses won both the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, but either failed to win the Belmont Stakes or could not start in the race. Of those, Real Quiet came the closest to winning the Triple Crown, losing the Belmont Stakes by a nose in 1998. Spectacular Bid finished 3rd in 1979. Pleasant Colony finished 3rd in 1981. Alysheba finished 4th in 1987. Sunday Silence finished 2nd in 1989. Real Quiet finished 2nd in 1998. Charismatic finished 3rd in 1999. War Emblem finished 8th in 2002. Funny Cide finished 3rd in 2003. Smarty Jones finished 2nd in 2004. Big Brown did not finish in 2008. I'll Have Another did not start (injury) 2012. California Chrome finished 4th in 2014.

In the 1979-2015 period, horses who contested all three races, losing the Kentucky Derby but winning the Preakness and the Belmont were Risen Star in 1988, Hansel in 1991, Tabasco Cat in 1994, Point Given in 2001, and Afleet Alex in 2005. In 1984, Swale and in 1995, Thunder Gulch ran all three races, winning the Derby and the Belmont, but not the Preakness.

The 37-year gap between the Triple Crown wins of Affirmed and American Pharoah drew criticism of the system. As far back as 1986, reporters noted that horses who were fresh for the Belmont had an advantage.[26] In 2003, Gary Stevens stated in an interview with Charlie Rose that he did not believe there would be another Triple Crown winner because of the tendency for owners to put fresh horses in the Preakness and Belmont Stakes.[27] California Chrome co-owner Steve Coburn was particularly critical of the Triple Crown system in post-Belmont remarks in 2014; he considered the system to be unfair, arguing that there would never be another Triple Crown winner in his lifetime unless only horses that competed in the Kentucky Derby and Preakness competed at the Belmont. By 2014, six of the previous eight Belmont winners had not competed in either of the first two legs of the Triple Crown.[28] Additionally, from 2006 to 2014, the Belmont winner was a horse who had not competed in the Preakness.[29][30]

Unsuccessful bids Big Brown, the winner of the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, at the 2008 Belmont Stakes, where he was pulled up and did not finish.

Since all three events were inaugurated, through the 2019 races[update], 23 horses have won the Derby and Preakness but not the Belmont:

  • 1932: Burgoo King did not enter the Belmont due to lameness.[31]:78, 182
  • 1936: Bold Venture did not enter the Belmont due to lameness.[31]:78, 182
  • 1944: Pensive was the first horse to contest but lose the Belmont after winning the first two legs. He placed second to Bounding Home,[31]:78 who had neither run in the Derby nor the Preakness.[2]
  • 1958: Tim Tam, defeated by six lengths by Cavan, who had neither contested the Derby nor Preakness.[2]
  • 1961: Carry Back, "sore" after the race, was seventh of nine entries, ​14 1⁄2 lengths behind the winner, a longshot named Sherluck.[2]
  • 1964: Northern Dancer, defeated by Quadrangle.[2]
  • 1966: Kauai King, defeated by Amberoid.[2]
  • 1968: Forward Pass, defeated by Stage Door Johnny by ​1 1⁄4 lengths.[2]
  • 1969: Majestic Prince, second by ​5 1⁄2 lengths to Arts and Letters. Loss attributed to fatigue and lameness.[2][32]
  • 1971: Cañonero II, fourth in the Belmont to 34–1 longshot Pass Catcher,[2] the loss attributed to a hoof problem.[33]
  • 1979: Spectacular Bid, third in Belmont, was alleged to have stepped on a safety pin the morning of the race, though another theory blamed rider error by an inexperienced young jockey moving him too soon.[34] He finished ​3 1⁄4 lengths behind Coastal and a neck behind the second-place horse, Golden Act.[35]
  • 1981: Pleasant Colony, third in Belmont, ​1 1⁄2 lengths behind Summing and the second-place horse, Highland Blade.[36]
  • 1987: Alysheba finished fourth in Belmont behind Bet Twice, Cryptoclearance, and Gulch.[34][37]
  • 1989: Sunday Silence, second in Belmont, eight lengths behind Easy Goer.[34]
  • 1997: Silver Charm, second in Belmont, ​3⁄4 length behind Touch Gold.[38]
  • 1998: Real Quiet, second in Belmont after a photo finish, a nose behind Victory Gallop.[39]
  • 1999: Charismatic, third in Belmont, ​1 1⁄2 lengths behind Lemon Drop Kid and second-place Vision and Verse. Charismatic was pulled up soon after the finish, vanned off with a bone fracture. He survived and was retired to stud.[40]
  • 2002: War Emblem stumbled at gate in Belmont, finished eighth out of 11. Winner Sarava scored upset at record odds of 70-1.[41]
  • 2003: Funny Cide, third in Belmont, five lengths behind Empire Maker, and ​4 1⁄4 lengths behind second-place horse, Ten Most Wanted.[42]
  • 2004: Smarty Jones, second in Belmont, one length behind Birdstone.[43]
  • 2008: Big Brown was pulled up in the home stretch of the Belmont, eased to a last-place finish. Winner was Da' Tara. A hoof problem had limited Big Brown's training, and may have been a factor in his defeat.[44]
  • 2012: I'll Have Another was scratched from the Belmont the day before the race due to a tendon injury.[34]
  • 2014: California Chrome finished in a dead heat for 4th in the Belmont after being stepped on by another horse leaving the gate and running the race with an injury to his heel and a scrape on his tendon.[45]
Sponsorship and broadcasting Main article: United States Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing on television

Originally, the three races largely organized their own nominations procedure, marketing and television broadcast rights. In 1985, Triple Crown Productions was created when the owner of Spend a Buck chose not to run in the other two Triple Crown races because of a financial incentive offered to any Kentucky Derby winner who could win a set of competing races in New Jersey. The organizers of the three races realized that they needed to work together.[46]

Efforts to unify the sponsorship and marketing of all three Triple Crown races began in 1987 when ABC Sports negotiated a deal with Chrysler to pay $5 million to any horse that swept all three races, and $1 million each year there was no Triple Crown sweep to the horse with the highest combined Triple Crown finish.[47] This sponsorship lasted until 1993. The end of the $1 million participation bonus was linked to the breakdown of Prairie Bayou at the Belmont Stakes that year and the uncomfortable situation that arose when the Kentucky Derby winner, Sea Hero, was given the bonus following a seventh-place finish.[46]

In 1995, Visa USA took over the sponsorship with a 10-year contract, naming the series the Visa Triple Crown and offering only the $5 million bonus to a horse that could sweep the Triple Crown.[48] Along with sponsorship by VISA, NBC Sports paid $51.5 million for broadcast rights to all three races, with the revenue split giving 50% of the total to Churchill Downs and 25% each to Pimlico and to the New York Racing Association (NYRA).[46]

The Visa deal—and the cooperative effort—ended after 2005. The NYRA felt that they did not get a fair share of the revenue, particularly when the Belmont had the highest ratings of all three races in the years where a Triple Crown was on the line.[46] From 2001 through 2013, average viewership for the Belmont was 7 million when the Triple Crown was not at stake, whereas viewership averaged 13 million when it was.[a][49] With the contract term ending, the NYRA went to ESPN on ABC for the 2006 Belmont, while the broadcasts of the Derby and Preakness remained with NBC.[46] Visa chose to remain as a sponsor of only Kentucky Derby for the next five years.[48] As a result of the divided broadcast, Triple Crown Productions was unable to obtain a new sponsor.[46]

Years Sponsor Bonuses 1987–1993 Chrysler Corporation $1 million (best overall record)
$5 million (three wins) 1995–2005 Visa USA $5 million (three wins) 2006–present Triple Crown Productions None

In February 2011, ABC/ESPN dropped out of the negotiations to renew broadcast rights to the Belmont Stakes. NBC obtained the contract through 2015, once again uniting all three races on the same network.[50][51][52] In 2014, NBC extended their contract for the Kentucky Derby through 2025.[53] As of August 2015[update], NBC obtained a broadcast contract for the Belmont through 2020 and the Preakness through 2022.[54]

Individual race winners See also: Triple Crown Productions § Highest combined Triple Crown finish Key for full list of race winners Denotes winners of the Triple Crown * Denotes winners of the Derby and Preakness but not the Belmont # Denotes other winners of any other combination of 2 out of the 3 Triple Crown races Full list of race winners Year Kentucky Derby Preakness Stakes Belmont Stakes 1867 Ruthless 1868 General Duke 1869 Fenian 1870 Kingfisher 1871 Harry Bassett 1872 Joe Daniels 1873 Survivor Springbok 1874 Culpepper Saxon 1875 Aristides Tom Ochiltree Calvin 1876 Vagrant Shirley Algerine 1877 Baden-Baden # Cloverbrook # Cloverbrook 1878 Day Star # Duke of Magenta # Duke of Magenta 1879 Lord Murphy Harold Spendthrift 1880 Fonso # Grenada # Grenada 1881 Hindoo # Saunterer # Saunterer 1882 Apollo Vanguard Forester 1883 Leonatus Jacobus George Kinney 1884 Buchanan Knight of Ellerslie Panique 1885 Joe Cotton Tecumseh Tyrant 1886 Ben Ali The Bard Inspector B 1887 Montrose Dunboyne Hanover 1888 Macbeth II Refund Sir Dixon 1889 Spokane Buddhist Eric 1890 Riley Montague[b] Burlington 1891 Kingman RNR Foxford 1892 Azra RNR Patron 1893 Lookout RNR Commanche 1894 Chant Assignee[c] Henry of Navarre 1895 Halma # Belmar[c] # Belmar 1896 Ben Brush Margrave[c] Hastings 1897 Typhoon II Paul Kauvar[c] Scottish Chieftain 1898 Plaudit Sly Fox[c] Bowling Brook 1899 Manuel Half Time[c] Jean Bereaud 1900 Lieut. Gibson Hindus[c] Ildrim 1901 His Eminence The Parader[c] Commando 1902 Alan-a-Dale Old England[c] Masterman 1903 Judge Himes Flocarline[c] Africander 1904 Elwood Bryn Mawr[c] Delhi 1905 Agile Cairngorm[c] Tanya 1906 Sir Huon Whimsical[c] Burgomaster 1907 Pink Star Don Enrique[c] Peter Pan I 1908 Stone Street Royal Tourist[c] Colin 1909 Wintergreen Effendi Joe Madden 1910 Donau Layminster Sweep 1911 Meridian Watervale RNR 1912 Worth Colonel Holloway RNR 1913 Donerail Buskin Prince Eugene 1914 Old Rosebud Holiday Luke McLuke 1915 Regret Rhine Maiden The Finn 1916 George Smith Damrosch Friar Rock 1917 Omar Khayyam[d] Kalitan[d] Hourless 1918 Exterminator War Cloud[e]
Jack Hare, Jr.[e] Johren 1919 Sir Barton Sir Barton Sir Barton 1920 Paul Jones # Man o' War # Man o' War 1921 Behave Yourself Broomspun Grey Lag 1922 Morvich[d] # Pillory[d] # Pillory 1923 # Zev Vigil # Zev 1924 Black Gold Nellie Morse Mad Play 1925 Flying Ebony Coventry American Flag 1926 Bubbling Over Display Crusader 1927 Whiskery Bostonian Chance Shot 1928 Reigh Count Victorian Vito 1929 Clyde Van Dusen Dr. Freeland Blue Larkspur 1930 Gallant Fox Gallant Fox Gallant Fox 1931 # Twenty Grand Mate # Twenty Grand 1932 * Burgoo King * Burgoo King Faireno 1933 Brokers Tip Head Play Hurryoff 1934 Cavalcade High Quest Peace Chance 1935 Omaha Omaha Omaha 1936 * Bold Venture * Bold Venture Granville 1937 War Admiral War Admiral War Admiral 1938 Lawrin Dauber Pasteurized 1939 # Johnstown Challedon # Johnstown 1940 Gallahadion # Bimelech # Bimelech 1941 Whirlaway Whirlaway Whirlaway 1942 # Shut Out Alsab # Shut Out 1943 Count Fleet Count Fleet Count Fleet 1944 * Pensive * Pensive Bounding Home 1945 Hoop Jr. Polynesian Pavot 1946 Assault Assault Assault 1947 Jet Pilot Faultless Phalanx 1948 Citation Citation Citation 1949 Ponder # Capot # Capot 1950 # Middleground Hill Prince # Middleground 1951 Count Turf Bold Counterpoint 1952 Hill Gail Blue Man One Count 1953 Dark Star # Native Dancer # Native Dancer 1954 Determine Hasty Road High Gun 1955 Swaps # Nashua # Nashua 1956 # Needles Fabius # Needles 1957 Iron Liege Bold Ruler Gallant Man 1958 * Tim Tam * Tim Tam Cavan 1959 Tomy Lee Royal Orbit Sword Dancer 1960 Venetian Way Bally Ache Celtic Ash 1961 * Carry Back * Carry Back Sherluck 1962 Decidedly Greek Money Jaipur 1963 # Chateaugay Candy Spots # Chateaugay[f] 1964 * Northern Dancer * Northern Dancer Quadrangle[f] 1965 Lucky Debonair Tom Rolfe Hail To All[f] 1966 * Kauai King * Kauai King Amberoid[f] 1967 Proud Clarion # Damascus # Damascus[f] 1968 * Forward Pass[g] * Forward Pass Stage Door Johnny 1969 * Majestic Prince * Majestic Prince Arts and Letters 1970 Dust Commander Personality High Echelon 1971 * Canonero II * Canonero II Pass Catcher 1972 # Riva Ridge Bee Bee Bee # Riva Ridge 1973 Secretariat Secretariat Secretariat 1974 Cannonade # Little Current # Little Current 1975 Foolish Pleasure Master Derby Avatar 1976 # Bold Forbes Elocutionist # Bold Forbes 1977 Seattle Slew Seattle Slew Seattle Slew 1978 Affirmed Affirmed Affirmed 1979 * Spectacular Bid * Spectacular Bid Coastal 1980 Genuine Risk Codex Temperence Hill 1981 * Pleasant Colony * Pleasant Colony Summing 1982 Gato Del Sol Aloma's Ruler Conquistador Cielo 1983 Sunny's Halo Deputed Testamony Caveat 1984 # Swale Gate Dancer # Swale 1985 Spend A Buck Tank's Prospect Creme Fraiche 1986 Ferdinand Snow Chief Danzig Connection 1987 * Alysheba * Alysheba Bet Twice 1988 Winning Colors # Risen Star # Risen Star 1989 * Sunday Silence * Sunday Silence Easy Goer 1990 Unbridled Summer Squall Go And Go 1991 Strike the Gold # Hansel # Hansel 1992 Lil E. Tee Pine Bluff A.P. Indy 1993 Sea Hero Prairie Bayou Colonial Affair 1994 Go for Gin # Tabasco Cat # Tabasco Cat 1995 # Thunder Gulch Timber Country # Thunder Gulch 1996 Grindstone Louis Quatorze Editor's Note 1997 * Silver Charm * Silver Charm Touch Gold 1998 * Real Quiet * Real Quiet Victory Gallop 1999 * Charismatic * Charismatic Lemon Drop Kid 2000 Fusaichi Pegasus Red Bullet Commendable 2001 Monarchos # Point Given # Point Given 2002 * War Emblem * War Emblem Sarava 2003 * Funny Cide * Funny Cide Empire Maker 2004 * Smarty Jones * Smarty Jones Birdstone 2005 Giacomo # Afleet Alex # Afleet Alex 2006 Barbaro Bernardini Jazil 2007 Street Sense Curlin Rags to Riches 2008 * Big Brown * Big Brown Da' Tara 2009 Mine That Bird Rachel Alexandra Summer Bird 2010 Super Saver Lookin at Lucky Drosselmeyer 2011 Animal Kingdom Shackleford Ruler on Ice 2012 * I'll Have Another * I'll Have Another Union Rags[h] 2013 Orb Oxbow Palace Malice 2014 * California Chrome * California Chrome Tonalist 2015 American Pharoah American Pharoah American Pharoah 2016 Nyquist Exaggerator Creator 2017 Always Dreaming Cloud Computing Tapwrit 2018 Justify Justify Justify 2019 Country House[i] War of Will Sir Winston
Notes
  1. ^ These were 2002 for War Emblem, 2003 for Funny Cide and 2004 for Smarty Jones.[46]
  2. ^ The 1890 Preakness Stakes was held at Morris Park Racecourse in The Bronx, New York.[55]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o From 1894 to 1908, the Preakness Stakes were held at Gravesend Race Track on Coney Island, New York.[55]
  4. ^ a b c d In 1917 and 1922, the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes were held on the same day.
  5. ^ a b The 1918 Preakness Stakes was held in two divisions due to a large field. War Cloud won one and Jack Hare, Jr. the other.
  6. ^ a b c d e Due to reconstruction at Belmont Park, the Belmont Stakes were held at Aqueduct Racetrack in Queens, New York from 1963 to 1967.
  7. ^ Dancer's Image was disqualified as the winner of the 1968 Kentucky Derby due to a post-race failed drug test.
  8. ^ I'll Have Another was scratched the afternoon prior to the Belmont due to tendonitis and was unable to attempt to win the race.
  9. ^ Maximum Security was disqualified as the winner of the 2019 Kentucky Derby after he was judged to have interfered with another horse.
  • Denotes a filly. Fillies won the Kentucky Derby in 1915, 1980, and 1988, Preakness Stakes in 1903, 1906, 1915, 1924, and 2009, and Belmont Stakes in 1867, 1905, and 2007.
  • RNR Race not run. The Belmont was not run in 1911 and 1912 due to anti-betting legislation passed in New York State. The Preakness did not run 1891–1893.
See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes.
  • Book: Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing (United States)
  • American thoroughbred racing top attended events
  • British Classic Races
  • French Classic Races
  • Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing
  • Grand Slam of Thoroughbred racing
References
  1. ^ "Secretariat remains No. 1 name in racing". ESPN. Retrieved July 22, 2015..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Christine, Bill (June 4, 1989). "The Spoilers: Last Jewel of Triple Crown Has Been Stolen 11 Times--Will Sunday Silence Be Next Victim of an Upset?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  3. ^ Liebman, Bennett (April 24, 2008). "The Rail: The Race for the Triple Crown - Origins of Triple Crown". The New York Times. New York, NY. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
  4. ^ "History & Tradition of the Triple Crown". OD Action. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
  5. ^ Beyer, Andrew (June 12, 2007). "Where Are the Fillies?". Washington Post. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  6. ^ Genaro, Teresa (June 7, 2011). "The Triple Tiara". Hello Race Fans. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  7. ^ Drape, Joe (June 1, 2003). "Where No Gelding Has Gone Before". New York Times. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  8. ^ "History: Horses". Belmont Stakes. Archived from the original on 2 December 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  9. ^ Kane, Mike (June 6, 2014). "10 things to know about the Triple Crown". Courier-Journal. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  10. ^ Drager, Marvin. "Kentucky Derby". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
  11. ^ Drager, Marvin. "Preakness Stakes". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
  12. ^ "The Preakness Stakes". Triple Crown Productions. Archived from the original on May 30, 2015. Retrieved May 29, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  13. ^ Drager, Marvin. "Belmont Stakes". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
  14. ^ "Belmont Stakes". Triple Crown Productions. Archived from the original on May 30, 2015. Retrieved May 29, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  15. ^ "Belmont Stakes History". Belmont-Stakes Info. Archived from the original on May 30, 2015. Retrieved May 29, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  16. ^ "Triple Crown Winners". The New York Racing Association. June 8, 2015. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  17. ^ Angst, Frank (June 10, 2015). "The Figs: American Pharoah's Triple Crown". Blood-Horse. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  18. ^ "Sham: In the Shadow of a Superhorse". California Thoroughbred. Retrieved May 24, 2012.
  19. ^ Hegarty, Matt (June 19, 2012). "Secretariat awarded Preakness record at 1:53 after review". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved June 19, 2012.
  20. ^ Christine, Bill (December 29, 2011). "10 most unbreakable records (10-6)". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  21. ^ "2012 Kentucky Derby -- I'll Have Another rallies to win at Churchill Downs - ESPN". ESPN.com. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
  22. ^ "Canadian Triple Crown Winner Peteski Dies from Colic". BloodHorse.com. April 8, 2001. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
  23. ^
  24. ^ Grand Slam - ESPN.com
  25. ^ American Pharoah - Breeder's Cup.com
  26. ^ "The Courier - Google News Archive Search". Retrieved October 3, 2014.
  27. ^ Charlie Rose (July 21, 2003). "A rebroadcast of a discussion about the film Seabiscuit". Charlie Rose. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012.
  28. ^ "Brennan: Cherry-pick races and Triple Crown extinct". USA Today. Retrieved June 8, 2014.
  29. ^ "Betting against California Chrome? Fresh horses typically win Belmont Stakes". Newsday. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
  30. ^ ESPN News Service (June 6, 2015). "American Pharoah claims first Triple Crown since 1978". ESPN. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
  31. ^ a b c Drape, Joe (2008). To the swift : classic Triple Crown horses and their race for glory (1st ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780312357955.
  32. ^ Drager, Marvin. "Majestic Prince". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  33. ^ Glauber, Bill (May 19, 1991). "Canonero II came close to Triple Crowning glory". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  34. ^ a b c d Staff (June 1, 2015). "American Pharoah Eyes Triple Crown Sweep". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  35. ^ Oakford, Glenye Cain (September 17, 2011). "Spectacular Bid, 27, dead". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  36. ^ Hovdey, Jay (May 31, 2012). "Triple Crown near-misses: Pleasant Colony, 1981". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  37. ^ Finn, Robin (June 7, 1987). "BELMONT STAKES; On Bumpy Road to Crown, Alysheba Is Left Behind". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  38. ^ Durso, Joseph (June 8, 1997). "Touch Gold Sneaks In to Steal Silver Charm's Crown". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  39. ^ Durso, Joseph (June 7, 1998). "THE 130TH BELMONT STAKES; Victory Gallop's Charge Keeps Real Quiet Short of Posterity". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  40. ^ Durso, Joseph. "HORSE RACING; Charismatic's Bid Ends in Injury and Defeat". The New York Times. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  41. ^ Drape, Joe (June 9, 2002). "Early Stumble Dooms War Emblem's Triple Crown Bid". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  42. ^ Drape, Joe (June 8, 2003). "Empire Maker Ends Funny Cide's Triple Crown Bid". The New York Times. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  43. ^ Drape, Joe (June 6, 2004). "At Smarty Jones's Coronation, Birdstone Makes Off With the Crown". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  44. ^ Beyer, Andrew (June 11, 2008). "The Story Behind Big Brown's Bad Belmont May Never Be Known". Washington Post. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  45. ^ Claire Novak (June 8, 2014). "'Chrome' Co-Owner Has No Regrets for Comments". BloodHorse.com. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g Paulick, Ray (November 17, 2010). "Selling Triple Crown As A Package Deal". Paulick Report. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
  47. ^ "Chrysler to Sponsor Triple Crown Challenge". Ocala Star-Banner. Associated Press. September 24, 1987. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
  48. ^ a b Staff (May 2, 2005). "VIsa to End Triple Crown Challenge Sponsorship". Blood-Horse. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
  49. ^ Sandomir, Richard (May 19, 2014). "Looking for a Sure Thing in the Belmont Stakes? Bet on NBC". New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
  50. ^ "NBC reaches deal to keep Kentucky Derby rights through 2015". Daily Hampshire Gazette - GazetteNet.com. Associated Press. October 8, 2010. Archived from the original on June 12, 2012. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
  51. ^ Sharrow, Ryan (February 22, 2011). "NBC re-ups deal to carry Preakness through 2015".
  52. ^ "NBC Signs Five Year Deal To Televise Belmont Stakes". Retrieved October 3, 2014.
  53. ^ "New Pact Keeps Kentucky Derby in NBC Stable Through 2025" (Press Release). February 26, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
  54. ^ Liz Mullen (August 10, 2015). "Nbc Sports Group Extends Belmont Contract Through 2020". Sports Business Daily. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  55. ^ a b "Preakness Stakes - History". preakness-stakes.info. Archived from the original on April 13, 2015. Retrieved May 18, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
External links
  • Official website
  • BloodHorse.com Triple Crown Mania
  • Ten Things You Should Know About the Triple Crown at Hello Race Fans
  • Triple Crown Winners – slideshow by Life magazine
  • v
  • t
  • e
Triple Crowns of horse racingUnited StatesThoroughbred Racing
  • Kentucky Derby
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  • Belmont Stakes
Harness Racing Pacers
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AustraliaThoroughbred Racing
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Related topics
  • Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing
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  • Canadian Triple Tiara of Thoroughbred Racing
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Kentucky Derby Winners
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Preakness StakesPimlico
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Related
  • Top four finishers
  • Broadcasters
  • "Maryland, My Maryland"
  • Woodlawn Vase
  • Triple Crown
Preakness Stakes Winners
  • v
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Belmont StakesJerome Park
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Morris Park
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  • 1960
  • 1961
  • 1962
Aqueduct
  • 1963
  • 1964
  • 1965
  • 1966
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Belmont Park
  • 1968
  • 1969
  • 1970
  • 1971
  • 1972
  • 1973
  • 1974
  • 1975
  • 1976
  • 1977
  • 1978
  • 1979
  • 1980
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  • 1983
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  • 2010
  • 2011
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  • 2014
  • 2015
  • 2016
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  • 2018
  • 2019
Related
  • Top three finishers
  • Broadcasters
  • August Belmont Trophy
  • "The Sidewalks of New York"
  • "Theme from New York, New York"
  • Triple Crown
Belmont Stakes Winners American Thoroughbred horse racing honor for winning three specific stakes races as a three-year-old


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