Attorney General
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Attorney general
the attorney general or attorney-general (sometimes abbreviated AG) is the main legal advisor to the government. The plural is attorneys general (traditional)

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In most common law jurisdictions, the attorney general or attorney-general (sometimes abbreviated AG) is the main legal advisor to the government. The plural is attorneys general (traditional) or attorney generals.[1][2][3]

In some jurisdictions, attorneys general may also have executive responsibility for law enforcement, prosecutions or even responsibility for legal affairs generally. In practice, the extent to which the attorney general personally provides legal advice to the government varies between jurisdictions, and even between individual office-holders within the same jurisdiction, often depending on the level and nature of the office-holder's prior legal experience.

Where the attorney general has ministerial responsibility for legal affairs in general (as is the case, for example, with the United States Attorney General or the Attorney-General for Australia, and the respective attorneys general of the states in each country), the ministerial portfolio is largely equivalent to that of a Minister of Justice in some other countries.

The term was originally used to refer to any person who holds a general power of attorney to represent a principal in all matters. In the common law tradition, anyone who represents the state, especially in criminal prosecutions, is such an attorney. Although a government may designate some official as the permanent attorney general, anyone who came to represent the state in the same way could, in the past, be referred to as such, even if only for a particular case. Today, however, in most jurisdictions, the term is largely reserved as a title of the permanently appointed attorney general of the state, sovereign or other member of the royal family.

Civil law jurisdictions have similar offices, which may be variously called "public prosecutor general", "procurators", "advocates general", "public attorneys", and other titles. Many of these offices also use "attorney general" or "attorney-general" as the English translation of the title, although because of different historical provenance, the nature of such offices is usually different from that of attorneys-general in common law jurisdictions.

Contents
  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 Attorneys-general in common law and hybrid jurisdictions
    • 2.1 Australia
    • 2.2 Bangladesh
    • 2.3 Barbados
    • 2.4 Canada
    • 2.5 Fiji
    • 2.6 Hong Kong
    • 2.7 India
    • 2.8 Ireland
    • 2.9 Isle of Man
    • 2.10 Israel
    • 2.11 Jamaica
    • 2.12 Kenya
    • 2.13 Kiribati
    • 2.14 Malaysia
    • 2.15 Maldives
    • 2.16 Mauritius
    • 2.17 Myanmar
    • 2.18 Nepal
    • 2.19 New Zealand
    • 2.20 Pakistan
    • 2.21 Philippines
    • 2.22 Samoa
    • 2.23 Singapore
    • 2.24 Sri Lanka
    • 2.25 Tonga
    • 2.26 Trinidad & Tobago
    • 2.27 United Kingdom
      • 2.27.1 England and Wales
      • 2.27.2 Northern Ireland
      • 2.27.3 Scotland
      • 2.27.4 Wales
      • 2.27.5 Other attorneys-general in the UK
    • 2.28 United States
    • 2.29 Zimbabwe
  • 3 Similar offices in non-common law jurisdictions
    • 3.1 Afghanistan
    • 3.2 Brazil
    • 3.3 Crimea
    • 3.4 Dominican Republic
    • 3.5 Germany
    • 3.6 Hungary
    • 3.7 Indonesia
    • 3.8 Italy
    • 3.9 Mexico
    • 3.10 Netherlands
    • 3.11 Norway
    • 3.12 Russia
    • 3.13 Serbia
    • 3.14 Soviet Union
    • 3.15 Spain
    • 3.16 Vietnam
  • 4 Lists of countries, states or territories with attorneys-general
  • 5 References
    • 5.1 Citations
    • 5.2 Sources
  • 6 External links
Etymology

In regard to the etymology of the phrase Attorney General, Steven Pinker writes that the earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1292: "Tous attorneyz general purrount lever fins et cirrographer" (All general attorneys may levy fines and make legal documents).[4] The phrase was borrowed from Anglo-Norman French when England was ruled by Normans after the conquest of England in the 11th-century. As a variety of French, which was spoken in the law courts, schools, universities and in sections of the gentry and the bourgeoisie, the term relating to government got introduced into English. The phrase attorney general is composed of a noun followed by the postpositive adjective general and as other French compounds its plural form also appears as "attorneys generals".[5][6] As compared to major generals, a term that also originates from French ("major-général") and also has a postpositive adjective, it also appears as "attorney generals". Steven Pinker writes: "So if you are ever challenged for saying attorney-generals, mother-in-laws, passerbys ... you can reply, 'They are the very model of the modern major general.'"[4]

Attorneys-general in common law and hybrid jurisdictions

Attorneys-General in common law jurisdictions, and jurisdictions with a legal system which is partially derived from the common law tradition, share a common provenance.

Australia Main article: Attorney-General for Australia Bangladesh Main article: Attorney-General of Bangladesh Barbados Main article: Attorney-General of Barbados Canada Main articles: Canadian Minister of Justice and Canadian Minister of Public Safety Fiji Main article: Attorney-General (Fiji) Hong Kong Main article: Secretary for Justice (Hong Kong) India Main article: Attorney General of India Ireland Main article: Attorney General of Ireland Isle of Man Main article: Attorney General (Isle of Man) Israel Main article: Attorney General of Israel Jamaica Main article: Attorney General of Jamaica Kenya Main article: Attorney General of Kenya Kiribati Further information: Politics of Kiribati Malaysia Main article: Attorney General of Malaysia Maldives Main article: Attorney General of the Maldives Mauritius Main article: Ministry of Justice (Mauritius) Myanmar Main article: Attorney General of Myanmar Nepal

In Nepal, the Attorney General is the chief legal adviser of Government of Nepal as well as its chief public prosecutor. An Attorney General is appointed by the President on the recommendation of Prime Minister. The Attorney General's Office is a constitutional body under the Constitution of Nepal (2072). For a person to be eligible for the post of Attorney General, they must also be qualified to be appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court.[7]

New Zealand Main article: Attorney-General (New Zealand) Pakistan Main article: Attorney-General of Pakistan Philippines Main article: Office of the Solicitor General (Philippines) Samoa

In Samoa, the Attorney General is the legal adviser to the government. The current[update] Attorney General is Aumua Ming Leung Wai.[8]

Singapore Main article: Attorney-General of Singapore Sri Lanka Main article: Attorney General of Sri Lanka Tonga Main article: Attorney General (Tonga) Trinidad & Tobago Main article: Attorney-General of Trinidad and Tobago United Kingdom Main article: Law Officers of the Crown England and Wales Main article: Law Officers of the Crown in England and Wales Northern Ireland Main article: Law Officers of the Crown in Northern Ireland Scotland Main article: Law Officers of the Crown in Scotland Wales Main article: Law Officers of the Crown Other attorneys-general in the UK Main article: Law Officers of the Crown (Other persons) United States Main articles: United States Attorney General and State attorney general See also: District attorney and United States Attorney

In the federal government of the United States, the Attorney General is a member of the Cabinet and, as head of the Department of Justice, is the top law enforcement officer and lawyer for the government. The Attorney General may need to be distinguished from the Solicitor General, a high Justice Department official with the responsibility of representing the government before the Supreme Court. In cases of exceptional importance, however, the Attorney General may choose personally to represent the government to the Supreme Court.

The individual U.S. states and territories, as well as the federal district of Washington, D.C. also have attorneys general with similar responsibilities. The majority of state attorneys general are chosen by popular election, as opposed to the U.S. Attorney General, who is a presidential appointee confirmed by the Senate.

In nearly all United States jurisdictions the attorney general is the chief law enforcement officer of that jurisdiction, and as such attorney general may also be considered a police rank. The proper form of addressing a person holding the office is addressed Mister or Madam Attorney General, or just as Attorney General. The plural is "Attorneys General" or "Attorneys-General".

Zimbabwe Main article: Attorney General of Zimbabwe Similar offices in non-common law jurisdictions See also: Advocate General and Public procurator

Non-common law jurisdictions usually have one or more offices which are similar to attorneys-general in common law jurisdictions, some of which use "attorney-general" as the English translation of their titles.

Afghanistan Main article: Attorney General's Office of Afghanistan Brazil Main articles: Attorney General of the Union and Prosecutor General of the Republic Crimea Main article: Prosecutor General of the Republic of Crimea Dominican Republic Main article: Attorney General of the Republic (Dominican Republic) Germany Main article: Public Prosecutor General (Germany) Hungary Main article: Chief Prosecutor of Hungary Indonesia Main article: Attorney General of Indonesia Italy Main article: Ministry of Justice (Italy) Mexico Main article: Attorney General (Mexico) Netherlands

In the Netherlands, there are two types of attorneys-general, that are only historically related.

The first type of attorney-general ("advocaat-generaal" in Dutch) is the public prosecutor in criminal cases at appellate courts.

The second type of attorney-general ("procureur-generaal", while their replacements are called "advocaat-generaal") is an independent advisor to the Supreme Court. These people give an opinion on cases (called "conclusies") in any field of law (not just criminal law), supported by a scientific staff. The Supreme Court may either follow or reject the opinion of the attorney-general (which is published together with the eventual decision). In a way, an attorney-general acts as yet another judge, but in the Dutch system that does not allow dissenting opinions to be published, it is the only way to reflect different perceptions on a case. The Procureur-Generaal also prosecutes members of parliament in the case of misfeance.[9]

Dutch attorneys-general do not normally advise the government.[citation needed]

Norway Main article: Office of the Attorney General of Norway Russia Main article: Prosecutor General of Russia Serbia Main article: Public Attorney's Office of the Republic of Serbia Soviet Union Main article: Procurator General of the USSR Spain Main article: Spanish Attorney General Vietnam Main article: Supreme People's Procuracy of Vietnam Lists of countries, states or territories with attorneys-general

See Justice ministry § Related articles and lists

References Citations
  1. ^ Collins English Dictionary
  2. ^ American Heritage Dictionary
  3. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  4. ^ a b Pinker, Steven (1999). Words and Rules: The Ingredients of Language (1st ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books. pp. 25, 28. ISBN 0-465-07269-0. Retrieved 14 May 2017. 
  5. ^ "U.S. Attorneys Generals Protest Trump's Ban: Liberty Is Bedrock of Our Country". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 14 May 2017. 
  6. ^ "Former Attorneys Generals at Work". New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 14 May 2017. 
  7. ^ "Office Of The Attorney General". Retrieved 4 July 2015. 
  8. ^ Tait, Maggie (12 May 2008). "Customary land excluded from Samoa bill". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  9. ^ "wetten.nl - Regeling - Wet op de rechterlijke organisatie - BWBR0001830". wetten.overheid.nl. Retrieved 2017-01-11. 
Sources .mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}
  • Barzilai, Gad; Nachmias, David (1997). The Attorney General: Authority and Responsibility. Principles, Institutions in Comparative Perspective, Analysis and Recommendations for Reforms. No. 6. Jerusalem: Israel Institute for Democracy. 
  • Barzilai, Gad (2010). The Attorney General and the State Prosecutor: Is Institutional Separation Warranted?. Jerusalem: Israel Institute for Democracy. 
External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Attorneys General.
  • Quotations related to Attorney general at Wikiquote
Authority control
  • NARA: 10675857


The Attorney General's Guidelines for Domestic FBI Operations
The Attorney General's Guidelines for Domestic FBI Operations
As the primary investigative agency of the federal government, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has the authority and responsibility to investigate all violations of federal law that are not exclusively assigned to another federal agency. The FBI is further vested by law and by Presidential directives with the primary role in carrying out investigations within the United States of threats to the national security. This includes the lead domestic role in investigating international terrorist threats to the United States, and in conducting counterintelligence activities to meet foreign entities' espionage and intelligence efforts directed against the United States. The FBI is also vested with important actions in collecting foreign intelligence as a member agency of the U.S. Intelligence Community. The FBI accordingly plays crucial roles in the enforcement of federal law and the proper administration of justice in the United States, in the protection of the national security, and in obtaining information needed by the United States for the conduct of its foreign affairs. These roles reflect the wide range of the FBI's current responsibilities and obligations, which require the FBI to be both an agency that effectively detects, investigates, and prevents crimes, and an agency that effectively protects the national security and collects intelligence.

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$14.95



Final Report of the Attorney General's Commission on Pornography
Final Report of the Attorney General's Commission on Pornography
Discusses the history of pornography and its harmful effects on society, suggests approaches to law enforcement, and shares the testimony of victims of pornography

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Opinion of Attorney General Bates on Citizenship
Opinion of Attorney General Bates on Citizenship
Leopold Classic Library is delighted to publish this classic book as part of our extensive collection. As part of our on-going commitment to delivering value to the reader, we have also provided you with a link to a website, where you may download a digital version of this work for free. Many of the books in our collection have been out of print for decades, and therefore have not been accessible to the general public. Whilst the books in this collection have not been hand curated, an aim of our publishing program is to facilitate rapid access to this vast reservoir of literature. As a result of this book being first published many decades ago, it may have occasional imperfections. These imperfections may include poor picture quality, blurred or missing text. While some of these imperfections may have appeared in the original work, others may have resulted from the scanning process that has been applied. However, our view is that this is a significant literary work, which deserves to be brought back into print after many decades. While some publishers have applied optical character recognition (OCR), this approach has its own drawbacks, which include formatting errors, misspelt words, or the presence of inappropriate characters. Our philosophy has been guided by a desire to provide the reader with an experience that is as close as possible to ownership of the original work. We hope that you will enjoy this wonderful classic book, and that the occasional imperfection that it might contain will not detract from the experience.

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$10.95



Federalism on Trial: State Attorneys General and National Policymaking in Contemporary America
Federalism on Trial: State Attorneys General and National Policymaking in Contemporary America
"It is one of the happy incidents of the federal system," Justice Louis Brandeis wrote in 1932, "that a single courageous state may, if its citizens choose, serve as a laboratory, and try novel social and economic experiments without risk to the rest of the country." It is one of the features of federalism in our day, Paul Nolette counters, that these "laboratories of democracy," under the guidance of state attorneys general, are more apt to be dictating national policy than conducting contained experiments. In Federalism on Trial, Nolette presents the first broadscale examination of the increasingly nationalized political activism of state attorneys general. Focusing on coordinated state litigation as a form of national policymaking, his book challenges common assumptions about the contemporary nature of American federalism. In the tobacco litigation of the 1990s, a number of state attorneys general managed to reshape one of America's largest industries—all without the involvement of Congress or the executive branch. This instance of prosecution as a form of regulation is just one case among many in the larger story of American state development. Federalism on Trial shows how new social policy regimes of the 1960s and 1970s—adopting national objectives such as cleaner air, wider access to health care, and greater consumer protections—promoted both "adversarial legalism" and new forms of "cooperative federalism" that enhanced the powers and possibilities open to state attorneys general. Nolette traces this trend—as AGs took advantage of these new circumstances and opportunities—through case studies involving drug pricing, environmental policy, and health care reform. The result is the first full account—far-reaching and finely detailed—of how, rather than checking national power or creating productive dialogue between federal and state policymakers, the federalism exercised by state attorneys general frequently complicates national regulatory regimes and seeks both greater policy centralization and a more extensive reach of the American regulatory state.

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$45.00



Advising Ike: The Memoirs of Attorney General Herbert Brownell
Advising Ike: The Memoirs of Attorney General Herbert Brownell
In this enlightening volume, Herbert Brownell, the man Dwight D. Eisenhower said would make an outstanding president, recounts his achievements and trials as the GOP's most successful presidential operative of the 1940s and 1950s and as Attorney General at a crucial time in American history.Instrumental in getting Dwight D. Eisenhower to run for office and wielding considerable influence over many of the president's decisions, Brownell had to make many tough and controversial recommendations. In his memoirs he recalls his relationship with the president and the difficult issues confronting them—civil rights, McCarthyism, illegal aliens, anti-trust laws, national security vs. individual rights."I am often amused when people pine about going back to the 'quiet days' of Eisenhower," writes Brownell, who served during an administration that faced not only the wrath of segregationists and Communist witch-hunters but also the resolution of an increasingly unpopular war in Korea and a new definition of American-Soviet relations following Joseph Stalin's death. Particularly difficult, but among the high points of the Eisenhower administration for Brownell, were the painstaking gains made in the area of civil rights. Despite personal attacks by the opposition on his integrity, he tenaciously supported and enforced the Supreme Court's decision in Brown vs. the Board of Education and Little Rock desegregation.Going beyond the years he spent on Eisenhower's cabinet, Brownell describes the events and people that have influenced his colorful life, including those from his early years in Nebraska, his apprentice years in New York as he joined the opposition to Tammany Hall, his stints as chairman of the Republican party and manager of Thomas Dewey's two unsuccessful presidential campaigns, his 62-year private law career, and his extensive world travels.Brownell's memoirs, filled with history, anecdotes, personal observations, and subtle humor, reveal a highly intelligent and modest man who achieved great accomplishments—developing the first Civil Rights act since Reconstruction, preserving national security while protecting individual rights—by doing what he thought was right, not by being politically correct.

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$34.95



Attorney General Guidelines for Victim and Witness Assistance
Attorney General Guidelines for Victim and Witness Assistance
The Attorney General of the United States and the U.S. Department of Justice Office for Victims of Crime strive to pursue justice for criminal acts and that pursuit includes justice for the victims of and witnesses to crime. The 2011 Edition of the Attorney General Guidelines for Victim and Witness Assistance reflects current statutory provisions, recognizes the technological and legal changes that have taken place since the previous Guidelines were promulgated, and incorporates best practices that will benefit victims and enhance investigations and prosecutions.

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Child Abuse Prevention Handbook...and Intervention Guide. (Crime and Violence Prevention Center, California Attorney General's Office)
Child Abuse Prevention Handbook...and Intervention Guide. (Crime and Violence Prevention Center, California Attorney General's Office)
Psychology, Paperback

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The Laws Relating to the Public Records and Public Documents, With Opinions of the Attorneys-General (Classic Reprint)
The Laws Relating to the Public Records and Public Documents, With Opinions of the Attorneys-General (Classic Reprint)
Excerpt from The Laws Relating to the Public Records and Public Documents, With Opinions of the Attorneys-GeneralSection 1. There shall be a commissioner of public records, who shall be appointed by the governor, with the advice and consent of the council, for a term of three years, unless sooner removed by the governor.About the PublisherForgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.comThis book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

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