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A baker is someone who bakes and sometimes sells breads and other products made using an oven or other concentrated heat source. The place where a baker

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This article is about the cooking profession. For other uses, see Baker (disambiguation). The Baker (c. 1681); oil-on-canvas painting by Job Adriaensz Berckheyde (1630-1693) now held by the Worcester Art Museum. A U.S. Navy baker aboard the USS John C. Stennis aircraft carrier moves a tray of hot, freshly baked rolls onto a cooling rack.

A baker is someone who bakes and sometimes sells breads and other products made using an oven or other concentrated heat source. The place where a baker works is called a bakery. Bakers normally bake breads, cakes, pies, pastries and other general items made of flour.

  • 1 History
  • 2 As a surname
  • 3 Duties and occupational hazards
    • 3.1 Comparison with pastry chef
  • 4 Equipment
  • 5 Employment statistics
    • 5.1 United States
  • 6 Gallery
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
History See also: History of bread

Since grains have been a staple food for millennia, the activity of baking is a very old one. Control of yeast, however, is relatively recent.[1] By the fifth and sixth centuries BCE, the ancient Greeks used enclosed ovens heated by wood fires; communities usually baked bread in a large communal oven.[1] Greeks baked dozens and possibly hundreds of types of bread; Athenaeus described seventy-two varieties.[2]

In ancient Rome several centuries later, the first mass production of breads occurred, and "the baking profession can be said to have started at that time."[1] Ancient Roman bakers used honey and oil in their products, creating pastries rather than breads.[1] In ancient Rome, bakers (Latin, pistor) were sometimes slaves, who were (like other slave-artisans) sometimes manumitted.[3] Large households in Rome normally had their own bakers.[4]

The Gauls are credited with discovering that the addition of beer froth to bread dough made well-leavened bread, marking the use of controlled yeast for bread dough.[5]

In medieval Europe, baking ovens were often separated from other buildings (and sometimes located outside city walls) to mitigate the risk of fire.[5] Because bread was an important staple food, bakers' production factors (such as bolting yields, ingredients, and loaf sizes) were heavily regulated.[5] For example, Henry III of England promulgated the Assize of Bread and Ale in 1267, subjecting all commercial bakers and brewers to various fees in order to practice their trade and imposing various regulations, such as inspection and verification of weights and measures, quality control, and price controls.[6] Soon after the enactment of the Assize, "baking became a very stable industry, and was executed much more professionally than brewing, resulting in towns and villages having fewer bakers than brewers."[6] Because ovens were expensive capital investments and required careful operation, specialized bakeries opened.[6]

Bakers were often part of the guild system, which was well-established by the sixteenth century: master bakers instructed apprentices and were assisted by journeymen.[5] In Amsterdam in 1694, for example, the cake-bakers, pie-bakers, and rusk-bakers separated from an earlier Bread Bakers Guild and formed their own guild, regulating the trade.[7] A fraternity of bakers in London existed as early as 1155, according to records of payments to the Exchequer; the Worshipful Company of Bakers was formed by charters dated 1486, 1569, and 1685. The guild still exists today, with mostly ceremonial and charitable functions. Five bakers have served as lord mayor of London.[8]

The Columbian Exchange, which began in 1492, had a profound influence on the baking occupation.[5] Access to sugar greatly increased as a result of new cultivation in the Caribbean, and ingredients such as cocoa and chocolate became available in the Old World.[5] In the eighteenth century, processors learned how to refine sugar from sugar beets, allowing Europeans to grow sugar locally.[5] These developments led to an increase in the sophistication of baking and pastries, and the development of new products such as puff pastries and Danish dough.[5]

A traditional baker in Poland, removes fresh bread from an oven with a long wooden peel and places it on a cooling rack

Two important books on bread-baking were published in the 1770s: Paul-Jacques Malaouin published L'art du meinier, du boulanger et du vermicellier (The Art of the Miller, the Bread-Baker, and the Pasta-Maker) in 1775, and Antoine-Augustin Parmentier published Le parfair boulanger (The Perfect Bread-Baker) in 1778.[5]

A study of the English city of Manchester from 1824–85, during the Industrial Revolution, determined that "baker and shopkeeper" was the third-most common occupation, with 178 male bakers, 19 female bakers, and eight bakers of unknown sex in the city at that time.[9] This occupation was less common that cloth manufacturer and tavern/public house worker, but more common than cotton spinner, merchant, calico printer, or grocer.[9]

In 1895, the New York State Assembly passed a reformist "bakeshop law" which included protections for bakery workers; the law "banned employees from sleeping in the bakeries; specified the drainage, plumbing and maintenance necessary to keep the bakeries sanitary (cats were specifically allowed to stay on the premise—presumably to deal with the rats); limited the daily and weekly maximum of hours worked; and established an inspectorate to make sure these conditions were met."[10][11] The legislation was soon replicated in other states.[12] Joseph Lochner, a bakery owner in Utica, New York, was subsequently convicted of violating the law for forcing his employees to work more than sixty hours a week. He appealed his case to the U.S. Supreme Court, which decided, in the highly influential case of Lochner v. New York (1905), over a dissent from Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, that the labor law violated a constitutional right to "freedom of contract."[13][11] This case marked the beginning of a "pro-employer, laissez-faire" era, later known as the Lochner era, which "would cast a long shadow over American law, society, and politics" until the late 1930s, when Lochner was repudiated.[13] Frustrated with the rapid deterioration of working conditions, bakery workers in New York went on strike in August 1905.[14]

In Roman Catholic tradition, the patron saint of bakers and pastry chefs is Honoratus of Amiens (Honoré), a sixth-century bishop of Amiens in northern France for whom the St. Honoré cake is named.[15] Lazarus of Bethany (Lazare) was originally a competitor to Honoré for the title of patron saint of bakers, but in the 17th century the French bakers' guild settled in favor of Honoré.[15]

As a surname Main article: Baker (surname)

Baker is an easily recognizable English surname of medieval occupational origin; Baxster is the female form.[16][17] Equivalent family names of occupational origin meaning "baker" exist in other languages: Boulanger, Bulinger, Dufour, and Fournier in French, Pfister and Becker in German, and Piekarz in Polish.[17]

Duties and occupational hazards

According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH) published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States Department of Labor,

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Bakers typically do the following:

  • Check the quality of baking ingredients
  • Prepare equipment for baking
  • Measure and weigh flour and other ingredients
  • Combine measured ingredients in mixers or blenders
  • Knead, roll, cut, and shape dough
  • Place dough into pans, into molds, or onto baking sheets
  • Set oven temperatures
  • Place items into ovens or onto grills
  • Observe color and state of products being baked
  • Apply glazes, icings, or other toppings

Bakers produce various types and quantities of breads, pastries, and other baked goods sold by grocers, wholesalers, restaurants, and institutional food services. Some bakers create new recipes.[18]

Bakers encounter a number of occupational hazards. OOH reports that bakeries, "especially large manufacturing facilities, are filled with potential dangers such as hot ovens, mixing machines, and dough cutters. As a result, bakers have a higher rate of injuries and illnesses than the national average. Although their work is generally safe, bakers may endure back strains caused by lifting or moving heavy bags of flour or other products. Other common risks include cuts, scrapes, and burns. To reduce these risks, bakers often wear back supports, aprons, and gloves."[18]

Baker's asthma—commonly caused by flour allergens and the microbial enzymes (often Aspergillus-derived) used to facilitate breadmaking—is one of the common causes of occupational asthma worldwide.[19]

Comparison with pastry chef

Both bakers and pastry chefs make desserts and breads. In some restaurants and shops, a single individual serves in both roles. In other environments, there is a distinction between the two positions, with bakers making breads, rolls, and muffins, and pastry chefs making desserts, such as cakes, pies, tarts, and cookies. Even when both bakers and pastry chefs work in the same place, however, there may be overlap.[20]

Equipment A rolling pin is used to work dough.

A variety of equipment is used by bakers, including:

  • Baker's peel - a large, flat paddle, either wood or metal, used to slide loaves into and out of an oven[21]
  • Rolling pin - used to roll dough[21]
  • Flour scoops - used to add, remove, or measure flour[21]
  • Brushes- used to brush off excess flour from dough, and for glazing[21]
  • Flour mills - used to mill grains; may be either hand-cranked or mechanical[21]
Employment statistics United States

According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States Department of Labor, there were 185,300 bakers in the U.S. in 2014, with median pay of $23,600 per year or $11.35 per hour.[18] About 28% of U.S. bakers work in stand-alone bakeries or in tortilla manufacturing; 26% work in grocery stores; 15% work in restaurants and other eating places; and 5% were self-employed.[18] About 30% of U.S. bakers worked part-time in 2014.[18]

Gallery See also
  • Food portal
  • Bagel Bakers Local 338
  • Baker's percentage
  • Baker's yeast, what bakers commonly use to make doughs rise
  • Bakers, Food and Allied Workers' Union
  • Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco Workers and Grain Millers' International Union
  • Bread machine, a home appliance to make single, basic loaves of bread
  • Cake shop
  • Chorleywood bread process, a process developed to make bread dough from the lower protein wheats of England
  • Coffee cake, simple cakes made for everyday use such as for breakfast or as snacks
  • List of baked goods
  • List of bakers
  • List of restaurant terminology
  • Pastry chef, someone who specializes in the making and baking of pastries, desserts, and other elaborate sweets
  • Pâtisserie, a bakery that specializes in pastries and sweets, in some countries this is a legal distinction
  • Proofing (baking technique)
  • Sliced bread, involves the industrial development of bread slicing machines
  • Vienna bread, developed with processes that were early steps in the modernization of bread production
  • White bread
  • August Zang, Austrian soldier who started a bakery in Paris and introduced Viennese steam ovens and pastries there
References Wikimedia Commons has media related to Baker.
  1. ^ a b c d Wayne Gisslen, Professional Baking (4th ed.: John Wiley & Sons, 2005), p. 4.
  2. ^ Hoffman, Susanna (2004). The Olive and the Caper: Adventures in Greek Cooking. Workman Publishing. p. 589. 
  3. ^ Sandra R. Joshel, Work, Identity, and Legal Status at Rome: A Study of the Occupational Inscriptions (University of Oklahoma Press, 1992), pp. 15, 95-97.
  4. ^ Joshel, p. 96.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wayne Gisslen, Professional Baking (6th ed.: John Wiley & Sons, 2013), p. 5-7.
  6. ^ a b c Ian Spencer Hornsey, A History of Beer and Brewing (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2003), p. 292.
  7. ^ Joop Witteveen, "Rye, A Daily Bread and a Daily Treat" in Oxford Symposium on Food & Cookery, 1989: Staple Foods (Prospect: 1990), p. 243.
  8. ^ John Kennedy Melling, London's Guilds and Liveries (Shire Publications, 2003), p. 41.
  9. ^ a b Joyce Burnette, Gender, Work and Wages in Industrial Revolution Britain (Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 35, table 1.6.
  10. ^ Maria Balinska, The Bagel: The Surprising History of a Modest Bread (Yale University Press, 2008), p. 109.
  11. ^ a b Gary R. Hartman, Roy M. Mersky & Cindy L. Tate, Landmark Supreme Court Cases: The Most Influential Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States (Infobase, 2014), p. 145.
  12. ^ Balinska, p. 109.
  13. ^ a b Balinska, p. 110.
  14. ^ Balinska, p. 111.
  15. ^ a b Deena Prichep, Thank the Patron Saint of Bakers for This Cake Today, NPR (May 16, 2012).
  16. ^ Gregory Clark, The Son Also Rises: Surnames and the History of Social Mobility (Princeton University Press, 2014), p. 71.
  17. ^ a b Elsdon Coles Smith, American Surnames (Genealogical Publishing Co.: 1969), p. 111.
  18. ^ a b c d e Bakers, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor (2015).
  19. ^ Paul Cullinan, Torben Sigsgaard & Rolf Merget, "Occupational Asmtha in the Baking Industry" in Asthma in the Workplace (eds. Jean-Luc Malo, Moira Chan-Yeung & David I. Bernstein: 4th ed., CRC Press, 2013), p. 213.
  20. ^ Simone Payment, Careers in Restaurants (Rosen: 2014), p. 27.
  21. ^ a b c d e Rose Levy Beranbaum, The Bread Bible (W. W. Norton, 2003), p. 595-96.

Babycakes Multi-Treat Baker
Babycakes Multi-Treat Baker
Baby Cakes - multi-treat baker convenient cord wrap non-skid rubber feet 3 interchangeable nonstick baking plates recipe booklet with hints and suggestions make 7 cupcakes 7 donuts or 12 cake pops latching handle power and ready lights.

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The Fearless Baker: Simple Secrets for Baking Like a Pro
The Fearless Baker: Simple Secrets for Baking Like a Pro
Top food stylist and popular baking columnist shares her baking secrets.When people see Erin McDowell frost a perfect layer cake, weave a lattice pie crust, or pull a rich loaf of brioche from the oven, they often act as though performed culinary magic. not a baker,they tell her. But in fact, expert baking is not at all unattainable, nor is it as inflexible as most people assume. The key to freedom is to understand the principles behind how ingredients interact and how classic methods work. Once these concepts are mastered, favorite recipes can be altered and personalized almost endlessly.With the assurance born out of years of experience, McDowell shares insider tips and techniques that make desserts taste as good as they look. With recipes from flourless cocoa cookies and strawberry-filled popovers (easy), through apple cider pie and black-bottom (medium), to a statuesque layer cake crowned with caramelized popcorn (difficult), and make-ahead sidebars with each recipe, this exciting, carefully curated collection will appeal to beginning and experienced bakers alike. The paragraph on page 18 is a continuation of the paragraph on page 15 on leavening agents. pages 16 and 17 are on different information (eggs and sugar) and are a different color to indicate they are extra information

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Quan Jewelry Gifts for Mom Measuring Spoons on Funny Quote Card, Stainless Steel, 16 inches to 18 inches
Quan Jewelry Gifts for Mom Measuring Spoons on Funny Quote Card, Stainless Steel, 16 inches to 18 inches
Looking for funny jewelry as gifts for bakers, gifts for a chef, pastry chef gifts? This mini cupcake pan with measuring spoons that shows a great craftmanship is a great cooking gift set. Includes a pre-printed funny message on card that says: "Bakers gonna bake, bake, bake, bake, bake."

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The Baker's Secret: A Novel
The Baker's Secret: A Novel
A tale beautifully, wisely, and masterfully told.” — Paula McLain, author of The Paris Wife and Circling the SunFrom the multiple-award-winning, critically acclaimed author of The Hummingbird and The Curiosity comes a dazzling novel of World War II—a shimmering tale of courage, determination, optimism, and the resilience of the human spirit, set in a small Normandy village on the eve of D-Day.On June 5, 1944, as dawn rises over a small town on the Normandy coast of France, Emmanuelle is making the bread that has sustained her fellow villagers in the dark days since the Germans invaded her country. Only twenty-two, Emma learned to bake at the side of a master, Ezra Kuchen, the village baker since before she was born. Apprenticed to Ezra at thirteen, Emma watched with shame and anger as her kind mentor was forced to wear the six-pointed yellow star on his clothing. She was likewise powerless to help when they pulled Ezra from his shop at gunpoint, the first of many villagers stolen away and never seen again.In the years that her sleepy coastal village has suffered under the enemy, Emma has silently, stealthily fought back. Each day, she receives an extra ration of flour to bake a dozen baguettes for the occupying troops. And each day, she mixes that precious flour with ground straw to create enough dough for two extra loaves—contraband bread she shares with the hungry villagers. Under the cold, watchful eyes of armed soldiers, she builds a clandestine network of barter and trade that she and the villagers use to thwart their occupiers. But her gift to the village is more than these few crusty loaves. Emma gives the people a taste of hope—the faith that one day the Allies will arrive to save them.

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Whitmor Supreme Baker’s Rack with Food Safe Removable Wood Cutting Board - Chrome
Whitmor Supreme Baker’s Rack with Food Safe Removable Wood Cutting Board - Chrome
Give yourself a little extra space in the kitchen, garage, or even the office with this sturdy Whitmor 6054 268, Supreme Chrome Baker's Rack. This rack comes with a removable cutting board that provides ample space for preparation. It is made from chrome-plated steel to provide a durable performance. You can also hang your pots and pans on the 4 accessory hooks that come with this rack. Assembly is very easy and can be done without tools. Wipe clean with a damp cloth. This item comes with a 10 year limited warranty. Assembled measurements are 36.25”x 14”x 55.14”.  Whitmor is a 4th generation family-owned and operated business. Since 1946, Whitmor has been dedicated to bringing organization home by creating products that simplify everyday life. Ensuring that those products are built with integrity, value, and innovation is our commitment to you. And our promise is that we will always be here for you should you ever need us as we stand behind our product 100%.   Whitmor customer service is available in English and Spanish Monday through Friday from 8am - 4:30pm CST.  Call us and we will gladly assist you in your language.

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OXO Good Grips Baker’s Dusting Wand for Sugar, Flour and Spices
OXO Good Grips Baker’s Dusting Wand for Sugar, Flour and Spices
The OXO Good Grips Baker's Dusting Wand is perfect for evenly flouring baking pans or sprinkling surfaces for rolling dough. Simply twist the Dusting Wand open, scoop out some flour and twist to close. Then you're ready to dust any surface with a quick flick of the wrist. One half of the Wand is perforated for even distribution and one is solid so you can neatly rest it on countertops. The Baker's Dusting Wand is also great for dusting baked goods with cinnamon or powdered sugar, cinnamon on cappuccino, or even for decorating cakes and cupcakes with stencils. Dishwasher safe.

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Nordic Ware Natural Aluminum Commercial Baker's Half Sheet (2 Pack), Silver
Nordic Ware Natural Aluminum Commercial Baker's Half Sheet (2 Pack), Silver
Nordic Ware's line of Natural Commercial Bakeware is designed for commercial use, and exceeds expectations in the home. The durable, natural aluminum construction bakes evenly and browns uniformly, while the light color prevents overbrowning. The oversized edge also makes getting these pans in and out of the oven a cinch. Proudly made in the USA by Nordic Ware. Aluminum is reactive to acidic ingredients such as vinegar and tomato products. These foods may darken, pit or corrode the pan after prolonged use.

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Fabulous Baker, Baking Theme, Cupcake Bangle Bracelet
Fabulous Baker, Baking Theme, Cupcake Bangle Bracelet
Are you a 'Fabulous Baker'? What a perfect inspirational bangle for you or someone you love that loves to bake! This beautiful enamel pink cupcake is accompanied by a stainless steel, laser etched charm along with a mixer, cupcake tin and measuring spoons. The adjustable bangle bracelet is high quality stainless steel and fits wrists up to 7-1/2". Charms are silver -plated zinc alloy.

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