Free the Animation VR / AR
Play to reveal 3D images and 3D models!
Demonstration A-Frame / Multiplayer
vlrPhone / vlrFilter
Project of very low consumption, radiation and bitrate softphones, with the support of the spatial audio, of the frequency shifts and of the ultrasonic communications / Multifunction Audio Filter with Remote Control!
Coordinates: 38°34′36″N 121°29′37″W / 38.57667°N 121.49361°W / 38.57667; -121.49361California State SenateCalifornia State LegislatureTypeTypeUpper house of the California State Legislature Term limitsElected before 2012:
MinorityRepublican (14) Length of term4 yearsAuthorityArticle 4, California ConstitutionSalary$104,118/year + per diemElectionsLast electionNovember 8, 2016 (20 seats)Next electionNovember 6, 2018 (20 seats)RedistrictingCalifornia Citizens Redistricting CommissionMottoSenatoris est civitatis libertatem tueri
The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. Due to the state's large population and relatively small legislature, the State Senate has the largest population per representative ratio of any state legislative house. In the United States House of Representatives, California is apportioned 53 representatives, each representing approximately 704,566 people, while in the State Senate, each of the 40 Senators represents approximately 931,349 people, with the result that California state senators each actually represent more voters than California's representatives to the United States Congress do. Each member represents a population roughly equivalent to the state of Delaware. As a result of Proposition 140 in 1990 and Proposition 28 in 2012, members elected to the legislature prior to 2012 are restricted by term limits to two four-year terms (eight years), while those elected in or after 2012 are allowed to serve 12 years in the legislature in any combination of four-year state senate or two-year state assembly terms.
The State Senate convenes at the California State Capitol in Sacramento.
In the current session, Democrats control 26 seats, one seat short of a two-thirds supermajority of the chamber. Republicans control 14 seats.Contents
Prior to 1967, state legislative districts were drawn according to the "Little Federal Model" by which Assembly seats were drawn to according to population and Senate seats were drawn according to county lines. The guidelines were that no Senate district would include more than three counties and none would include less than one complete county. This led to the situation of a populous county such as Los Angeles County (1960 population of 6 million) being accorded the same number of state senators (one) as less populous counties such as Alpine County (1960 pop. 397). In Reynolds v. Sims, the United States Supreme Court compelled all states to draw up districts with equal population. As such, boundaries were changed to comply with the ruling.Leadership
The Lieutenant Governor is the ex officio President of the Senate and may break a tied vote. The President pro tempore is elected by the majority party caucus, followed by confirmation of the full senate. Other leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses according to each party's strength in the chamber.
The current president pro tem is Democrat Toni Atkins (39th–San Diego). The minority leader is Republican Patricia Bates (36th–Laguna Niguel).Meeting chamber
The red tones of the California State Senate Chamber are based on the British House of Lords, which is outfitted in a similar color. The dais rests along a wall shaped like an "E", with its central projection housing the rostrum. The Lower tier dais runs across the entire chamber, there are several chairs and computers used by the senate officers, the most prominent seat is reserved for the secretary who calls the roll. The higher tier is smaller, with three chairs, the two largest and most ornate chairs are used by the President Pro Tempore (right chair) and the Lieutenant Governor (left chair). The third and smallest chair, placed in the center, is used by the presiding officer (acting in place of the Pro Tem) and is rarely sat in as the president is expected to stand. There are four other chairs flanking the dais used by the highest non-member officials attending the senate, a foreign dignitary or state officer for example. Each of the 40 senators is provided a desk, microphone and two chairs, one for the senator, another for guests or legislative aides. Almost every decorating element is identical to the Assembly Chamber. Along the cornice appears a portrait of George Washington and the Latin quotation: senatoris est civitatis libertatem tueri ("It is a senator's duty to protect the liberty of the people").Composition Composition of the California State Senate Democratic Party Republican Party 26 14 Democratic Republican Affiliation Party (Shading indicates majority caucus) Total Democratic Republican Vacant End of previous legislature 26 13 39 1 Begin 27 13 40 0 February 22, 2018 26 39 1 June 25, 2018 25 14 August 13, 2018 26 14 40 0 Latest voting share 7001650000000000000♠65% 7001350000000000000♠35% Officers Position Name Party District Lieutenant Governor Gavin Newsom Democratic President pro tempore Toni Atkins Democratic 39th–San Diego Majority leader Bill Monning Democratic 17th–Carmel Majority whip Nancy Skinner Democratic 9th–Berkeley Majority caucus chair Connie Leyva Democratic 20th–Chino Majority caucus vice chair Mike McGuire Democratic 2nd–Healdsburg Minority leader Patricia Bates Republican 36th–Laguna Niguel Minority caucus chair Jim Nielsen Republican 4th–Gerber Minority whip Ted Gaines Republican 1st–El Dorado Hills Secretary Daniel Alvarez Sergeant-at-Arms Jodie Barnett Chaplain Sister Michelle Gorman
The Secretary, the Sergeant-at-Arms, and the Chaplain are not members of the Legislature.Members District Name Party Residence First elected Term limited Notes 1 Ted Gaines Republican El Dorado Hills 2011 2020 2 Mike McGuire Democratic Healdsburg 2014 2026 3 Bill Dodd Democratic Napa 2016 2024 4 Jim Nielsen Republican Gerber 2013 2022 Previously served from 1978 to 1990. 5 Cathleen Galgiani Democratic Stockton 2012 2020 6 Richard Pan Democratic Sacramento 2014 2022 7 Steve Glazer Democratic Orinda 2015 2028 8 Tom Berryhill Republican Modesto 2010 2018 9 Nancy Skinner Democratic Berkeley 2016 2024 10 Bob Wieckowski Democratic Fremont 2014 2022 11 Scott Wiener Democratic San Francisco 2016 2028 12 Anthony Cannella Republican Ceres 2010 2018 13 Jerry Hill Democratic San Mateo 2012 2020 14 Andy Vidak Republican Hanford 2013 2026 15 Jim Beall Democratic San Jose 2012 2020 16 Jean Fuller Republican Bakersfield 2010 2018 17 Bill Monning Democratic Carmel 2012 2020 18 Robert Hertzberg Democratic Van Nuys 2014 2022 19 Hannah-Beth Jackson Democratic Santa Barbara 2012 2020 20 Connie Leyva Democratic Chino 2014 2026 21 Scott Wilk Republican Santa Clarita 2016 2024 22 Ed Hernandez Democratic West Covina 2010 2018 23 Mike Morrell Republican Rancho Cucamonga 2014 2020 24 Kevin de León Democratic Los Angeles 2010 2018 President pro tempore from October 15, 2014, to March 21, 2018 25 Anthony Portantino Democratic La Cañada Flintridge 2016 2024 26 Ben Allen Democratic Santa Monica 2014 2026 27 Henry Stern Democratic Canoga Park 2016 2028 28 Jeff Stone Republican Temecula 2014 2026 29 Ling Ling Chang Republican Diamond Bar 2018 2024 30 Holly Mitchell Democratic Los Angeles 2013 2022 31 Richard Roth Democratic Riverside 2012 2024 32 Vanessa Delgado Democratic Montebello 2018 2018 Won special election. Term will be brief as she failed to win primary for the general election. 33 Ricardo Lara Democratic Bell Gardens 2012 2020 34 Janet Nguyen Republican Fountain Valley 2014 2026 35 Steven Bradford Democratic Gardena 2016 2024 36 Patricia Bates Republican Laguna Niguel 2014 2022 Minority leader 37 John Moorlach Republican Costa Mesa 2015+ 2028 38 Joel Anderson Republican Alpine 2010 2018 39 Toni Atkins Democratic San Diego 2016 2024 President pro tempore since March 21, 2018 40 Ben Hueso Democratic San Diego 2013 2022
Current committees include:Standing