Eclipse
Eclipse
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Eclipse
An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body

View Wikipedia Article

This article is about astronomical eclipses. For other uses, see Eclipse (disambiguation). "Total eclipse" redirects here. For other uses, see Total Eclipse (disambiguation). Totality during the 1999 solar eclipse. Solar prominences can be seen along the limb (in red) as well as extensive coronal filaments.

An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer. An eclipse occurs during a syzygy. Apart from syzygy (involving three celestial objects), the term eclipse is also used when a spacecraft reaches a position where it can observe two celestial bodies so aligned. An eclipse is the result of either an occultation (completely hidden) or a transit (partially hidden).

The term eclipse is most often used to describe either a solar eclipse, when the Moon's shadow crosses the Earth's surface, or a lunar eclipse, when the Moon moves into the Earth's shadow. However, it can also refer to such events beyond the Earth–Moon system: for example, a planet moving into the shadow cast by one of its moons, a moon passing into the shadow cast by its host planet, or a moon passing into the shadow of another moon. A binary star system can also produce eclipses if the plane of the orbit of its constituent stars intersects the observer's position.

For the special cases of solar and lunar eclipses, these only happen during an "eclipse season", the two times of each year when the plane of the Earth's orbit around the Sun crosses with the plane of the Moon's orbit around the Earth. The type of solar eclipse that happens during each season (whether total, annular, hybrid or partial) depends on apparent sizes of the Sun and Moon (which is a function of the elliptical distance in the Earth from the Sun and the Moon from the Earth, respectively, as seen from the Earth's surface). If the orbit of the Earth around the Sun, and the Moon's orbit around the Earth were both in the same plane with each other, then eclipses would happen each and every month. There would be a lunar eclipse at every full moon, and a solar eclipse at every new moon. And if both orbits were perfectly circular, the each solar eclipse would be the same type every month. It is because of the non-planar and non-circular differences that eclipses are not a common event. Lunar eclipses can be viewed from the entire nightside half of the Earth. But solar eclipses, particularly a total eclipse, as occurring at any one particular point on the Earth's surface, is a rare event that can span many decades from one to the next.

Contents
  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 Umbra, penumbra and antumbra
  • 3 Eclipse cycles
  • 4 Earth–Moon System
    • 4.1 Solar eclipse
    • 4.2 Lunar eclipse
    • 4.3 Historical record
  • 5 Some other planets and Pluto
    • 5.1 Gas giants
    • 5.2 Mars
    • 5.3 Pluto
    • 5.4 Mercury and Venus
  • 6 Eclipsing binaries
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

Etymology

The term is derived from the ancient Greek noun ἔκλειψις (ékleipsis), which means "the abandonment", "the downfall", or "the darkening of a heavenly body", which is derived from the verb ἐκλείπω (ekleípō) which means "to abandon", "to darken", or "to cease to exist," a combination of prefix ἐκ- (ek-), from preposition ἐκ (ek), "out," and of verb λείπω (leípō), "to be absent".

Umbra, penumbra and antumbra Main article: Umbra, penumbra and antumbra Umbra, penumbra and antumbra cast by an opaque object occulting a larger light source

For any two objects in space, a line can be extended from the first through the second. The latter object will block some amount of light being emitted by the former, creating a region of shadow around the axis of the line. Typically these objects are moving with respect to each other and their surroundings, so the resulting shadow will sweep through a region of space, only passing through any particular location in the region for a fixed interval of time. As viewed from such a location, this shadowing event is known as an eclipse.

Typically the cross-section of the objects involved in an astronomical eclipse are roughly disk shaped. The region of an object's shadow during an eclipse is divided into three parts:

  • The umbra, within which the object completely covers the light source. For the Sun, this light source is the photosphere.
  • The antumbra, extending beyond the tip of the umbra, within which the object is completely in front of the light source but too small to completely cover it.
  • The penumbra, within which the object is only partially in front of the light source.
Sun-moon configurations that produce a total (A), annular (B), and partial (C) solar eclipse

A total eclipse occurs when the observer is within the umbra, an annular eclipse when the observer is within the antumbra, and a partial eclipse when the observer is within the penumbra. During a lunar eclipse only the umbra and penumbra are applicable. This is because Earth's apparent diameter from the viewpoint of the Moon is nearly four times that of the Sun. The same terms may be used analogously in describing other eclipses, e.g., the antumbra of Deimos crossing Mars, or Phobos entering Mars's penumbra.

The first contact occurs when the eclipsing object's disc first starts to impinge on the light source; second contact is when the disc moves completely within the light source; third contact when it starts to move out of the light; and fourth or last contact when it finally leaves the light source's disc entirely.

For spherical bodies, when the occulting object is smaller than the star, the length (L) of the umbra's cone-shaped shadow is given by:

L   =   r ⋅ R o R s − R o {\displaystyle L\ =\ {\frac {r\cdot R_{o}}{R_{s}-R_{o}}}}

where Rs is the radius of the star, Ro is the occulting object's radius, and r is the distance from the star to the occulting object. For Earth, on average L is equal to 1.384×106 km, which is much larger than the Moon's semimajor axis of 3.844×105 km. Hence the umbral cone of the Earth can completely envelop the Moon during a lunar eclipse. If the occulting object has an atmosphere, however, some of the luminosity of the star can be refracted into the volume of the umbra. This occurs, for example, during an eclipse of the Moon by the Earth—producing a faint, ruddy illumination of the Moon even at totality.

On Earth, the shadow cast during an eclipse moves very approximately at 1 km per sec. This depends on the location of the shadow on the Earth and the angle in which it is moving. http://www.sciforums.com/threads/speed-of-eclipse-shadow.53722/

Eclipse cycles Main article: Eclipse cycle

An eclipse cycle takes place when a series of eclipses are separated by a certain interval of time. This happens when the orbital motions of the bodies form repeating harmonic patterns. A particular instance is the saros, which results in a repetition of a solar or lunar eclipse every 6,585.3 days, or a little over 18 years. Because this is not a whole number of days, successive eclipses will be visible from different parts of the world.

Earth–Moon System A symbolic orbital diagram from the view of the Earth at the center, with the sun and moon projected upon the celestial sphere, showing the Moon's two nodes where eclipses can occur.

An eclipse involving the Sun, Earth, and Moon can occur only when they are nearly in a straight line, allowing one to be hidden behind another, viewed from the third. Because the orbital plane of the Moon is tilted with respect to the orbital plane of the Earth (the ecliptic), eclipses can occur only when the Moon is close to the intersection of these two planes (the nodes). The Sun, Earth and nodes are aligned twice a year (during an eclipse season), and eclipses can occur during a period of about two months around these times. There can be from four to seven eclipses in a calendar year, which repeat according to various eclipse cycles, such as a saros.

Between 1901 and 2100 there are the maximum of seven eclipses in:

  • four (penumbral) lunar and three solar eclipses: 1908, 2038.
  • four solar and three lunar eclipses: 1917, 1973, 2094.
  • five solar and two lunar eclipses: 1934.

Excluding penumbral lunar eclipses, there are a maximum of seven eclipses in:

  • 1591, 1656, 1787, 1805, 1917, 1935, 1982, and 2094.
Solar eclipse Main article: Solar eclipse The progression of a solar eclipse on August 1, 2008, viewed from Novosibirsk, Russia. The time between shots is three minutes.

As observed from the Earth, a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes in front of the Sun. The type of solar eclipse event depends on the distance of the Moon from the Earth during the event. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Earth intersects the umbra portion of the Moon's shadow. When the umbra does not reach the surface of the Earth, the Sun is only partially occulted, resulting in an annular eclipse. Partial solar eclipses occur when the viewer is inside the penumbra.

Each icon shows the view from the centre of its black spot, representing the moon (not to scale)

The eclipse magnitude is the fraction of the Sun's diameter that is covered by the Moon. For a total eclipse, this value is always greater than or equal to one. In both annular and total eclipses, the eclipse magnitude is the ratio of the angular sizes of the Moon to the Sun.

Solar eclipses are relatively brief events that can only be viewed in totality along a relatively narrow track. Under the most favorable circumstances, a total solar eclipse can last for 7 minutes, 31 seconds, and can be viewed along a track that is up to 250 km wide. However, the region where a partial eclipse can be observed is much larger. The Moon's umbra will advance eastward at a rate of 1,700 km/h, until it no longer intersects the Earth's surface.

Geometry of a total solar eclipse (not to scale)

During a solar eclipse, the Moon can sometimes perfectly cover the Sun because its size is nearly the same as the Sun's when viewed from the Earth. A total solar eclipse is in fact an occultation while an annular solar eclipse is a transit.

When observed at points in space other than from the Earth's surface, the Sun can be eclipsed by bodies other than the Moon. Two examples include when the crew of Apollo 12 observed the Earth to eclipse the Sun in 1969 and when the Cassini probe observed Saturn to eclipse the Sun in 2006.

Lunar eclipse Main article: Lunar eclipse The progression of a lunar eclipse from right to left. Totality is shown with the first two images. These required a longer exposure time to make the details visible.

Lunar eclipses occur when the Moon passes through the Earth's shadow. This happens only during a full moon, when the Moon is on the far side of the Earth from the Sun. Unlike a solar eclipse, an eclipse of the Moon can be observed from nearly an entire hemisphere. For this reason it is much more common to observe a lunar eclipse from a given location. A lunar eclipse lasts longer, taking several hours to complete, with totality itself usually averaging anywhere from about 30 minutes to over an hour.

There are three types of lunar eclipses: penumbral, when the Moon crosses only the Earth's penumbra; partial, when the Moon crosses partially into the Earth's umbra; and total, when the Moon crosses entirely into the Earth's umbra. Total lunar eclipses pass through all three phases. Even during a total lunar eclipse, however, the Moon is not completely dark. Sunlight refracted through the Earth's atmosphere enters the umbra and provides a faint illumination. Much as in a sunset, the atmosphere tends to more strongly scatter light with shorter wavelengths, so the illumination of the Moon by refracted light has a red hue, thus the phrase 'Blood Moon' is often found in descriptions of such lunar events as far back as eclipses are recorded.

Historical record

Records of solar eclipses have been kept since ancient times. Eclipse dates can be used for chronological dating of historical records. A Syrian clay tablet, in the Ugaritic language, records a solar eclipse which occurred on March 5, 1223 B.C., while Paul Griffin argues that a stone in Ireland records an eclipse on November 30, 3340 B.C. Positing classical-era astronomers' use of Babylonian eclipse records mostly from the 13th century BC provides a feasible and mathematically consistent explanation for the Greek finding all three lunar mean motions (synodic, anomalistic, draconitic) to a precision of about one part in a million or better. Chinese historical records of solar eclipses date back over 4,000 years and have been used to measure changes in the Earth's rate of spin.

By the 1600s, European astronomers were publishing books with diagrams explaining how lunar and solar eclipses occurred. In order to disseminate this information to a broader audience and decrease fear of the consequences of eclipses, booksellers printed broadsides explaining the event either using the science or via astrology.

Some other planets and Pluto Gas giants See also: Solar eclipses on Jupiter, Solar eclipses on Saturn, Solar eclipses on Uranus, and Solar eclipses on Neptune A picture of Jupiter and its moon Io taken by Hubble. The black spot is Io's shadow. Saturn occults the Sun as seen from the Cassini–Huygens space probe

The gas giant planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) have many moons and thus frequently display eclipses. The most striking involve Jupiter, which has four large moons and a low axial tilt, making eclipses more frequent as these bodies pass through the shadow of the larger planet. Transits occur with equal frequency. It is common to see the larger moons casting circular shadows upon Jupiter's cloudtops.

The eclipses of the Galilean moons by Jupiter became accurately predictable once their orbital elements were known. During the 1670s, it was discovered that these events were occurring about 17 minutes later than expected when Jupiter was on the far side of the Sun. Ole Rømer deduced that the delay was caused by the time needed for light to travel from Jupiter to the Earth. This was used to produce the first estimate of the speed of light.

On the other three gas giants, eclipses only occur at certain periods during the planet's orbit, due to their higher inclination between the orbits of the moon and the orbital plane of the planet. The moon Titan, for example, has an orbital plane tilted about 1.6° to Saturn's equatorial plane. But Saturn has an axial tilt of nearly 27°. The orbital plane of Titan only crosses the line of sight to the Sun at two points along Saturn's orbit. As the orbital period of Saturn is 29.7 years, an eclipse is only possible about every 15 years.

The timing of the Jovian satellite eclipses was also used to calculate an observer's longitude upon the Earth. By knowing the expected time when an eclipse would be observed at a standard longitude (such as Greenwich), the time difference could be computed by accurately observing the local time of the eclipse. The time difference gives the longitude of the observer because every hour of difference corresponded to 15° around the Earth's equator. This technique was used, for example, by Giovanni D. Cassini in 1679 to re-map France.

Mars Main article: Transit of Phobos from Mars Transit of Phobos from Mars, as seen by the Mars Opportunity rover (10 March 2004).

On Mars, only partial solar eclipses (transits) are possible, because neither of its moons is large enough, at their respective orbital radii, to cover the Sun's disc as seen from the surface of the planet. Eclipses of the moons by Mars are not only possible, but commonplace, with hundreds occurring each Earth year. There are also rare occasions when Deimos is eclipsed by Phobos. Martian eclipses have been photographed from both the surface of Mars and from orbit.

Pluto Main article: Solar eclipses on Pluto

Pluto, with its proportionately largest moon Charon, is also the site of many eclipses. A series of such mutual eclipses occurred between 1985 and 1990. These daily events led to the first accurate measurements of the physical parameters of both objects.

Mercury and Venus

Eclipses are impossible on Mercury and Venus, which have no moons. However, both have been observed to transit across the face of the Sun. There are on average 13 transits of Mercury each century. Transits of Venus occur in pairs separated by an interval of eight years, but each pair of events happen less than once a century.

Eclipsing binaries

A binary star system consists of two stars that orbit around their common centre of mass. The movements of both stars lie on a common orbital plane in space. When this plane is very closely aligned with the location of an observer, the stars can be seen to pass in front of each other. The result is a type of extrinsic variable star system called an eclipsing binary.

The maximum luminosity of an eclipsing binary system is equal to the sum of the luminosity contributions from the individual stars. When one star passes in front of the other, the luminosity of the system is seen to decrease. The luminosity returns to normal once the two stars are no longer in alignment.

The first eclipsing binary star system to be discovered was Algol, a star system in the constellation Perseus. Normally this star system has a visual magnitude of 2.1. However, every 2.867 days the magnitude decreases to 3.4 for more than nine hours. This is caused by the passage of the dimmer member of the pair in front of the brighter star. The concept that an eclipsing body caused these luminosity variations was introduced by John Goodricke in 1783.

See also
  • List of solar eclipses in the 21st century
  • Mursili's eclipse
  • Transit of Venus
References
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  2. ^ http://www.in.gr/dictionary/lookup.asp?Word=%E5%EA%EB%E5%DF%F0%F9+++&x=0&y=0
  3. ^ http://www.lingvozone.com/main.jsp?action=translation&do=dictionary&language_id_from=23&language_id_to=8&word=%CE%BB%CE%B5%CE%AF%CF%80%CF%89+&t.x=55&t.y=16
  4. ^ https://translate.google.com/translate_t?prev=hp&hl=en&js=y&text=%CE%BB%CE%B5%CE%AF%CF%80%CF%89&sl=el&tl=en&history_state0=&swap=1#
  5. ^ a b Westfall, John; Sheehan, William (2014), Celestial Shadows: Eclipses, Transits, and Occultations, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, 410, Springer, pp. 1−5, ISBN 1493915355. 
  6. ^ Espenak, Fred (September 21, 2007). "Glossary of Solar Eclipse Terms". NASA. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  7. ^ Green, Robin M. (1985). Spherical Astronomy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-521-31779-7. 
  8. ^ Espenak, Fred (July 12, 2007). "Eclipses and the Saros". NASA. Archived from the original on 2007-10-30. Retrieved 2007-12-13. 
  9. ^ http://moonblink.info/Eclipse/lists/stats
  10. ^ http://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/eclipse/eclipsecycles.htm
  11. ^ Hipschman, R. "Solar Eclipse: Why Eclipses Happen". Retrieved 2008-12-01. 
  12. ^ Zombeck, Martin V. (2006). Handbook of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics (Third ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-521-78242-2. 
  13. ^ Staff (January 6, 2006). "Solar and Lunar Eclipses". NOAA. Retrieved 2007-05-02. 
  14. ^ Phillips, Tony (February 13, 2008). "Total Lunar Eclipse". NASA. Retrieved 2008-03-03. 
  15. ^ Ancient Timekeepers, http://blog.world-mysteries.com/science/ancient-timekeepers-part-1-movements-of-the-earth/
  16. ^ de Jong, T.; van Soldt, W. H. (1989). "The earliest known solar eclipse record redated". Nature. 338 (6212): 238–240. Bibcode:1989Natur.338..238D. doi:10.1038/338238a0. Retrieved 2007-05-02. 
  17. ^ Griffin, Paul (2002). "Confirmation of World's Oldest Solar Eclipse Recorded in Stone". The Digital Universe. Retrieved 2007-05-02. 
  18. ^ See DIO 16 p.2 (2009). Though those Greek and perhaps Babylonian astronomers who determined the three previously unsolved lunar motions were spread over more than four centuries (263 BC to 160 AD), the math-indicated early eclipse records are all from a much smaller span: the 13th century BC. The anciently attested Greek technique: use of eclipse cycles, automatically providing integral ratios, which is how all ancient astronomers' lunar motions were expressed. Long-eclipse-cycle-based reconstructions precisely produce all of the 24 digits appearing in the three attested ancient motions just cited: 6247 synod = 6695 anom (System A), 5458 synod = 5923 drac (Hipparchos), 3277 synod = 3512 anom (Planetary Hypotheses). By contrast, the System B motion, 251 synod = 269 anom (Aristarchos?), could have been determined without recourse to remote eclipse data, simply by using a few eclipse-pairs 4267 months apart.
  19. ^ "Solar Eclipses in History and Mythology". Bibliotheca Alexandrina. Retrieved 2007-05-02. 
  20. ^ Girault, Simon (1592). Globe dv monde contenant un bref traite du ciel & de la terra. Langres, France. p. Fol. 8V. 
  21. ^ Hevelius, Johannes (1652). Observatio Eclipseos Solaris Gedani. Danzig, Poland. 
  22. ^ Stephanson, Bruce; Bolt, Marvin; Friedman, Anna Felicity (2000). The Universe Unveiled: Instruments and Images through History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 052179143X. 
  23. ^ "Start eclipse of the Sun by Callisto from the center of Jupiter" (Observed at 00:28 UT). JPL Solar System Simulator. 3 June 2009. Retrieved 2008-06-05.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  24. ^ "Eclipse of the Sun by Titan from the center of Saturn" (Observed at 02:46 UT). JPL Solar System Simulator. 3 August 2009. Retrieved 2008-06-05.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  25. ^ "Brief Eclipse of the Sun by Miranda from the center of Uranus" (Observed at 19:58 UT (JPL Horizons S-O-T=0.0565)). JPL Solar System Simulator. 22 January 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-05.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  26. ^ "Transit of the Sun by Nereid from the center of Neptune" (Observed at 20:19 UT (JPL Horizons S-O-T=0.0079)). JPL Solar System Simulator. 28 March 2006. Retrieved 2008-06-05.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  27. ^ "Roemer's Hypothesis". MathPages. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  28. ^ Cassini, Giovanni D. (1694). "Monsieur Cassini His New and Exact Tables for the Eclipses of the First Satellite of Jupiter, Reduced to the Julian Stile, and Meridian of London". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 18 (207-214): 237–256. JSTOR 102468. doi:10.1098/rstl.1694.0048. Retrieved 2007-04-30. 
  29. ^ Davidson, Norman (1985). Astronomy and the Imagination: A New Approach to Man's Experience of the Stars. Routledge. ISBN 0-7102-0371-3. 
  30. ^ Buie, M. W.; Polk, K. S. (1988). "Polarization of the Pluto-Charon System During a Satellite Eclipse". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. 20: 806. Bibcode:1988BAAS...20..806B. 
  31. ^ Tholen, D. J.; Buie, M. W.; Binzel, R. P.; Frueh, M. L. (1987). "Improved Orbital and Physical Parameters for the Pluto-Charon System". Science. 237 (4814): 512–514. Bibcode:1987Sci...237..512T. PMID 17730324. doi:10.1126/science.237.4814.512. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  32. ^ Espenak, Fred (May 29, 2007). "Planetary Transits Across the Sun". NASA. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  33. ^ Bruton, Dan. "Eclipsing binary stars". Midnightkite Solutions. Archived from the original on 2007-04-14. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  34. ^ Price, Aaron (January 1999). "Variable Star Of The Month: Beta Persei (Algol)". AAVSO. Archived from the original on 2007-04-05. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  35. ^ Goodricke, John; Englefield, H. C. (1785). "Observations of a New Variable Star". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 75 (0): 153–164. Bibcode:1785RSPT...75..153G. doi:10.1098/rstl.1785.0009. 
External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eclipse.
  • Phobos Eclipsing Mars Observed by Curiosity Rover on YouTube
  • A Catalogue of Eclipse Cycles
  • Search 5,000 years of eclipses
  • NASA eclipse home page
  • International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Solar Eclipses
  • Mark's eclipse chasing website
  • Interactive eclipse maps site
Image galleries
  • The World at Night Eclipse Gallery
  • Solar and Lunar Eclipse Image Gallery
  • Williams College eclipse collection of images
  • Prof. Druckmüller's eclipse photography site
  • v
  • t
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Lunar eclipses Lists of lunar eclipses
  • All
  • Central total eclipses
  • Total penumbral eclipses
  • Historically significant
Lunar eclipses
by century
  • 20th BCE
  • 19th BCE
  • 18th BCE
  • 17th BCE
  • 16th BCE
  • 15th BCE
  • 14th BCE
  • 13th BCE
  • 12th BCE
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  • 10th BCE
  • 9th BCE
  • 8th BCE
  • 7th BCE
  • 6th BCE
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  • 3rd BCE
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  • 1st BCE
  • 1st
  • 2nd
  • 3rd
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  • 21st
  • 22nd
  • 23rd
  • 24th
  • 25th
  • 26th
  • 27th
  • 28th
  • 29th
  • 30th
Lunar eclipses
by Saros series
  • 100
  • 101
  • 102
  • 103
  • 104
  • 105
  • 106
  • 107
  • 108
  • 109
  • 110
  • 111
  • 112
  • 113
  • 114
  • 115
  • 116
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  • 118
  • 119
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  • 151
  • 152
  • 153
  • 154
  • 155
  • 156
  • 157
  • 158
  • 159
  • 160
  • 161
  • 162
  • 163

Partial eclipses
1950–2049
  • 1952 Feb
  • 1952 Aug
  • 1954 Jul
  • 1955 Nov
  • 1956 May
  • 1958 May
  • 1959 Mar
  • 1961 Mar
  • 1961 Aug
  • 1963 Jul
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  • 1970 Feb
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  • 2001 Jul
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  • → 2017 Aug
  • 2019 Jul
  • 2021 Nov
  • 2023 Oct
  • 2024 Sep
  • 2026 Aug
  • 2028 Jan
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  • 2030 Jun
  • 2034 Sep
  • 2035 Aug
  • 2037 Jul
  • 2039 Jun
  • 2039 Nov
  • 2041 May
  • 2041 Nov
  • 2046 Jan
  • 2046 Jul
  • 2048 Jun

Total eclipses
1950–2049
  • 1950 Apr
  • 1950 Sep
  • 1953 Jan
  • 1953 Jul
  • 1954 Jan
  • 1956 Nov
  • 1957 May
  • 1957 Nov
  • 1960 Mar
  • 1960 Sep
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  • 1971 Feb
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  • 1975 Nov
  • 1978 Mar
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  • 1982 Jan
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  • 1985 May
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  • 1986 Apr
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  • 2000 Jan
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  • 2007 Mar
  • 2007 Aug
  • 2008 Feb
  • 2010 Dec
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  • 2043 Mar
  • 2043 Sep
  • 2044 Mar
  • 2044 Sep
  • 2047 Jan
  • 2047 Jul
  • 2048 Jan
Penumbral eclipses Partial
  • Previous penumbral: 2017 Feb 11
  • Next penumbral: → 2020 Jan 10
Total
  • 1963 Jan 09
  • 1981 Jan 20
  • 1988 Mar 03
  • 1999 Jan 31
  • 2006 Mar 14
  • → 2042 May 05
  • 2053 Aug 29
See also
  • Danjon scale
  • Gamma
  • Book
  • Category
  • Commons
  • Portal
  • WikiProject
  • → symbol denotes next eclipse in series
  • v
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Solar eclipses Lists of eclipses By century
  • Antiquity
  • 20th BC
  • 19th BC
  • 18th BC
  • 17th BC
  • 16th BC
  • 15th BC
  • 14th BC
  • 13th BC
  • 12th BC
  • 11th BC
  • 10th BC
  • 9th BC
  • 8th BC
  • 7th BC
  • 6th BC
  • 5th BC
  • 4th BC
  • 3rd BC
  • 2nd BC
  • 1st BC
  • 1st
  • 2nd
  • 3rd
  • 4th
  • 5th
  • 6th
  • 7th
  • 8th
  • 9th
  • 10th
  • 11th
  • 12th
  • 13th
  • 14th
  • 15th
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  • 21st
  • 22nd
  • 23rd
  • 24th
  • 25th
  • 26th
  • 27th
  • 28th
  • 29th
  • 30th
Saros series
  • 110
  • 111
  • 112
  • 113
  • 114
  • 115
  • 116
  • 117
  • 118
  • 119
  • 120
  • 121
  • 122
  • 123
  • 124
  • 125
  • 126
  • 127
  • 128
  • 129
  • 130
  • 131
  • 132
  • 133
  • 134
  • 135
  • 136
  • 137
  • 138
  • 139
  • 140
  • 141
  • 142
  • 143
  • 144
  • 145
  • 146
  • 147
  • 148
  • 149
  • 150
  • 151
  • 152
  • 153
  • 154
  • 155
  • 156
  • 157
  • 158
  • 159
  • 160
  • 161
  • 162
Visibility
  • China
  • United Kingdom
  • Philippines
  • United States
Historical
  • Mursili's eclipse (1312 BC)
  • Assyrian eclipse (763 BC)
  • Eclipse of Thales (585 BC)

Total/hybrid eclipses

→ symbol denotes
next total/hybrid eclipse
  • 1560 Aug 21
  • 1598 Mar 7
  • 1652 Apr 8
  • 1654 Aug 12
  • 1699 Sep 23
  • 1715 May 3
  • 1724 May 22
  • 1766 Feb 9
  • 1778 Jun 24
  • 1780 Oct 27
  • 1806 Jun 16
  • 1816 Nov 19
  • 1820 Sep 7
  • 1824 Jun 26
  • 1842 Jul 8
  • 1851 Jul 28
  • 1853 Nov 30
  • 1857 Mar 25
  • 1858 Sep 7
  • 1860 Jul 18
  • 1865 Apr 25
  • 1867 Aug 29
  • 1868 Aug 18
  • 1869 Aug 7
  • 1870 Dec 22
  • 1871 Dec 12
  • 1874 Apr 16
  • 1875 Apr 6
  • 1878 Jul 29
  • 1882 May 17
  • 1883 May 6
  • 1885 Sep 8
  • 1886 Aug 29
  • 1887 Aug 19
  • 1889 Jan 1
  • 1889 Dec 22
  • 1893 Apr 16
  • 1896 Aug 9
  • 1898 Jan 22
  • 1900 May 28
  • 1901 May 18
  • 1903 Sep 21
  • 1904 Sep 9
  • 1905 Aug 30
  • 1907 Jan 14
  • 1908 Jan 3
  • 1908 Dec 23
  • 1909 Jun 17
  • 1910 May 9
  • 1911 Apr 28
  • 1912 Apr 17
  • 1912 Oct 10
  • 1914 Aug 21
  • 1916 Feb 3
  • 1918 Jun 8
  • 1919 May 29
  • 1921 Oct 1
  • 1922 Sep 21
  • 1923 Sep 10
  • 1925 Jan 24
  • 1926 Jan 14
  • 1927 Jun 29
  • 1928 May 19
  • 1929 May 9
  • 1930 Apr 28
  • 1930 Oct 21
  • 1932 Aug 31
  • 1934 Feb 14
  • 1936 Jun 19
  • 1937 Jun 8
  • 1938 May 29
  • 1939 Oct 12
  • 1940 Oct 1
  • 1941 Sep 21
  • 1943 Feb 4
  • 1944 Jan 25
  • 1944 Jul 20
  • 1945 Jul 9
  • 1947 May 20
  • 1948 Nov 1
  • 1950 Sep 12
  • 1952 Feb 25
  • 1954 Jun 30
  • 1955 Jun 20
  • 1956 Jun 8
  • 1957 Oct 23
  • 1958 Oct 12
  • 1959 Oct 2
  • 1961 Feb 15
  • 1962 Feb 5
  • 1963 Jul 20
  • 1965 May 30
  • 1966 Nov 12
  • 1967 Nov 2
  • 1968 Sep 22
  • 1970 Mar 7
  • 1972 Jul 10
  • 1973 Jun 30
  • 1974 Jun 20
  • 1976 Oct 23
  • 1977 Oct 12
  • 1979 Feb 26
  • 1980 Feb 16
  • 1981 Jul 31
  • 1983 Jun 11
  • 1984 Nov 22
  • 1985 Nov 12
  • 1986 Oct 3
  • 1987 Mar 29
  • 1988 Mar 18
  • 1990 Jul 22
  • 1991 Jul 11
  • 1992 Jun 30
  • 1994 Nov 3
  • 1995 Oct 24
  • 1997 Mar 9
  • 1998 Feb 26
  • 1999 Aug 11
  • 2001 Jun 21
  • 2002 Dec 4
  • 2003 Nov 23
  • 2005 Apr 8
  • 2006 Mar 29
  • 2008 Aug 1
  • 2009 Jul 22
  • 2010 Jul 11
  • 2012 Nov 13
  • 2013 Nov 3
  • 2015 Mar 20
  • 2016 Mar 9
  • → 2017 Aug 21
  • 2019 Jul 2
  • 2020 Dec 14
  • 2021 Dec 4
  • 2023 Apr 20
  • 2024 Apr 8
  • 2026 Aug 12
  • 2027 Aug 2
  • 2028 Jul 22
  • 2030 Nov 25
  • 2031 Nov 14
  • 2033 Mar 30
  • 2034 Mar 20
  • 2035 Sep 2
  • 2037 Jul 13
  • 2038 Dec 26
  • 2039 Dec 15
  • 2041 Apr 30
  • 2042 Apr 20
  • 2043 Apr 9
  • 2044 Aug 23
  • 2045 Aug 12
  • 2046 Aug 2
  • 2048 Dec 5
  • 2049 Nov 25
  • 2050 May 20
  • 2052 Mar 30
  • 2053 Sep 12
  • 2055 Jul 24
  • 2057 Jan 5
  • 2057 Dec 26
  • 2059 May 11
  • 2060 Apr 30
  • 2061 Apr 20
  • 2063 Aug 24
  • 2064 Aug 12
  • 2066 Dec 17
  • 2067 Dec 6
  • 2068 May 31
  • 2070 Apr 11
  • 2071 Sep 23
  • 2072 Sep 12
  • 2073 Aug 3
  • 2075 Jan 16
  • 2076 Jan 6
  • 2077 May 22
  • 2078 May 11
  • 2079 May 1
  • 2081 Sep 3
  • 2082 Aug 24
  • 2084 Dec 27
  • 2086 Jun 11
  • 2088 Apr 21
  • 2089 Oct 4
  • 2090 Sep 23
  • 2091 Aug 15
  • 2093 Jan 27
  • 2094 Jan 16
  • 2095 Jun 2
  • 2096 May 22
  • 2097 May 11
  • 2099 Sep 14
  • 2100 Sep 4
  • 2114 Jun 3
  • 2132 Jun 13
  • 2150 Jun 25
  • 2168 Jul 5
  • 2186 Jul 16

Annular eclipses

→ symbol denotes
next annular eclipse
  • 1854 May 26
  • 1879 Jan 22
  • 1889 Jun 28
  • 1901 Nov 11
  • 1903 Mar 29
  • 1904 Mar 17
  • 1905 Mar 6
  • 1907 Jul 10
  • 1908 Jun 28
  • 1911 Oct 22
  • 1914 Feb 25
  • 1915 Feb 14
  • 1915 Aug 10
  • 1916 Jul 30
  • 1917 Dec 14
  • 1918 Dec 3
  • 1919 Nov 22
  • 1921 Apr 8
  • 1922 Mar 28
  • 1923 Mar 17
  • 1925 Jul 20
  • 1926 Jul 9
  • 1927 Jan 3
  • 1929 Nov 1
  • 1932 Mar 7
  • 1933 Feb 24
  • 1933 Aug 21
  • 1934 Aug 10
  • 1935 Dec 25
  • 1936 Dec 13
  • 1937 Dec 2
  • 1939 Apr 19
  • 1940 Apr 7
  • 1941 Mar 27
  • 1943 Aug 1
  • 1945 Jan 14
  • 1947 Nov 12
  • 1948 May 9
  • 1950 Mar 18
  • 1951 Mar 7
  • 1951 Sep 1
  • 1952 Aug 20
  • 1954 Jan 5
  • 1954 Dec 25
  • 1955 Dec 14
  • 1957 Apr 30
  • 1958 Apr 19
  • 1959 Apr 8
  • 1961 Aug 11
  • 1962 Jul 31
  • 1963 Jan 25
  • 1965 Nov 23
  • 1966 May 20
  • 1969 Mar 18
  • 1969 Sep 11
  • 1970 Aug 31
  • 1972 Jan 16
  • 1973 Jan 4
  • 1973 Dec 24
  • 1976 Apr 29
  • 1977 Apr 18
  • 1979 Aug 22
  • 1980 Aug 10
  • 1981 Feb 4
  • 1983 Dec 4
  • 1984 May 30
  • 1987 Sep 23
  • 1988 Sep 11
  • 1990 Jan 26
  • 1991 Jan 15
  • 1992 Jan 4
  • 1994 May 10
  • 1995 Apr 29
  • 1998 Aug 22
  • 1999 Feb 16
  • 2001 Dec 14
  • 2002 Jun 10
  • 2003 May 31
  • 2005 Oct 3
  • 2006 Sep 22
  • 2008 Feb 7
  • 2009 Jan 26
  • 2010 Jan 15
  • 2012 May 20
  • 2013 May 10
  • 2014 Apr 29
  • 2016 Sep 1
  • 2017 Feb 26
  • → 2019 Dec 26
  • 2020 Jun 21
  • 2021 Jun 10
  • 2023 Oct 14
  • 2024 Oct 2
  • 2026 Feb 17
  • 2027 Feb 6
  • 2028 Jan 26
  • 2030 Jun 1
  • 2031 May 21
  • 2032 May 9
  • 2034 Sep 12
  • 2035 Mar 9
  • 2038 Jan 5
  • 2038 Jul 2
  • 2039 Jun 21
  • 2041 Oct 25
  • 2042 Oct 14
  • 2043 Oct 3
  • 2044 Feb 28
  • 2045 Feb 16
  • 2046 Feb 5
  • 2048 Jun 11
  • 2049 May 31
  • 2052 Sep 22
  • 2053 Mar 20
  • 2056 Jan 16
  • 2056 Jul 12
  • 2057 Jul 1
  • 2059 Nov 5
  • 2060 Oct 24
  • 2061 Oct 13
  • 2063 Feb 28
  • 2064 Feb 17
  • 2066 Jun 22
  • 2067 Jun 11
  • 2070 Oct 4
  • 2071 Mar 31
  • 2074 Jan 27
  • 2074 Jul 24
  • 2075 Jul 13
  • 2077 Nov 15
  • 2078 Nov 4
  • 2079 Oct 24
  • 2081 Mar 10
  • 2082 Feb 27
  • 2084 Jul 3
  • 2085 Jun 22
  • 2085 Dec 16
  • 2088 Oct 14
  • 2089 Apr 10
  • 2092 Feb 7
  • 2092 Aug 3
  • 2093 Jul 23
  • 2095 Nov 27
  • 2096 Nov 15
  • 2097 Nov 4
  • 2099 Mar 21
  • 2100 Mar 10

Partial eclipses

→ symbol denotes
next partial eclipse
  • 1902 Apr 8
  • 1902 May 7
  • 1902 Oct 31
  • 1906 Feb 23
  • 1906 Jul 21
  • 1906 Aug 20
  • 1909 Dec 12
  • 1910 Nov 2
  • 1913 Apr 6
  • 1913 Aug 31
  • 1913 Sep 30
  • 1916 Dec 24
  • 1917 Jan 23
  • 1917 Jun 19
  • 1917 Jul 19
  • 1920 May 18
  • 1920 Nov 10
  • 1924 Mar 5
  • 1924 Jul 31
  • 1924 Aug 30
  • 1927 Dec 24
  • 1928 Jun 17
  • 1928 Nov 12
  • 1931 Apr 18
  • 1931 Sep 12
  • 1931 Oct 11
  • 1935 Jan 5
  • 1935 Feb 3
  • 1935 Jun 30
  • 1935 Jul 30
  • 1938 Nov 21
  • 1942 Mar 16
  • 1942 Aug 12
  • 1942 Sep 10
  • 1946 Jan 3
  • 1946 May 30
  • 1946 Jun 29
  • 1946 Nov 23
  • 1949 Apr 28
  • 1949 Oct 21
  • 1953 Feb 14
  • 1953 Jul 11
  • 1953 Aug 9
  • 1956 Dec 2
  • 1960 Mar 27
  • 1960 Sep 20
  • 1964 Jan 14
  • 1964 Jun 10
  • 1964 Jul 9
  • 1964 Dec 4
  • 1967 May 9
  • 1968 Mar 28
  • 1971 Feb 25
  • 1971 Jul 22
  • 1971 Aug 20
  • 1974 Dec 13
  • 1975 May 11
  • 1975 Nov 3
  • 1978 Apr 7
  • 1978 Oct 2
  • 1982 Jan 25
  • 1982 Jun 21
  • 1982 Jul 20
  • 1982 Dec 15
  • 1985 May 19
  • 1986 Apr 9
  • 1989 Mar 7
  • 1989 Aug 31
  • 1992 Dec 24
  • 1993 May 21
  • 1993 Nov 13
  • 1996 Apr 17
  • 1996 Oct 12
  • 1997 Sep 2
  • 2000 Feb 5
  • 2000 Jul 1
  • 2000 Jul 31
  • 2000 Dec 25
  • 2004 Apr 19
  • 2004 Oct 14
  • 2007 Mar 19
  • 2011 Jan 4
  • 2011 Jun 1
  • 2011 Jul 1
  • 2011 Nov 25
  • 2014 Oct 23
  • 2015 Sep 13
  • → 2018 Feb 15
  • 2018 Jul 13
  • 2018 Aug 11
  • 2019 Jan 6
  • 2022 Apr 30
  • 2022 Oct 25
  • 2025 Mar 29
  • 2025 Sep 21
  • 2029 Jan 14
  • 2029 Jun 12
  • 2029 Jul 11
  • 2032 Nov 3
  • 2033 Sep 23
  • 2036 Feb 27
  • 2036 Jul 23
  • 2036 Aug 21
  • 2037 Jan 16
  • 2040 May 11
  • 2040 Nov 4
  • 2047 Jan 26
  • 2047 Jun 23
  • 2047 Jul 22
  • 2047 Dec 16
  • 2050 Nov 14
  • 2051 Apr 11
  • 2051 Oct 4
  • 2054 Mar 9
  • 2054 Aug 3
  • 2054 Sep 2
  • 2055 Jan 27
  • 2058 May 22
  • 2058 Jun 21
  • 2058 Nov 16
  • 2062 Mar 11
  • 2062 Sep 3
  • 2065 Feb 5
  • 2065 Jul 3
  • 2065 Aug 2
  • 2065 Dec 27
  • 2068 Nov 24
  • 2069 Apr 21
  • 2069 May 20
  • 2069 Oct 15
  • 2072 Mar 19
  • 2073 Feb 7
  • 2076 Jun 1
  • 2076 Jul 1
  • 2076 Nov 26
  • 2083 Feb 16
  • 2083 Jul 15
  • 2083 Aug 13
  • 2084 Jan 7
  • 2086 Dec 6
  • 2087 May 2
  • 2087 Jun 1
  • 2087 Oct 26
  • 2090 Mar 31
  • 2091 Feb 18
  • 2094 Jun 13
  • 2094 Jul 12
  • 2094 Dec 7
  • 2098 Apr 1
  • 2098 Sep 25
  • 2098 Oct 24
Other bodies
  • Mars
  • Moon
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  • Neptune
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  • Saturn
  • Uranus
Related topics
  • Solar eclipses in fiction
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Authority control
  • NDL: 00572114


Eclipse (Twilight Sagas)
Eclipse (Twilight Sagas)
Readers captivated by Twilight and New Moon will eagerly devour the paperback edition Eclipse, the third book in Stephenie Meyer's riveting vampire love saga. As Seattle is ravaged by a string of mysterious killings and a malicious vampire continues her quest for revenge, Bella once again finds herself surrounded by danger. In the midst of it all, she is forced to choose between her love for Edward and her friendship with Jacob --- knowing that her decision has the potential to ignite the ageless struggle between vampire and werewolf. With her graduation quickly approaching, Bella has one more decision to make: life or death. But which is which?

Click Here to view in augmented reality

$3.80
-$13.19(-78%)



Eclipse Winterfrost Sugarfree Gum, 180 Piece Bag
Eclipse Winterfrost Sugarfree Gum, 180 Piece Bag
Eclipse Gum Winterfrost

Click Here to view in augmented reality

$5.98
-$0.31(-5%)



Asmodee Eclipse
Asmodee Eclipse
The galaxy has been a peaceful place for may years. After the ruthless Terran-Hegemony War (30.027-33.364) much effort has been employed by all major spacefaring species to prevent the terrifying events from repeating themselves. the Galactic Council was formed to enforce precious peace and it has taken many courageous efforts to prevent the escalation of malicious acts. Nevetheless tension and discord are growing among the seven major species and in the Council itself. Old alliances are shattering and hasty diplomatic treaties are made in secrecy. A confrontation of the superpowers seems inevitable - only the outcome of the galactic conflict remains to be seen. Which faction will emerge victorious and lead the galaxy under its rule? The shadows of the great civilizations are about to eclipse the galaxy. Lead your people to victory. The game of Eclipse places you in control of a vast interstellar civilization competing for success with its rivals. On each game round you expand your civilization by exploring and colonizing new areas researching technologies and building spaceships to wage war with.

Click Here to view in augmented reality

$89.99
-$9.01(-9%)



American Eclipse: A Nation's Epic Race to Catch the Shadow of the Moon and Win the Glory of the World
American Eclipse: A Nation's Epic Race to Catch the Shadow of the Moon and Win the Glory of the World
This “suspenseful narrative history” (Maureen Corrigan, NPR) brings to life the momentous eclipse that enthralled a nation and thrust American science onto the world stage.On a scorching July afternoon in 1878, at the dawn of the Gilded Age, the moon’s shadow descended on the American West, darkening skies from Montana Territory to Texas. This rare celestial event―a total solar eclipse―offered a priceless opportunity to solve some of the solar system’s most enduring riddles, and it prompted a clutch of enterprising scientists to brave the wild frontier in a grueling race to the Rocky Mountains. Acclaimed science journalist David Baron, long fascinated by eclipses, re-creates this epic tale of ambition, failure, and glory in a narrative that reveals as much about the historical trajectory of a striving young nation as it does about those scant three minutes when the blue sky blackened and stars appeared in mid-afternoon. Lauded as a “sweeping, compelling” (Wall Street Journal) work of science history, American Eclipse tells the story of the three tenacious and brilliant scientists who raced to Wyoming and Colorado to observe the rare event. Dedicating years of “exhaustive research to reconstruct a remarkable chapter of U.S. history” (Scientific American), award-winning writer David Baron brings to three-dimensional life these competitors―the planet-hunter James Craig Watson, pioneering astronomer Maria Mitchell, and the ambitious young inventor Thomas Edison―to thrillingly re-create the fierce jockeying of nineteenth-century American astronomy. With spellbinding accounts of train robberies and Indian skirmishes, the mythologized age of the Wild West comes alive as never before. An “enthralling” (Daniel Kevles) and magnificent portrayal of America’s dawn as a scientific superpower, American Eclipse depicts a young nation that looked to the skies to reveal its towering ambition and expose its latent genius. 8 pages of photographs; 65 illustrations; 1 map

Click Here to view in augmented reality

$11.40
-$4.55(-29%)



Eclipse Winterfrost Sugarfree Gum, 60 Piece Bottle (Pack of 4)
Eclipse Winterfrost Sugarfree Gum, 60 Piece Bottle (Pack of 4)
Eclipse Sugar Free Gum, Winterfrost

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$10.15


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