Edith Wharton
Edith Wharton
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Edith Wharton
Edith Wharton (/ˈhwɔːrtən/; born Edith Newbold Jones; January 24, 1862 – August 11, 1937) was an American novelist, short story writer, playwright, and

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Edith WhartonEdith Wharton, c. 1889BornEdith Newbold Jones
(1862-01-24)January 24, 1862
New YorkDiedAugust 11, 1937(1937-08-11) (aged 75)
Saint-Brice-sous-Forêt, FranceResting placeCimetière des GonardsOccupationNovelist, short story writer, designerNotable awardsPulitzer Prize for Literature
1921 The Age of Innocence
SpouseEdward Wharton (1885–1913)Signature

Edith Wharton (/ˈhwɔːrtən/; born Edith Newbold Jones; January 24, 1862 – August 11, 1937) was an American novelist, short story writer, playwright, and designer. Wharton drew upon her insider's knowledge of the upper class New York "aristocracy" to realistically portray the lives and morals of the Gilded Age. She was the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for Literature, in 1921. She was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1996.[1]

Contents
  • 1 Biography
    • 1.1 Early life
    • 1.2 Early writing
    • 1.3 Socialite and debutante
    • 1.4 1880s
    • 1.5 Travels and life abroad
    • 1.6 Later years
    • 1.7 Death
  • 2 Writing career
  • 3 Themes in writings
  • 4 Influences
  • 5 Books
    • 5.1 Novels
    • 5.2 Novellas and novelette
    • 5.3 Poetry
    • 5.4 Short story collections
    • 5.5 Non-fiction
    • 5.6 As editor
  • 6 Adaptations
    • 6.1 Cinema
    • 6.2 TV
    • 6.3 Theatre
  • 7 In popular culture
  • 8 References
    • 8.1 Citations
    • 8.2 Bibliography
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 External links
    • 10.1 Online editions
Biography Early life Portrait of Wharton as a girl by Edward Harrison May (1870)

Edith Wharton was born Edith Newbold Jones on January 24, 1862 to George Frederic Jones and Lucretia Stevens Rhinelander at their brownstone at 14 West Twenty-third Street in New York City.[2][3] To her friends and family she was known as "Pussy Jones."[4] She had two older brothers, Frederic Rhinelander, who was sixteen, and Henry Edward, who was twelve.[2] She was baptized April 20, 1862, Easter Sunday, at Grace Church.[2]

Wharton's paternal family, the Joneses, were a very wealthy and socially prominent family having made their money in real estate.[5] The saying "keeping up with the Joneses" is said to refer to her father's family.[6][7] She was also related to the Rensselaers, the most prestigious of the old patroon families, who had received land grants from the former Dutch government of New York and New Jersey. Her father's first cousin was Caroline Schermerhorn Astor.[8] She had a lifelong friendship with her niece, the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand of Reef Point in Bar Harbor, Maine. Fort Stevens in New York was named for Wharton's maternal great-grandfather, Ebenezer Stevens, a Revolutionary War hero and General.[9]

Wharton was born during the Civil War; although Wharton herself in describing her family life does not mention the War except that their travels to Europe after the War were due to the depreciation of American currency.[2][10] From 1866 to 1872, the Jones family visited France, Italy, Germany, and Spain.[11] During her travels, the young Edith became fluent in French, German, and Italian. At the age of nine, she suffered from typhoid fever, which nearly killed her, while the family was at a spa in the Black Forest.[2] After the family returned to the United States in 1872, they spent their winters in New York and their summers in Newport, Rhode Island.[11] While in Europe, she was educated by tutors and governesses. She rejected the standards of fashion and etiquette that were expected of young girls at the time, which were intended to allow women to marry well and to be put on display at balls and parties. She considered these fashions superficial and oppressive. Edith wanted more education than she received, so she read from her father's library and from the libraries of her father's friends.[12] Her mother forbade her to read novels until she was married, and Edith obeyed this command.[13]

Edith Wharton by Edward Harrison May Early writing

Wharton wrote and told stories from an early age.[14] When her family moved to Europe and she was just four or five she started what she called "making up."[14] She invented stories for her family and would walk with an open book, turn the pages as if reading and improvise a story.[14] Wharton began writing poetry and fiction as a young girl, and attempted to write her first novel at age eleven.[15] Her mother's criticism quashed her ambition and she turned to poetry.[15] At age 15, her first published work appeared, a translation of a German poem "Was die Steine Erzählen" ("What the Stones Tell") by Heinrich Karl Brugsch, for which she was paid $50. Her family did not want her name to appear in print, since writing was not considered a proper occupation for a society woman of her time. Consequently, the poem was published under the name of a friend's father, E. A. Washburn, a cousin of Ralph Waldo Emerson who supported women's education.[16] In 1877, at the age of 15, she secretly wrote a 30,000 word novella "Fast and Loose." In 1878 her father arranged for a collection of two dozen original poems and five translations, Verses, to be privately published.[17] Wharton published a poem under a pseudonym in the New York World in 1879.[18] In 1880 she had five poems published anonymously in the Atlantic Monthly, an important literary magazine.[19] Despite these early successes, she was not encouraged by her family or her social circle, and though she continued to write, she did not publish anything more until her poem "The Last Giustiniani" was published in Scribner's Magazine in October 1889.[20]

Socialite and debutante

Between 1880 and 1890 Wharton put her writing aside to perform as debutante and socialite. Wharton keenly observed the social changes happening around her which would appear later in her writing.[21] Wharton officially came out as a debutante to society in 1879.[22] Wharton was allowed to bare her shoulders and wear her hair up for the first time at a December dance given by wealthy socialite, Anna Morton.[22] Wharton began a courtship with Henry Leyden Stevens, the son of a wealthy businessman.[23] Wharton's family did not approve of Stevens.[23]

In the middle of Wharton's debutante season, the Jones family returned to Europe in 1881 for Wharton's father's health.[24] Wharton's father, George Frederic Jones, died in Cannes in 1882 of a stroke.[25] Stevens was with the Wharton family in Europe during this time.[24] Wharton and her mother returned to the United States and Wharton continued her courtship with Stevens announcing their engagement in August 1882.[24] The month the two were to marry, the engagement abruptly ended.[26]

Wharton's mother, Lucretia Stevens Rhinelander, moved back to Paris in 1883 and lived there until her death in 1901.[10]

1880s The Mount, 2006

Wharton married in 1885 and began to build upon three interests--American houses, writing, and Italy. [27]

On April 29, 1885,[28] at age 23, Wharton married Edward (Teddy) Robbins Wharton, who was 12 years her senior, at the Trinity Chapel Complex.[29][30] From a well-established Boston family, he was a sportsman and a gentleman of the same social class and shared her love of travel. The Whartons set up house at Pencraig Cottage in Newport.[27] They then bought and moved to Land's End on the other side of Newport in 1893 for $80,000.[27] Wharton decorated Land's End with the help of designer Ogden Codman. The Whartons purchased their New York home 884 Park Avenue in 1897.[31] They traveled abroad from February to June between 1886 and 1897 – mostly to Italy, but also to Paris and England.[31]

From the late 1880s until 1902, Teddy Wharton suffered from acute depression, and the couple ceased their extensive travel.[32] At that time his depression manifested as a more serious disorder, after which they lived almost exclusively at their estate The Mount. During those same years, Wharton herself was said to suffer from bouts of depression and health issues with asthma.[33]

In 1908 her husband's mental state was determined to be incurable. In the same year, she began an affair with Morton Fullerton, a journalist for The Times, in whom she found an intellectual partner.[34] She divorced Edward Wharton in 1913 after 28 years of marriage.[32] Around the same time, Edith was beset with harsh criticisms leveled by the naturalist writers.

Edith Wharton collection/Beinecke 10061396. Edith Wharton as a young woman, ca. 1889

In addition to novels, Wharton wrote at least 85 short stories.[12] She was also a garden designer, interior designer, and a taste-maker of her time. She wrote several design books, including her first major published work, The Decoration of Houses (1897), co-authored by Ogden Codman. Another of her "home and garden" books is the generously illustrated Italian Villas and Their Gardens of 1904.

Travels and life abroad Photographic portrait of Edith Wharton

She would eventually cross the Atlantic sixty times.[35] In Europe, her primary destinations were Italy, France and England. She also went to Morocco in North Africa. She wrote many books about her travels, including Italian Backgrounds and A Motor-Flight through France.

Her husband, Edward Wharton, shared her love of travel and for many years they spent at least four months of each year abroad, mainly in Italy. Their friend, Egerton Winthrop, accompanied them on many journeys in Italy.[36] In 1888, the Whartons and their friend James Van Alen took a cruise through the Aegean islands. Wharton was 26. The trip cost the Whartons $10,000 and lasted four months.[37] She kept a travel journal during this trip that was thought to be lost but was later published as The Cruise of the Vanadis, now considered her earliest known travel writing.[38]

In 1897 Edith Wharton purchased Land's End, Newport, Rhode Island, from Robert Livingston Beeckman, a former U.S. Open Tennis Championship runner-up who would go on to become Governor of Rhode Island. At that time Wharton described the main house as "incurably ugly." Wharton agreed to pay $80,000 for the property, and spend thousands more to alter the home's facade, decorate the interior, and landscape the grounds.

Land’s End, Newport, RI

In 1902, Wharton designed The Mount, her estate in Lenox, Massachusetts, which survives today as an example of her design principles. Edith Wharton wrote several of her novels there, including The House of Mirth (1905), the first of many chronicles of life in old New York. At The Mount, she entertained the cream of American literary society, including her close friend, novelist Henry James, who described the estate as "a delicate French chateau mirrored in a Massachusetts pond".[39] Although she spent many months traveling in Europe nearly every year with her friend, Egerton Winthrop (John Winthrop's descendant), The Mount was her primary residence until 1911.[40] When living there and while traveling abroad, Wharton was usually driven to appointments by her longtime chauffeur and friend Charles Cook, a native of nearby South Lee, Massachusetts. [41][42] When her marriage deteriorated, she decided to move permanently to France, living first at 53 Rue de Varenne, Paris, in an apartment that belonged to George Washington Vanderbilt II.

Page from original manuscript of The House of Mirth, in Edith Wharton's hand

Wharton was preparing to vacation for the summer when World War I broke out. Though many fled Paris, she moved back to her Paris apartment on the Rue de Varenne and for four years was a tireless and ardent supporter of the French war effort.[43] One of the first causes she undertook in August 1914 was the opening of a workroom for unemployed women; here they were fed and paid one franc a day. What began with thirty women soon doubled to sixty, and their sewing business began to thrive.[44] When the Germans invaded Belgium in the fall of 1914 and Paris was flooded with Belgian refugees, she helped to set up the American Hostels for Refugees, which managed to get them shelter, meals, clothes and eventually an employment agency to help them find work.[45] She collected more than $100,000 on their behalf.[46] In early 1915 she organized the Children of Flanders Rescue Committee, which gave shelter to nearly 900 Belgian refugees who had fled when their homes were bombed by the Germans.[47]

Aided by her influential connections in the French government, she and her long-time friend Walter Berry (then president of the American Chamber of Commerce in Paris), were among the few foreigners in France allowed to travel to the front lines during World War I. She and Berry made five journeys between February and August 1915, which Wharton described in a series of articles that were first published in Scribner's Magazine and later as Fighting France: From Dunkerque to Belfort, which became an American bestseller.[48][49] Travelling by car, Wharton and Berry drove through the war zone, viewing one decimated French village after another. She visited the trenches, and was within earshot of artillery fire. She wrote, "We woke to a noise of guns closer and more incessant ... and when we went out into the streets it seemed as if, overnight, a new army had sprung out of the ground".[50]

Throughout the war she worked tirelessly in charitable efforts for refugees, the injured, the unemployed, and the displaced. She was a "heroic worker on behalf of her adopted country".[51] On April 18, 1916, the President of France appointed her Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, the country's highest award, in recognition of her dedication to the war effort.[52][53] Her relief work included setting up workrooms for unemployed French women, organizing concerts to provide work for musicians, raising tens of thousands of dollars for the war effort, and opening tuberculosis hospitals. In 1915 Wharton edited The Book of the Homeless, which included essays, art, poetry and musical scores by many major contemporary European and American artists, including Henry James, Joseph Conrad, William Dean Howells, Anna de Noailles, Jean Cocteau and Walter Gay, among others. Wharton proposed the book to her publisher, Scribner's. She handled all of the business arrangements, lined up contributors, and translated the French entries into English. Theodore Roosevelt wrote a two-page Introduction in which he praised Wharton's effort and urged Americans to support the war.[54] She also kept up her own work during the war, continuing to write novels, short stories, and poems, as well as reporting for The New York Times and keeping up her enormous correspondence.[55] Wharton urged Americans to support the war effort and encouraged America to enter the war.[56] She wrote the popular romantic novel Summer in 1916, the war novella, The Marne, in 1918, and A Son at the Front in 1919, (though it was not published until 1923). When the war ended, she watched the Victory Parade from the Champs Elysees' balcony of a friend's apartment. After four years of intense effort, she decided to leave Paris in favor of the peace and quiet of the countryside. Wharton settled ten miles north of Paris in Saint-Brice-sous-Forêt, buying an eighteenth-century house on seven acres of land which she called Pavillon Colombe. She would live there in summer and autumn for the rest of her life. She spent winters and springs on the French Riviera at Sainte Claire du Vieux Chateau in Hyères.[57]

Wharton was a committed supporter of French imperialism, describing herself as a "rabid imperialist", and the war solidified her political views.[58] After the war she travelled to Morocco as the guest of Resident General Hubert Lyautey and wrote a book, In Morocco, about her experiences. Wharton's writing on her Moroccan travels is full of praise for the French administration and for Lyautey and his wife in particular.

During the post war years she divided her time between Hyères and Provence, where she finished The Age of Innocence in 1920. She returned to the United States only once after the war, to receive an honorary doctorate degree from Yale University in 1923.

Later years

The Age of Innocence (1920) won the 1921 Pulitzer Prize for literature,[59] making Wharton the first woman to win the award. The three fiction judges—literary critic Stuart Pratt Sherman, literature professor Robert Morss Lovett, and novelist Hamlin Garland—voted to give the prize to Sinclair Lewis for his satire Main Street, but Columbia University's advisory board, led by conservative university president Nicholas Murray Butler, overturned their decision and awarded the prize to The Age of Innocence.[60] She was also nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1927, 1928 and 1930.[61]

Wharton was friend and confidante to many gifted intellectuals of her time: Henry James, Sinclair Lewis, Jean Cocteau and André Gide were all her guests at one time or another. Theodore Roosevelt, Bernard Berenson, and Kenneth Clark were valued friends as well. Particularly notable was her meeting with F. Scott Fitzgerald, described by the editors of her letters as "one of the better known failed encounters in the American literary annals". She spoke fluent French, Italian, and German, and many of her books were published in both French and English.

In 1934 Wharton's autobiography A Backward Glance was published. In the view of Judith E. Funston, writing on Edith Wharton in American National Biography,

What is most notable about A Backward Glance, however, is what it does not tell: her criticism of Lucretia Jones , her difficulties with Teddy, and her affair with Morton Fullerton, which did not come to light until her papers, deposited in Yale's Beinecke Rare Book Room and Manuscript Library, were opened in 1968.[62]

Death

On June 1, 1937 Wharton was at the French country home of Ogden Codman, where they were at work on a revised edition of The Decoration of Houses, when she suffered a heart attack and collapsed.[63]

Wharton's Le Pavilion Colombe, Saint-Brice-sous-Forêt, France

Edith Wharton later died of a stroke on August 11, 1937 at Le Pavillon Colombe, her 18th-century house on Rue de Montmorency in Saint-Brice-sous-Forêt. She died at 5:30 p.m., but her death was not known in Paris. At her bedside was her friend, Mrs. Royall Tyler.[64] Wharton was buried in the American Protestant section of the Cimetière des Gonards in Versailles, "with all the honors owed a war hero and a chevalier of the Legion of Honor...a group of some one hundred friends sang a verse of the hymn 'O Paradise'..."[65]

Writing career

Despite not publishing her first novel until she was forty, Wharton became an extraordinarily productive writer. In addition to her fifteen novels, seven novellas, and eighty-five short stories, she published poetry, books on design, travel, literary and cultural criticism, and a memoir.[66]

In 1873, Wharton wrote a short story and gave it to her mother to read. Her mother criticized the story, so Wharton decided to just write poetry. While she constantly sought her mother's approval and love, it was rare that she received either. From the start, the relationship with her mother was a troubled one.[67] Before she was fifteen, she wrote Fast and Loose (1877). In her youth, she wrote about society. Her central themes came from her experiences with her parents. She was very critical of her own work and would write public reviews criticizing it. She also wrote about her own experiences with life. "Intense Love’s Utterance" is a poem written about Henry Stevens.[37]

In 1889, she sent out three poems for publication. They were sent to Scribner’s, Harper’s and Century. Edward L. Burlingame published "The Last Giustiniani" for Scribner’s. It was not until Wharton was 29 that her first short story was published. "Mrs. Manstey's View" had very little success, and it took her more than a year to publish another story. She completed "The Fullness of Life" following her annual European trip with Teddy. Burlingame was critical of this story but Wharton did not want to make edits to it. This story, along with many others, speaks about her marriage. She sent Bunner Sisters to Scribner's in 1892. Burlingame wrote back that it was too long for Scribner's to publish. This story is believed to be based on an experience she had as a child. It did not see publication until 1916 and is included in the collection called Xingu. After a visit with her friend, Paul Bourget, she wrote "The Good May Come" and "The Lamp of Psyche". "The Lamp of Psyche" was a comical story with verbal wit and sorrow. After "Something Exquisite" was rejected by Burlingame, she lost confidence in herself. She started "travel writing" in 1894.[37]

In 1901, Wharton wrote a two-act play called Man of Genius. This play was about an English man who was having an affair with his secretary. The play was rehearsed, but was never produced. She collaborated with Marie Tempest to write another play, but the two only completed four acts before Marie decided she was no longer interested in costume plays. One of her earliest literary endeavors (1902) was the translation of the play, Es Lebe das Leben ("The Joy of Living"), by Hermann Sudermann. The Joy of Living was criticized for its name because the heroine swallows poison at the end, and was a short-lived Broadway production. It was, however, a successful book.[37]

Many of Wharton's novels are characterized by a subtle use of dramatic irony. Having grown up in upper-class, late-nineteenth-century society, Wharton became one of its most astute critics, in such works as The House of Mirth and The Age of Innocence.

Themes in writings

Versions of her mother, Lucretia Jones often appeared in Warton's fiction. Biographer Hermione Lee described it as "one of the most lethal acts of revenge ever taken by a writing daughter."[25] In her memoir, A Backward Glance, Wharton describes her mother as indolent, spendthrift, censorious, disapproving, superficial, icy, dry and ironic.[25]

Influences

American children's stories containing slang were forbidden in Wharton's childhood home.[68] This included such popular authors as Mark Twain, Bret Harte or "Uncle Remus." She was allowed to read Louisa May Alcott but Wharton preferred Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland and Charles Kingsley's Water Babies.[68] Wharton's mother forbid her from reading many novels and Wharton said she "read everything else but novels until the day of my marriage." [68] Instead Wharton read the classics, philosophy, history, and poetry in her father's library including Daniel Defoe, John Milton, Thomas Carlyle, Alphonse de Lamartine, Victor Hugo, Jean Racine, Thomas Moore, Lord Byron, William Wordsworth, John Ruskin, and Washington Irving.[69] Biographer Hermione Lee describes Wharton as having read herself "out of Old New York" and her influences included Herbert Spencer, Charles Darwin, Friedrich Nietzsche, T. H. Huxley, George Romanes, James Frazer, and Thorstein Veblen.[70] These influenced her ethnographic style of novelization.[70] Wharton developed a passion for Walt Whitman.[71]

Books

Source: Campbell, Donna M. "Works by Edith Wharton". Washington State University. Retrieved 22 January 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}

Novels
  • The Valley of Decision, 1902
  • The House of Mirth, 1905
  • The Fruit of the Tree, 1907
  • The Reef, 1912
  • The Custom of the Country, 1913
  • The Triumph of Night, 1916
  • Summer, 1917
  • The Marne, 1918
  • The Age of Innocence, 1920 (Pulitzer Prize winner)
  • The Glimpses of the Moon, 1922
  • A Son at the Front, 1923
  • The Mother's Recompense, 1925
  • Twilight Sleep, 1927
  • The Children, 1928
  • Hudson River Bracketed, 1929
  • The Gods Arrive, 1932
  • The Buccaneers, 1938 (unfinished)
Novellas and novelette
  • The Touchstone, 1900
  • Sanctuary, 1903
  • Madame de Treymes, 1907
  • Ethan Frome, 1911
  • Bunner Sisters, 1916
  • Old New York, 1924
    1. False Dawn; 2. The Old Maid; 3. The Spark; 4. New Year's Day
  • Fast and Loose: A Novelette, 1938 (written in 1876–1877)
Poetry
  • Verses, 1878
  • Artemis to Actaeon and Other Verse, 1909
  • Twelve Poems, 1926

Short story collections
  • The Greater Inclination, 1899, includes Souls Belated.
  • Crucial Instances, 1901
  • The Descent of Man and Other Stories, 1904
  • The Hermit and the Wild Woman and Other Stories, 1908
  • Tales of Men and Ghosts, 1910
  • Xingu and Other Stories, 1916
  • Old New York, 1924
  • Here and Beyond, 1926
  • Certain People, 1930
  • Human Nature, 1933
  • The World Over, 1936
  • Ghosts, 1937
  • Roman Fever and Other Stories, 1964
  • Madame de Treymes and Others: Four Novelettes, 1970
  • The Ghost Stories of Edith Wharton, 1973
  • The New York Stories of Edith Wharton, 2007
  • The Other Two, 1904
Non-fiction
  • The Decoration of Houses, 1897
  • Italian Villas and Their Gardens, 1904
  • Italian Backgrounds, 1905
  • A Motor-Flight Through France, 1908 (travel)
  • Fighting France, from Dunkerque to Belfort, 1915 (war)
  • French Ways and Their Meaning, 1919
  • In Morocco, 1920 (travel)
  • The Writing of Fiction, 1925 (essays on writing)
  • A Backward Glance, 1934 (autobiography)
  • Edith Wharton: The Uncollected Critical Writings, Edited by Frederick Wegener, 1996
  • Edith Wharton Abroad: Selected Travel Writings, 1888–1920, 1995, Edited by Sarah Bird Wright
As editor
  • The Book of the Homeless, 1916

Adaptations

Source: Marshall, Scott (1996). "Edith Wharton on Film and Television" (PDF). Edith Wharton Review: 21–25. ISSN 2330-3964. Retrieved 22 January 2018.

Cinema
  • The House of Mirth (La Maison du Brouillard), a 1918 silent film adaptation (6 reels) (of the 1905 novel) directed by French film director Albert Capellani, starring Katherine Harris Barrymore as Lily Bart. It is considered to be a lost film.
  • The Glimpses Of The Moon, a 1923 silent film adaptation (7 reels) (of the 1922 novel) directed for Paramount Studios by Allan Dwan, starring Bebe Daniels, David Powell, Nita Naldi and Maurice Costello. It is considered to be a lost film.
  • The Age of Innocence, a 1924 silent film adaptation (7 reels) (of the 1920 novel) directed for Warner Brothers by Wesley Ruggles, starring Beverly Bayne and Elliott Dexter. It is considered to be a lost film.
  • The Marriage Playground, a 1929 talking film adaptation (70 minutes) (of the 1928 novel The Children) directed for Paramount Studios by Lothar Mendes, starring rising star Fredric March in leading role (as Martin Boyne), Mary Brian (as Judith Wheater), and Kay Francis (as Lady Wrench).
  • The Age of Innocence, a 1934 film adaptation (9 reels / circa 80–90 minutes) (of the 1920 novel) directed for RKO Studios by Philip Moeller, starring Irene Dunne and John Boles.
  • Strange Wives, a 1934 or 1935 film adaptation (8 reels / 75 minutes) (of the 1934 short story Bread Upon the Waters) directed for Universal by Richard Thorpe, starring Roger Pryor (as Jimmy King), June Clayworth (as Nadja), and Esther Ralston (as Olga). It is considered to be a lost film.
  • The Old Maid, a 1939 film adaptation (95 minutes) (of the 1924 short novella) directed by Edmund Goulding starring Bette Davis.
  • A 1944 film version of the 1911 novel Ethan Frome starring Joan Crawford was proposed but never came to fruition.[72]
  • Ethan Frome (99 minutes) directed by John Madden and released in 1993.
  • The Age of Innocence (138 minutes) directed by Martin Scorsese and released in 1993, starring Daniel Day Lewis, Winona Ryder and Michelle Pfeiffer.
  • The Reef (88 minutes) directed by Robert Allan Ackerman and released in 1999.
  • The House of Mirth (140 minutes) directed by Terence Davies and released in 2000, starring Gillian Anderson as Lily Bart.
TV
  • Ethan Frome, a 1960 (CBS) TV US adaptation, directed by Alex Segal, starring Sterling Hayden as Ethan Frome, Julie Harris as Mattie Silver and Clarice Blackburn as Zenobia Frome. First Wharton adaptation on television.
  • Looking Back, a 1981 TV US loose adaptation of two biographies of Edith Wharton: A Backward Glance, Wharton's own 1934 autobiography & Edith Wharton, a 1975 biography by R.W.B. Lewis (1976 Bancroft Prize-winner).
  • The House of Mirth, a 1981 TV US adaptation, directed by Adrian Hall, starring William Atherton, Geraldine Chaplin and Barbara Blossom
  • The Buccaneers, a 1995 BBC mini-series, starring Carla Gugino and Greg Wise
Theatre
  • The House of Mirth was adapted as a play in 1906 by Edith Wharton and Clyde Fitch[73][74]
  • The Age of Innocence was adapted as a play in 1928. Katharine Cornell played the role of Ellen Olenska.
In popular culture
  • In The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, Edith Wharton (Clare Higgins) travels across North Africa with Indiana Jones in Chapter 16, Tales of Innocence.
  • Edith Wharton is mentioned in the HBO television series Entourage in the third season's 13th episode: Vince is handed a screenplay for Wharton's The Glimpses of the Moon by Amanda, his new agent, for a film to be directed by Sam Mendes. In the same episode, period films of Wharton's work are lampooned by agent Ari Gold, who says that all her stories are "about a guy who likes a girl, but he can't have sex with her for five years, because those were the times!" Carla Gugino, who plays Amanda, was the protagonist of the BBC-PBS adaptation of The Buccaneers (1995), one of her early jobs.
  • "Edith Wharton's Journey" is a radio adaptation, for the NPR series Radio Tales, of the short story "A Journey" from Edith Wharton's collection The Greater Inclination.
  • The American singer and songwriter Suzanne Vega pays homage to Edith Wharton in her song "Edith Wharton's Figurines", from her studio album Beauty & Crime.
References Citations
  1. ^ National Women's Hall of Fame, Edith Wharton
  2. ^ a b c d e Lee 2008, p. 16.
  3. ^ Dwight 1994, pp. 12-13.
  4. ^ Minkel 2012.
  5. ^ Lee 2008, p. 21.
  6. ^ Lee 2008, p. 22.
  7. ^ Benstock 1994, p. 216.
  8. ^ Lee 2008, p. 34.
  9. ^ Lee 2008, p. 18.
  10. ^ a b Lee 2008, pp. 7-8.
  11. ^ a b "Chronology". The Mount: Edith Wharton's Home.
  12. ^ a b Baym, Nina. The Norton Anthology of American Literature (Eighth ed.). W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-393-91885-4.
  13. ^ Lee 2008.
  14. ^ a b c Lee 2008, pp. 13-14.
  15. ^ a b Lee 2008, p. 36.
  16. ^ Benstock 1994, p. 35.
  17. ^ Lee 2008, p. 43.
  18. ^ Lee 2008, p. 44.
  19. ^ Benstock 1994, p. 38.
  20. ^ Benstock 1994, p. 40.
  21. ^ Lee 2008, p. 47.
  22. ^ a b Lee 2008, p. 58.
  23. ^ a b Lee 2008, p. 60.
  24. ^ a b c Lee 2008, p. 61.
  25. ^ a b c Lee 2008, p. 35.
  26. ^ Lewis 1975, pp. 44-47.
  27. ^ a b c Lee 2008, pp. 81.
  28. ^ New York, New York, Marriage Index 1866-1937
  29. ^ Lee 2008, pp. 74-75.
  30. ^ U.S., Newspaper Extractions from the Northeast, 1704–1930
  31. ^ a b Lee 2008, pp. 82.
  32. ^ a b Davis 2007
  33. ^ Lee 2008, pp. 78-81.
  34. ^ "Edith Wharton's World, Portrait of People and Places". US: National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 23 Dec 2009.
  35. ^ Wright, Sarah Bird, Editor (1995). Edith Wharton Abroad: Selected Travel Writings, 1888–1920, p. xvii–xviii. New York, St. Martin's Griffin.
  36. ^ Wright, Sarah Bird, Editor (1995). Edith Wharton Abroad: Selected Travel Writings, 1888–1920, p.3. New York, St. Martin's Griffin.
  37. ^ a b c d Lewis, R.W.B. Edith Wharton: A Biography (1st ed.). Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-012603-5.
  38. ^ Wright, Sarah Bird, Editor (1995). Edith Wharton Abroad: Selected Travel Writings, 1888–1920, p.17. New York, St. Martin's Griffin
  39. ^ Benstock 1994, pp. 129-130.
  40. ^ Lewis, R.W.B. (1975). Edith Wharton: A Biography. Harper & Row, Publishers. ISBN 9780060126032.
  41. ^ Benstock 1994, p. 143.
  42. ^ Singley, Carol J. (2003). A Historical Guide to Edith Wharton. Oxford University Press. p. 238. ISBN 0-19-513591-1. Photograph of Edith Wharton, Teddy Wharton, Henry James and Chauffeur Charles Cook
  43. ^ Dwight, Eleanor (1994). Edith Wharton: An Extraordinary Life, An Illustrated Biography, p.183. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-3971-1
  44. ^ Edith Wharton: An Extraordinary Life, An Illustrated Biography, p.183-184. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-3971-1
  45. ^ Edith Wharton: An Extraordinary Life, An Illustrated Biography, p.188-189. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-3971-1
  46. ^ Wolff, Cynthia Griffin(1995) A Feast of Words: The Triumph of Edith Wharton, Second Edition, p.253. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-40918-6.
  47. ^ Edith Wharton: An Extraordinary Life, An Illustrated Biography, p.190. New York: Harry n. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-3971-1
  48. ^ Lee 2008, p. 486.
  49. ^ Edith Wharton p. 486. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-375-40004-9
  50. ^ "In Argonne", Chapter 2 of Fighting France: From Dunkerque to Belfort, published in Edith Wharton Abroad: Selected Travel Writings, 1888–1920, p. 150. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0-312-16120-4
  51. ^ Lee 2008, p. 454.
  52. ^ Wolff, Cynthia Griffin (1995) A Feast of Words: The Triumph of Edith Wharton, Second Edition, p.253. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-40918-6.
  53. ^ Lee 2008, p. 9.
  54. ^ Edith Wharton: An Extraordinary Life, An Illustrated Biography, pp.202–203. New York: Harry n. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-3971-1
  55. ^ Lee 2008, p. 450.
  56. ^ Edith Wharton: An Extraordinary Life, An Illustrated Biography, p.201. New York: Harry n. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-3971-1
  57. ^ Edith Wharton: An Extraordinary Life, An Illustrated Biography, p.210. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-3971-1
  58. ^ Wegener, Fredrick (December 2000). ""Rabid Imperialist"': Edith Wharton and the Obligations of Empire in Modern American Fiction". American Literature. 72 (4): 783–812. doi:10.1215/00029831-72-4-783.
  59. ^ Nelson, Randy F. (1981). The Almanac of American Letters. Los Altos, California: William Kaufmann, Inc. p. 9. ISBN 0-86576-008-X.
  60. ^ "Reader's Almanac: A Controversial Pulitzer Prize Brings Edith Wharton and Sinclair Lewis Together." Reader's Almanac: A Controversial Pulitzer Prize Brings Edith Wharton and Sinclair Lewis Together. Library of America, 28 June 2011. Web. 11 Mar. 2015.
  61. ^ "Nomination Database – Literature". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  62. ^ Judith E. Funston, "Edith Wharton", in American National Biography; New York: Oxford University Press, 1999; Vol. 23, pp. 111–112. ISBN 0-19-512802-8.
  63. ^ Benstock 1994, p. 86.
  64. ^ "Edith Wharton, 75, Is Dead in France." Www.nytimes.com. The New York Times, 13 Aug. 1937. Web. 11 Mar. 2015.
  65. ^ Benstock 1994, p. 456.
  66. ^ Benstock 1994.
  67. ^ Armitage, Robert. "Edith Wharton, A Writing Life: Childhood." Edith Wharton, A Writing Life: Childhood. New York Public Library, 6 May 2013. Web. 11 Mar. 2015.
  68. ^ a b c Lee 2008, p. 31.
  69. ^ Lee 2008, pp. 31-34.
  70. ^ a b Lee 2008, p. 23.
  71. ^ Lee 2008, p. 32.
  72. ^ Wikipedia english / Joan_Crawford / Move to Warner Bros.
  73. ^ Wharton, Edith; Loney, Glenn; Fitch, Clyde. "The house of mirth : the play of the novel / dramatized by Edith Wharton and Clyde Fitch, 1906 ; edited, with an introd., notes, and appendixes by Glenn Loney". Fairleigh Dickinson University Press ; Associated University Presses. Retrieved 14 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  74. ^ Wharton, Edith (14 September 1980). "The play of the novel The house of mirth: the play of the novel". Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. Retrieved 14 September 2017 – via The Open Library.
Bibliography .mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}
  • Benstock, Shari (1994). No Gifts from Chance: A Biography of Edith Wharton. New York: Penguin. ISBN 9780140172836. OCLC 40336475.
  • Davis, Mary Virginia (2007). "Edith Wharton". Magills Survey of American Literature. Salem Press.
  • Dwight, Eleanor (1994). Edith Wharton: an extraordinary life. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 978-0-8109-3971-4. OCLC 28709502.
  • Lee, Hermione (2008). Edith Wharton (1st ed.). London: Vintage. ISBN 9780099763512. OCLC 254767936.
  • Lewis, R. W. B. (1975). Edith Wharton: A Biography (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 9780099358916. OCLC 476620731.
  • Minkel, Edith (9 February 2012). "Nobody Likes Edith Wharton". The New Yorker. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  • Marshall, Scott (1996). "Edith Wharton on Film and Television: A History and Filmography" (PDF). Edith Wharton Review. Washington State University. 13 (2): 15–25. Retrieved January 15, 2009.
Further reading
  • The Letters of Edith Wharton (R. W. B. Lewis and Nancy Lewis, eds.) ISBN 0-02-034400-7, particularly the editorial introductions to the chronological sections, especially for 1902–07, 1911–14, 1919–27, and 1928–37, and the editorial footnotes to the letter to F. Scott Fitzgerald (8 June 1925)
  • Novellas and Other Writings (Cynthia Griffin Wolff, ed.) (The Library of America, 1990) ISBN 978-0-940450-53-0, which contains her autobiography, A Backward Glance.
  • Twilight Sleep (R. F. Godfrey, ed.) ISBN 0-684-83964-4
  • Armbruster, Elif S. (2011) "Domestic Biographies: Stowe, Howells, James, and Wharton at Home." New York: Peter Lang (ISBN 978-1433112492)
  • Benstock, Shari (1994) No Gifts From Chance: a biography of Edith Wharton. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Edith Wharton's French Riviera (2002) Philippe Collas and Eric Villedary, Paris, New York : Flammarion/Rizzoli (ISBN 2-84110-161-4)
  • Dwight, Eleanor. (1994) Edith Wharton: An Extraordinary Life, An Illustrated Biography New York: Harry N. Abrams.
  • Franzen, Jonathan (February 13–20, 2012). "A Critic at Large: A Rooting Interest". The New Yorker. 88 (1): 60–65. Retrieved 2014-11-13.
  • Hutchinson, Hazel (2015). The War That Used Up Words: American Writers and the First World War. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Lee, Hermione (2007) Edith Wharton. London: Chatto & Windus; New York: Knopf.
  • Lewis, R. W. B. (1975) Edith Wharton: a biography New York: Harper & Row ISBN 0-06-012603-5
  • Lowry, Elizabeth (December 9, 2011). "What Edith Knew: Freeing Wharton from the Master's Shadow". Harper's Magazine. 317 (1903): 96–100, 102.
  • Montgomery, Maureen E. (1998) Displaying Women: Spectacles of Leisure in Edith Wharton's New York New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-90566-4
  • Wolff, Cynthia Griffin (1977) A Feast of Words: The Triumph of Edith Wharton Oxford. ISBN 0-19-502117-7
  • Wolff, Cynthia Griffin (1995) A Feast of Words: The Triumph of Edith Wharton, Second Edition. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-40918-6
External links Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Edith Wharton Wikiquote has quotations related to: Edith Wharton Wikimedia Commons has media related to Edith Wharton.
  • Edith Wharton Collection Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University
  • The Edith Wharton Papers at the Lilly Library, Indiana University
  • Edith Wharton Society
  • The Mount: Estate and gardens designed by Edith Wharton
  • "Writings of Edith Wharton" from C-SPAN's American Writers: A Journey Through History
  • Edith Wharton at Library of Congress Authorities, with 345 catalog records
Online editions
  • Works by Edith Wharton at Project Gutenberg
  • Works by Edith Wharton at Faded Page (Canada)
  • Works by or about Edith Wharton at Internet Archive
  • Works by Edith Wharton at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Works by Edith WhartonNovels
  • The Touchstone (1900)
  • The Valley of Decision (1902)
  • The House of Mirth (1905)
  • Ethan Frome (1911) The Reef (1912) The Custom of the Country (1913)
  • Summer (1917) The Marne (1918)
  • The Age of Innocence (1920)
  • The Glimpses of the Moon (1922)
  • Old New York (1924)
  • The Buccaneers (1938)
Short story collections
  • The Greater Inclination (1899)
  • Crucial Instances (1901)
Nonfiction
  • Fighting France: From Dunkerque to Belfort (1918)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Pulitzer Prize for Fiction1918–1925
  • His Family by Ernest Poole (1918)
  • The Magnificent Ambersons by Booth Tarkington (1919)
  • The Age of Innocence by Edith Wharton (1921)
  • Alice Adams by Booth Tarkington (1922)
  • One of Ours by Willa Cather (1923)
  • The Able McLaughlins by Margaret Wilson (1924)
  • So Big by Edna Ferber (1925)
1926–1950
  • Arrowsmith by Sinclair Lewis (declined) (1926)
  • Early Autumn by Louis Bromfield (1927)
  • The Bridge of San Luis Rey by Thornton Wilder (1928)
  • Scarlet Sister Mary by Julia Peterkin (1929)
  • Laughing Boy by Oliver La Farge (1930)
  • Years of Grace by Margaret Ayer Barnes (1931)
  • The Good Earth by Pearl S. Buck (1932)
  • The Store by Thomas Sigismund Stribling (1933)
  • Lamb in His Bosom by Caroline Pafford Miller (1934)
  • Now in November by Josephine Winslow Johnson (1935)
  • Honey in the Horn by Harold L. Davis (1936)
  • Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell (1937)
  • The Late George Apley by John Phillips Marquand (1938)
  • The Yearling by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (1939)
  • The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck (1940)
  • In This Our Life by Ellen Glasgow (1942)
  • Dragon's Teeth by Upton Sinclair (1943)
  • Journey in the Dark by Martin Flavin (1944)
  • A Bell for Adano by John Hersey (1945)
  • All the King's Men by Robert Penn Warren (1947)
  • Tales of the South Pacific by James A. Michener (1948)
  • Guard of Honor by James Gould Cozzens (1949)
  • The Way West by A. B. Guthrie Jr. (1950)
1951–1975
  • The Town by Conrad Richter (1951)
  • The Caine Mutiny by Herman Wouk (1952)
  • The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway (1953)
  • A Fable by William Faulkner (1955)
  • Andersonville by MacKinlay Kantor (1956)
  • A Death in the Family by James Agee (1958)
  • The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters by Robert Lewis Taylor (1959)
  • Advise and Consent by Allen Drury (1960)
  • To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee (1961)
  • The Edge of Sadness by Edwin O'Connor (1962)
  • The Reivers by William Faulkner (1963)
  • The Keepers of the House by Shirley Ann Grau (1965)
  • The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter by Katherine Anne Porter (1966)
  • The Fixer by Bernard Malamud (1967)
  • The Confessions of Nat Turner by William Styron (1968)
  • House Made of Dawn by N. Scott Momaday (1969)
  • The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford by Jean Stafford (1970)
  • Angle of Repose by Wallace Stegner (1972)
  • The Optimist's Daughter by Eudora Welty (1973)
  • No award given (1974)
  • The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara (1975)
1976–2000
  • Humboldt's Gift by Saul Bellow (1976)
  • No award given (1977)
  • Elbow Room by James Alan McPherson (1978)
  • The Stories of John Cheever by John Cheever (1979)
  • The Executioner's Song by Norman Mailer (1980)
  • A Confederacy of Dunces by John Kennedy Toole (1981)
  • Rabbit Is Rich by John Updike (1982)
  • The Color Purple by Alice Walker (1983)
  • Ironweed by William Kennedy (1984)
  • Foreign Affairs by Alison Lurie (1985)
  • Lonesome Dove by Larry McMurtry (1986)
  • A Summons to Memphis by Peter Taylor (1987)
  • Beloved by Toni Morrison (1988)
  • Breathing Lessons by Anne Tyler (1989)
  • The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love by Oscar Hijuelos (1990)
  • Rabbit at Rest by John Updike (1991)
  • A Thousand Acres by Jane Smiley (1992)
  • A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain by Robert Olen Butler (1993)
  • The Shipping News by E. Annie Proulx (1994)
  • The Stone Diaries by Carol Shields (1995)
  • Independence Day by Richard Ford (1996)
  • Martin Dressler: The Tale of an American Dreamer by Steven Millhauser (1997)
  • American Pastoral by Philip Roth (1998)
  • The Hours by Michael Cunningham (1999)
  • Interpreter of Maladies by Jhumpa Lahiri (2000)
2001–present
  • The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay by Michael Chabon (2001)
  • Empire Falls by Richard Russo (2002)
  • Middlesex by Jeffrey Eugenides (2003)
  • The Known World by Edward P. Jones (2004)
  • Gilead by Marilynne Robinson (2005)
  • March by Geraldine Brooks (2006)
  • The Road by Cormac McCarthy (2007)
  • The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Díaz (2008)
  • Olive Kitteridge by Elizabeth Strout (2009)
  • Tinkers by Paul Harding (2010)
  • A Visit from the Goon Squad by Jennifer Egan (2011)
  • No award given (2012)
  • The Orphan Master's Son by Adam Johnson (2013)
  • The Goldfinch by Donna Tartt (2014)
  • All the Light We Cannot See by Anthony Doerr (2015)
  • The Sympathizer by Viet Thanh Nguyen (2016)
  • The Underground Railroad by Colson Whitehead (2017)
  • Less by Andrew Sean Greer (2018)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Inductees to the National Women's Hall of Fame1970–19791973
  • Jane Addams
  • Marian Anderson
  • Susan B. Anthony
  • Clara Barton
  • Mary McLeod Bethune
  • Elizabeth Blackwell
  • Pearl S. Buck
  • Rachel Carson
  • Mary Cassatt
  • Emily Dickinson
  • Amelia Earhart
  • Alice Hamilton
  • Helen Hayes
  • Helen Keller
  • Eleanor Roosevelt
  • Florence Sabin
  • Margaret Chase Smith
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Helen Brooke Taussig
  • Harriet Tubman
1976
  • Abigail Adams
  • Margaret Mead
  • Mildred "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias
1979
  • Dorothea Dix
  • Juliette Gordon Low
  • Alice Paul
  • Elizabeth Bayley Seton
1980–19891981
  • Margaret Sanger
  • Sojourner Truth
1982
  • Carrie Chapman Catt
  • Frances Perkins
1983
  • Belva Lockwood
  • Lucretia Mott
1984
  • Mary "Mother" Harris Jones
  • Bessie Smith
1986
  • Barbara McClintock
  • Lucy Stone
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe
1988
  • Gwendolyn Brooks
  • Willa Cather
  • Sally Ride
  • Ida B. Wells-Barnett
1990–19991990
  • Margaret Bourke-White
  • Barbara Jordan
  • Billie Jean King
  • Florence B. Seibert
1991
  • Gertrude Belle Elion
1993
  • Ethel Percy Andrus
  • Antoinette Blackwell
  • Emily Blackwell
  • Shirley Chisholm
  • Jacqueline Cochran
  • Ruth Colvin
  • Marian Wright Edelman
  • Alice Evans
  • Betty Friedan
  • Ella Grasso
  • Martha Wright Griffiths
  • Fannie Lou Hamer
  • Dorothy Height
  • Dolores Huerta
  • Mary Jacobi
  • Mae Jemison
  • Mary Lyon
  • Mary Mahoney
  • Wilma Mankiller
  • Constance Baker Motley
  • Georgia O'Keeffe
  • Annie Oakley
  • Rosa Parks
  • Esther Peterson
  • Jeannette Rankin
  • Ellen Swallow Richards
  • Elaine Roulet
  • Katherine Siva Saubel
  • Gloria Steinem
  • Helen Stephens
  • Lillian Wald
  • Madam C. J. Walker
  • Faye Wattleton
  • Rosalyn S. Yalow
  • Gloria Yerkovich
1994
  • Bella Abzug
  • Ella Baker
  • Myra Bradwell
  • Annie Jump Cannon
  • Jane Cunningham Croly
  • Catherine East
  • Geraldine Ferraro
  • Charlotte Perkins Gilman
  • Grace Hopper
  • Helen LaKelly Hunt
  • Zora Neale Hurston
  • Anne Hutchinson
  • Frances Wisebart Jacobs
  • Susette La Flesche
  • Louise McManus
  • Maria Mitchell
  • Antonia Novello
  • Linda Richards
  • Wilma Rudolph
  • Betty Bone Schiess
  • Muriel Siebert
  • Nettie Stevens
  • Oprah Winfrey
  • Sarah Winnemucca
  • Fanny Wright
1995
  • Virginia Apgar
  • Ann Bancroft
  • Amelia Bloomer
  • Mary Breckinridge
  • Eileen Collins
  • Elizabeth Hanford Dole
  • Anne Dallas Dudley
  • Mary Baker Eddy
  • Ella Fitzgerald
  • Margaret Fuller
  • Matilda Joslyn Gage
  • Lillian Moller Gilbreth
  • Nannerl O. Keohane
  • Maggie Kuhn
  • Sandra Day O'Connor
  • Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin
  • Pat Schroeder
  • Hannah Greenebaum Solomon
1996
  • Louisa May Alcott
  • Charlotte Anne Bunch
  • Frances Xavier Cabrini
  • Mary A. Hallaren
  • Oveta Culp Hobby
  • Wilhelmina Cole Holladay
  • Anne Morrow Lindbergh
  • Maria Goeppert Mayer
  • Ernestine Louise Potowski Rose
  • Maria Tallchief
  • Edith Wharton
1998
  • Madeleine Albright
  • Maya Angelou
  • Nellie Bly
  • Lydia Moss Bradley
  • Mary Steichen Calderone
  • Mary Ann Shadd Cary
  • Joan Ganz Cooney
  • Gerty Cori
  • Sarah Grimké
  • Julia Ward Howe
  • Shirley Ann Jackson
  • Shannon Lucid
  • Katharine Dexter McCormick
  • Rozanne L. Ridgway
  • Edith Nourse Rogers
  • Felice Schwartz
  • Eunice Kennedy Shriver
  • Beverly Sills
  • Florence Wald
  • Angelina Grimké Weld
  • Chien-Shiung Wu
2000–20092000
  • Faye Glenn Abdellah
  • Emma Smith DeVoe
  • Marjory Stoneman Douglas
  • Mary Dyer
  • Sylvia A. Earle
  • Crystal Eastman
  • Jeanne Holm
  • Leontine T. Kelly
  • Frances Oldham Kelsey
  • Kate Mullany
  • Janet Reno
  • Anna Howard Shaw
  • Sophia Smith
  • Ida Tarbell
  • Wilma L. Vaught
  • Mary Edwards Walker
  • Annie Dodge Wauneka
  • Eudora Welty
  • Frances E. Willard
2001
  • Dorothy H. Andersen
  • Lucille Ball
  • Rosalynn Carter
  • Lydia Maria Child
  • Bessie Coleman
  • Dorothy Day
  • Marian de Forest
  • Althea Gibson
  • Beatrice A. Hicks
  • Barbara Holdridge
  • Harriet Williams Russell Strong
  • Emily Howell Warner
  • Victoria Woodhull
2002
  • Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis
  • Ruth Bader Ginsburg
  • Katharine Graham
  • Bertha Holt
  • Mary Engle Pennington
  • Mercy Otis Warren
2003
  • Linda G. Alvarado
  • Donna de Varona
  • Gertrude Ederle
  • Martha Matilda Harper
  • Patricia Roberts Harris
  • Stephanie L. Kwolek
  • Dorothea Lange
  • Mildred Robbins Leet
  • Patsy Takemoto Mink
  • Sacagawea
  • Anne Sullivan
  • Sheila E. Widnall
2005
  • Florence Ellinwood Allen
  • Ruth Fulton Benedict
  • Betty Bumpers
  • Hillary Clinton
  • Rita Rossi Colwell
  • Mother Marianne Cope
  • Maya Y. Lin
  • Patricia A. Locke
  • Blanche Stuart Scott
  • Mary Burnett Talbert
2007
  • Eleanor K. Baum
  • Julia Child
  • Martha Coffin Pelham Wright
  • Swanee Hunt
  • Winona LaDuke
  • Elisabeth Kübler-Ross
  • Judith L. Pipher
  • Catherine Filene Shouse
  • Henrietta Szold
2009
  • Louise Bourgeois
  • Mildred Cohn
  • Karen DeCrow
  • Susan Kelly-Dreiss
  • Allie B. Latimer
  • Emma Lazarus
  • Ruth Patrick
  • Rebecca Talbot Perkins
  • Susan Solomon
  • Kate Stoneman
2010–20192011
  • St. Katharine Drexel
  • Dorothy Harrison Eustis
  • Loretta C. Ford
  • Abby Kelley Foster
  • Helen Murray Free
  • Billie Holiday
  • Coretta Scott King
  • Lilly Ledbetter
  • Barbara A. Mikulski
  • Donna E. Shalala
  • Kathrine Switzer
2013
  • Betty Ford
  • Ina May Gaskin
  • Julie Krone
  • Kate Millett
  • Nancy Pelosi
  • Mary Joseph Rogers
  • Bernice Sandler
  • Anna Schwartz
  • Emma Willard
2015
  • Tenley Albright
  • Nancy Brinker
  • Martha Graham
  • Marcia Greenberger
  • Barbara Iglewski
  • Jean Kilbourne
  • Carlotta Walls LaNier
  • Philippa Marrack
  • Mary Harriman Rumsey
  • Eleanor Smeal
2017
  • Matilda Cuomo
  • Temple Grandin
  • Lorraine Hansberry
  • Victoria Jackson
  • Sherry Lansing
  • Clare Boothe Luce
  • Aimee Mullins
  • Carol Mutter
  • Janet Rowley
  • Alice Waters
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The House of Mirth (Twentieth-Century Classics)
The House of Mirth (Twentieth-Century Classics)
A black comedy of manners about vast wealth and a woman who can define herself only through the perceptions of others. The beautiful Lily Bart lives among the nouveaux riches of New York City – people whose millions were made in railroads, shipping, land speculation and banking. In this morally and aesthetically bankrupt world, Lily, age twenty-nine, seeks a husband who can satisfy her cravings for endless admiration and all the trappings of wealth. But her quest comes to a scandalous end when she is accused of being the mistress of a wealthy man. Exiled from her familiar world of artificial conventions, Lily finds life impossible.For more than seventy years, Penguin has been the leading publisher of classic literature in the English-speaking world. With more than 1,700 titles, Penguin Classics represents a global bookshelf of the best works throughout history and across genres and disciplines. Readers trust the series to provide authoritative texts enhanced by introductions and notes by distinguished scholars and contemporary authors, as well as up-to-date translations by award-winning translators.

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$9.35
-$1.65(-15%)



The Age of Innocence (Vintage Classics)
The Age of Innocence (Vintage Classics)
One of Edith Wharton’s most famous novels—the first by a woman to win the Pulitzer Prize—exquisitely details a tragic struggle between love and responsibility in Gilded Age New York. Newland Archer, an aristocratic young lawyer, is engaged to the cloistered, beautiful May Welland. But when May’s cousin Ellen arrives from Europe, fleeing her failed marriage to a Polish count, her worldly and independent nature intrigues and unsettles Archer. Trapped by his passionless relationship with May and the social conventions that forbid a relationship with the disgraced Ellen, Archer is torn between possibility and duty. Wharton’s profound understanding of her characters’ lives makes the triangle of Archer, May, and Ellen both urgent and poignant. An incisive look at the ways desire and emotion must negotiate the complex rules of society, The Age of Innocence is one of Wharton’s most moving works.

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Edith Wharton: Four Novels: A Library of America College Edition (Library of America College Editions)
Edith Wharton: Four Novels: A Library of America College Edition (Library of America College Editions)
Born into an exclusive New York society of elegant manners and rigid codes, Edith Wharton drew on her background to create fiction both trenchantly observant and nostalgic, a vision rich in detail, satire, and tragedy. The House of Mirth traces, through the downfall of independent young Lily Bart, the insidious realities of social convention and sexual and financial aggression among New York's upper classes at the turn of the century. Repressed passions smolder in small-town New England in the classic Ethan Frome, a tale of unhappy marriage and deperate love which erupts in an act of shattering violence. The Custom of the Country is brilliant, ironic comedy, memorable for its portrait of Miss Undine Spragg of Apex City: beautiful, spoiled, and ambitious. The Age of Innocence, set in the New York society of Wharton's youth which "dreaded scandal more than disease," is a profoundly moving tragicomedy of thwarted love told with astonishing insight and objectivity.Library of America is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to preserving the best and most significant American writing in handsome, enduring volumes, featuring authoritative texts. Library of America College Editions offer these volumes to students and teachers in an affordable paperback format.

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$13.95



Edith Wharton: 14 Great Novels
Edith Wharton: 14 Great Novels
Collected here are 14 novels by Edith Wharton. Included are also links to free audiobook verions of the novels.Edith Wharton was a Pulitzer Prize-winning American novelist, short story writer, and designer. She was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1927, 1928 and 1930.Wharton combined her insider's view of America's privileged classes with a brilliant, natural wit to write humorous, incisive novels and short stories of social and psychological insight. She was well acquainted with many of her era's other literary and public figures, including Theodore Roosevelt.Novels included:•The Touchstone, 1900•The Valley of Decision, 1902•Sanctuary, 1903•The House of Mirth, 1905•Madame de Treymes, 1907•The Fruit of the Tree, 1907•Ethan Frome, 1911•The Reef, 1912•The Custom of the Country, 1913•Bunner Sisters, 1916•Summer, 1917•The Marne, 1918•The Age of Innocence, 1920 (Pulitzer Prize winner)•The Glimpses of the Moon, 1922Free audiobooks available for:•The Touchstone, 1900•The Valley of Decision, 1902 - not available as audiobook at this time•Sanctuary, 1903•The House of Mirth, 1905•Madame de Treymes, 1907•The Fruit of the Tree, 1907•Ethan Frome, 1911•The Reef, 1912•The Custom of the Country, 1913•Bunner Sisters, 1916•Summer, 1917 - not available as audiobook at this time•The Marne, 1918•The Age of Innocence, 1920 (Pulitzer Prize winner)•The Glimpses of the Moon, 1922Enjoy!

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Three Novels of New York: The House of Mirth, The Custom of the Country, The Age of Innocence (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition)
Three Novels of New York: The House of Mirth, The Custom of the Country, The Age of Innocence (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition)
For the 150th anniversary of Edith Wharton's birth: her three greatest novels, in a couture-inspired deluxe edition featuring a new introduction by Jonathan FranzenBorn into a distinguished New York family, Edith Wharton chronicled the lives of the wealthy, the well born, and the nouveau riches in fiction that often hinges on the collision of personal passion and social convention. This volume brings together her best-loved novels, all set in New York.The House of Mirth is the story of Lily Bart, who needs a rich husband but refuses to marry without both love and money. The Custom of the Country follows the marriages and affairs of Undine Spragg, who is as vain, spoiled, and selfish as she is irresistibly fascinating. The Pulitzer Prize-winning The Age of Innocence concerns the passionate bond that develops between the newly engaged Newland Archer and his finacée's cousin, the Countess Olenska, new to New York and newly divorced.For more than seventy years, Penguin has been the leading publisher of classic literature in the English-speaking world. With more than 1,800 titles, Penguin Classics represents a global bookshelf of the best works throughout history and across genres and disciplines. Readers trust the series to provide authoritative texts enhanced by introductions and notes by distinguished scholars and contemporary authors, as well as up-to-date translations by award-winning translators.

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$15.50
-$9.50(-38%)



Edith Wharton
Edith Wharton
From Hermione Lee, the internationally acclaimed, award-winning biographer of Virginia Woolf and Willa Cather, comes a superb reexamination of one of the most famous American women of letters.Delving into heretofore untapped sources, Lee does away with the image of the snobbish bluestocking and gives us a new Edith Wharton-tough, startlingly modern, as brilliant and complex as her fiction. Born into a wealthy family, Wharton left America as an adult and eventually chose to create a life in France. Her renowned novels and stories have become classics of American literature, but as Lee shows, Wharton's own life, filled with success and scandal, was as intriguing as those of her heroines. Bridging two centuries and two very different sensibilities, Wharton here comes to life in the skillful hands of one of the great literary biographers of our time.From the Trade Paperback edition.

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Old New York
Old New York
The four short novels in this collection by the author of The Age of Innocence are set in the New York of the 1840s, '50s, '60s, and '70s, each one revealing the tribal codes and customs that ruled society, portrayed with the keen style that is uniquely Edith Wharton's. Originally published in 1924 and long out of print, these tales are vintage Wharton, dealing boldly with such themes as infidelity, illegitimacy, jealousy, the class system, and the condition of women in society. Included in this remarkable quartet are False Dawn, which concerns the stormy relationship between a domineering father and his son; The Old Maid, the best known of the four, in which a young woman's secret illegitimate child is adopted by her best friend -- with devastating results; The Spark, about a young man's moral rehabilitation, which is "sparked" by a chance encounter with Walt Whitman; and New Year's Day, an O. Henryesque tale of a married woman suspected of adultery. Old New York is Wharton at her finest.

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$7.90
-$9.10(-54%)



A Backward Glance: An Autobiography
A Backward Glance: An Autobiography
Edith Wharton, the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize, vividly reflects on her public and private life in this stunning memoir.With richness and delicacy, it describes the sophisticated New York society in which Wharton spent her youth, and chronicles her travels throughout Europe and her literary success as an adult. Beautifully depicted are her friendships with many of the most celebrated artists and writers of her day, including her close friend Henry James. In his introduction to this edition, Louis Auchincloss calls the writing in A Backward Glance “as firm and crisp and lucid as in the best of her novels.” It is a memoir that will charm and fascinate all readers of Wharton’s fiction.

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$14.29
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The Buccaneers
The Buccaneers
Set in the 1870s, the same period as Wharton's The Age of Innocence, The Buccaneers is about five wealthy American girls denied entry into New York Society because their parents' money is too new. At the suggestion of their clever governess, the girls sail to London, where they marry lords, earls, and dukes who find their beauty charming—and their wealth extremely useful.After Wharton's death in 1937, The Christian Science Monitor said, "If it could have been completed, The Buccaneers would doubtless stand among the richest and most sophisticated of Wharton's novels." Now, with wit and imagination, Marion Mainwaring has finished the story, taking her cue from Wharton's own synopsis. It is a novel any Wharton fan will celebrate and any romantic reader will love. This is the richly engaging story of Nan St. George and guy Thwarte, an American heiress and an English aristocrat, whose love breaks the rules of both their societies.

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