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Exoneration
place. The transitive verb, "to exonerate" can also mean to informally absolve one from blame. The term "exoneration" also is used in criminal law to

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"Exonerated" redirects here. For the legal film, see The Exonerated. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (December 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Criminal procedure Criminal trials and convictions Rights of the accused
  • Fair trial
  • Pre-trial
  • Speedy trial
  • Jury trial
  • Counsel
  • Presumption of innocence
  • Exclusionary rule1
  • Self-incrimination
  • Double jeopardy2
Verdict
  • Conviction
  • Acquittal
  • Not proven3
  • Directed verdict
Sentencing
  • Mandatory
  • Suspended
  • Custodial
  • Periodic
  • Discharge
  • Guidelines
  • Totality5, 6
  • Dangerous offender4, 5
  • Capital punishment
  • Execution warrant
  • Cruel and unusual punishment
  • Imprisonment
  • Life imprisonment
  • Indefinite imprisonment
  • Three-strikes law
Post-sentencing
  • Parole
  • Probation
  • Tariff 6
  • Life licence6
  • Miscarriage of justice
  • Exoneration
  • Pardon
  • Recidivism
  • Habitual offender
  • Sex offender registration
  • Sexually violent predator legislation1
Related areas of law
  • Criminal defenses
  • Criminal law
  • Evidence
  • Civil procedure
Portals
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Exoneration occurs when the conviction for a crime is reversed, either through demonstration of innocence, a flaw in the conviction, or otherwise. Attempts to exonerate convicts are particularly controversial in death penalty cases, especially where new evidence is put forth after the execution has taken place. The transitive verb, "to exonerate" can also mean to informally absolve one from blame.

The term "exoneration" also is used in criminal law to indicate a surety bail bond has been satisfied, completed, and exonerated. The judge orders the bond exonerated; the clerk of court time stamps the original bail bond power and indicates exonerated as the judicial order.

Contents
  • 1 Based on DNA evidence
  • 2 See also
  • 3 References
  • 4 External links
Based on DNA evidence

DNA evidence is a relatively new instrument of exoneration. The first convicted defendant from a United States prison to be released on account of DNA testing was David Vasquez, in 1989. Recently, DNA evidence has been used to exonerate a number of persons either on death row or serving lengthy prison sentences. As of October 2003[update], the number of states authorizing convicts to request DNA testing on their behalf, since 1999, has increased from two to thirty. Access to DNA testing varies greatly by degree; post-conviction tests can be difficult to acquire. Organizations like the Innocence Project are particularly concerned with the exoneration of those who have been convicted based on weak evidence. As of October 2003, prosecutors of criminal cases must approve the defendant's request for DNA testing in certain cases.

Monday, April 23, 2007, Jerry Miller became the 200th person in the United States exonerated through the use of DNA evidence.[1] There is a national campaign in support of the formation of state Innocence Commissions, statewide entities that identify causes of wrongful convictions and develop state reforms that can improve the criminal justice system.

As of December 2018, 362 people in the U.S. had been exonerated based on DNA tests. In nearly half of these cases, faulty forensics contributed to the original conviction.[2]

Per February 4, 2014 NPR article, Laura Sullivan cited Samuel Gross, a University of Michigan law professor stating that exonerations were on the rise, and not just because of DNA evidence. Only one-fifth of the exonerations last year relied on newly tested DNA, a little less than a third of exonerations occurred due to further investigating by law enforcement agencies.[3]

See also
  • National Registry of Exonerations
  • List of exonerated death row inmates
  • List of wrongful convictions in the United States
References
  1. ^ The Innocence Project - Know the Cases: Browse Profiles:Jerry Miller Archived 2008-04-03 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Colloff, Pamela. "Bloodstain Analysis Convinced a Jury She Stabbed Her 10-Year-Old Son. Now, Even Freedom Can't Give Her Back Her Life". propublica.org. ProPublica. Archived from the original on December 20, 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2020..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}
  3. ^ Sullivan, Laura (4 Feb 2014). "Exonerations On The Rise, And Not Just Because Of DNA". NPR. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
External links
  • National Registry of Exonerations, a registry of exonerations in the United States since 1989; a joint project of the University of Michigan Law School and Northwestern University School of Law
  • v
  • t
  • e
Miscarriage of justiceTypes of misconduct
  • Prosecutorial misconduct
  • Police misconduct
  • Selective prosecution
  • Malicious prosecution
  • Selective enforcement
  • Abuse of process
  • Attorney misconduct
  • Abuse of discretion
  • Entrapment
  • False arrest
  • Gaming the system
  • Legal malpractice
  • Kangaroo court
  • Sharp practice
  • Jury tampering
  • Witness tampering
  • Brady disclosure
  • Spoliation of evidence
False evidence
  • Forced confession
  • False accusation of rape
  • False allegation of child sexual abuse
  • Police perjury
  • False accusation
  • Mistaken identity
  • Eyewitness memory
  • Misinformation effect
  • Tampering with evidence
Wrongful convictions
  • List of wrongful convictions in the United States
  • List of exonerated death row inmates
  • Miscarriage of justice
  • List of miscarriage of justice cases
  • Overturned convictions in the United States
  • Wrongful execution
Advocacy
  • Innocence Project
  • National Registry of Exonerations
  • Investigating Innocence
Related concepts
  • Legal ethics
  • Exculpatory evidence
  • Right to a fair trial
  • Race in the United States criminal justice system
  • Capital punishment in the United States
  • Innocent prisoner's dilemma
  • Racial profiling
  • Loophole
  • Ineffective assistance of counsel
  • Show trial
  • Actual innocence
  • Cross-race effect
  • Eyewitness memory
  • Eyewitness identification
  • Equal Protection Clause
  • Batson v. Kentucky
  • List of United States death row inmates
  • Prosecutor's fallacy
  • Innocence Protection Act


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