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Abu Hanifa
Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (Arabic: أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان‎; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short

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Abū Ḥanīfah
أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان
ابوحنیفهNuʿmān ibn Thābit ibn Zūṭā ibn Marzubān with Islamic calligraphyTitleThe Great ImamPersonalBorn699 (80 Hijri)
Kufa, Umayyad CaliphateDied767 (150 Hijri)
Baghdad, Abbasid CaliphateReligionIslamEthnicityPersian[1][2][3][4]EraIslamic golden ageRegionKufa[1]Main interest(s)JurisprudenceNotable idea(s)IstihsanNotable work(s)Al-Fiqh al-AkbarMuslim leader Influenced by Influenced

Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (Arabic: أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان‎; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims,[5] was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin,[6] who became the eponymous founder of the Hanafi school of Sunni jurisprudence, which has remained the most widely practiced law school in the Sunni tradition.[6] He is often alluded to by the reverential epithets al-Imām al-aʿẓam ("The Great Imam") and Sirāj al-aʾimma ("The Lamp of the Imams") in Sunni Islam.[3][6]

Born to a Muslim family in Kufa,[6] Abu Hanifa is known to have travelled to the Hejaz region of Arabia in his youth, where he studied under the most renowned teachers in Mecca and Medina at the time.[6] As his career as a theologian and jurist progressed, Abu Hanifa became known for favoring the use of reason in his legal rulings (faqīh dhū raʾy) and even in his theology.[6] Abu Hanifa's theological school is what would later develop into the Maturidi school of Sunni theology.[6]

He is also considered a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Sunni Muslims.[7]

  .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}Part of a series on
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Islam portal
  • v
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  • 1 Life
    • 1.1 Childhood
    • 1.2 Adulthood and death
  • 2 Students
  • 3 Sources and methodology
  • 4 Generational status
  • 5 Reception
  • 6 Early Islam scholars
  • 7 Works
    • 7.1 Confusion regarding Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar
  • 8 Citations
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links
Life Childhood

Abū Ḥanīfah was born in the city of Kufa in Iraq,[8][9] during the reign of the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. His father, Thabit bin Zuta, a trader from Kabul (today in Afghanistan), was 40 years old at the time of Abū Ḥanīfah's birth.

His ancestry is generally accepted as being of Persian origin as suggested by the etymology of the names of his grandfather (Zuta) and great-grandfather (Mah). The historian Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi records a statement from Imām Abū Ḥanīfah's grandson, Ismail bin Hammad, who gave Abū Ḥanīfah's lineage as Thabit bin Numan bin Marzban and claiming to be of Persian origin.[3][4] The discrepancy in the names, as given by Ismail of Abū Ḥanīfah's grandfather and great-grandfather, are thought to be due to Zuta's adoption of the Arabic name (Numan) upon his acceptance of Islam and that Mah and Marzban were titles or official designations in Persia, with the latter, meaning a margrave, referring to the noble ancestry of Abū Ḥanīfah's family as the Sasanian Marzbans (equivalent of margraves). The widely accepted opinion, however, is that most probably he was of Persian ancestry .[3][4]

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  • Islam portal
Adulthood and death Abu Hanifa Mosque in Baghdad, Iraq

In 763, al-Mansur, the Abbasid monarch offered Abu Hanifa the post of Chief Judge of the State, but he declined the offer, choosing to remain independent. His student Abu Yusuf was later appointed Qadi Al-Qudat (Chief Judge of the State) by the Caliph Harun al-Rashid.[10]

In his reply to al-Mansur, Abū Ḥanīfah said that he was not fit for the post. Al-Mansur, who had his own ideas and reasons for offering the post, lost his temper and accused Abū Ḥanīfah of lying.

"If I am lying," Abū Ḥanīfah said, "then my statement is doubly correct. How can you appoint a liar to the exalted post of a Chief Qadi (Judge)?"

Incensed by this reply, the ruler had Abū Ḥanīfah arrested, locked in prison and tortured. He was never fed nor cared for.[11] Even there, the jurist continued to teach those who were permitted to come to him.

On the 15 Rajab 150[12] (August 15, 767[13]), Abū Ḥanīfah died in prison. The cause of his death is not clear, as some say that Abū Ḥanīfah issued a legal opinion for bearing arms against Al-Mansur, and the latter had him poisoned.[14] The fellow prisoner and Jewish Karaite founder, Anan Ben David, is said to have received life-saving counsel from the subject.[15] It was said that so many people attended his funeral that the funeral service was repeated six times for more than 50,000 people who had amassed before he was actually buried. On the authority of the historian al-Khatib, it can be said that for full twenty days people went on performing funeral prayer for him. Later, after many years, the Abū Ḥanīfah Mosque was built in the Adhamiyah neighbourhood of Baghdad. Abū Ḥanīfah also supported the cause of Zayd ibn Ali and Ibrahim al Qamar both Alid Zaidi Imams.

The tomb of Abū Ḥanīfah and the tomb of Abdul Qadir Gilani were destroyed by Shah Ismail of Safavi empire in 1508.[16] In 1533, Ottomans conquered Baghdad and rebuilt the tomb of Abū Ḥanīfah and other Sunni sites.[17]


Many people came to study under Imām Abu Hanifa from different parts of Muslim world in his lifetime. Imām Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi listed 97 hadith scholar who were his student. Most of them were famous hadith scholar and their narrated hadiths are compiled in Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim and other famous books of hadith.[18] Imām Badr al-Din al-Ayni included another 260 students who studied Hadith and Fiqh from Abu Hanifa.[19]

His most famous student was Imām Abu Yusuf, who served as the first chief justice in the Muslim world. His another famous student was Imām Muhammad al-Shaybani, who was the teacher of Shafi‘i school of jurisprudence founder, Imām Al-Shafi‘i. His other students include;[20]

  1. Abdullah ibn Mubarak
  2. Abu Nuāim Fadl Ibn Dukain
  3. Malik bin Mighwal
  4. Dawood Taa’ee
  5. Mandil bin Ali
  6. Qaasim bin Ma’n
  7. Hayyaaj bin Bistaam
  8. Hushaym bin Basheer Sulami
  9. Fudhayl bin Iyaadh
  10. Ali bin Tibyaan
  11. Wakee bin Jarrah
  12. Amr bin Maymoon
  13. Abu Ismah
  14. Zuhayr bin Mu’aawiyah
  15. Aafiyah bin Yazeed
Sources and methodology

The sources from which Abu Hanifa derived Islamic law, in order of importance and preference, are: the Qur'an, the authentic narrations of the Muslim prophet Muhammad (known as hadith), consensus of the Muslim community (ijma), analogical reasoning (qiyas), juristic discretion (istihsan) and the customs of the local population enacting said law (urf). The development of analogical reason and the scope and boundaries by which it may be used is recognized by the majority of Muslim jurists, but its establishment as a legal tool is the result of the Hanafi school. While it was likely used by some of his teachers, Abu Hanifa is regarded by modern scholarship as the first to formally adopt and institute analogical reason as a part of Islamic law.[21]

As the fourth Caliph, Ali had transferred the Islamic capital to Kufa, and many of the first generation of Muslims had settled there, the Hanafi school of law based many of its rulings on the prophetic tradition as transmitted by those first generation Muslims residing in Iraq. Thus, the Hanafi school came to be known as the Kufan or Iraqi school in earlier times. Ali and Abdullah, son of Masud formed much of the base of the school, as well as other personalities from the direct relatives (or Ahli-ll-Bayṫ) of Moḥammad from whom Abu Hanifa had studied such as Muhammad al-Baqir. Many jurists and historians had reportedly lived in Kufa, including one of Abu Hanifa's main teachers, Hammad ibn Abi Sulayman.[22][23]

Generational status

Abū Ḥanīfah is regarded by some as one of the Tabi‘un, the generation after the Sahaba, who were the companions of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. This is based on reports that he met at least four Sahaba including Anas ibn Malik,[8] with some even reporting that he transmitted Hadith from him and other companions of Muhammad.[24][25] Others take the view that Abū Ḥanīfah only saw around half a dozen companions, possibly at a young age, and did not directly narrate hadith from them.[24]

Abū Ḥanīfah was born 67 years after the death of Muhammad, but during the time of the first generation of Muslims, some of whom lived on until Abū Ḥanīfah's youth. Anas bin Malik, Muhammad's personal attendant, died in 93 AH and another companion, Abul Tufail Amir bin Wathilah, died in 100 AH, when Abū Ḥanīfah was 20 years old. The author of al-Khairat al-Hisan collected information from books of biographies and cited the names of Muslims of the first generation from whom it is reported that the Abu Hanifa had transmitted hadith. He counted them as sixteen, including Anas ibn Malik, Jabir ibn Abd-Allah and Sahl ibn Sa'd.[26]

Reception Map of the Muslim world. Hanafi (grass green) is the Sunni school predominant in Turkey, the Northern Middle East, many parts of Egypt, Central Asia and most of the Indian subcontinent

Abu Hanifa ranks as one of the greatest jurists of Islamic civilization and one of the major legal philosophers of the entire human community.[27] He attained a very high status in the various fields of sacred knowledge and significantly influenced the development of Muslim theology.[28] During his lifetime he was acknowledged by the people as a jurist of the highest calibre.[29]

Outside of his scholarly achievements Abu Hanifa is popularly known amongst Sunni Muslims as a man of the highest personal qualities: a performer of good works, remarkable for his self-denial, humble spirit, devotion and pious awe of God.[30]

His tomb, surmounted by a dome erected by admirers in 1066 is still a shrine for pilgrims.[27] It was given a restoration in 1535 by Suleiman the Magnificent upon the Ottoman conquest of Baghdad.[17]

The honorific title al-Imam al-A'zam ("the greatest leader") was granted to him[31] both in communities where his legal theory is followed and elsewhere.[citation needed] According to John Esposito, 41% of all Muslims follow the Hanafi school.[32]

Abu Hanifa also had critics. The Zahiri scholar Ibn Hazm quotes Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah: "he affairs of men were in harmony until they were changed by Abù Hanìfa in Kùfa, al-Batti in Basra and Màlik in Medina".[33] Early Muslim jurist Hammad ibn Salamah once related a story about a highway robber who posed as an old man to hide his identity; he then remarked that were the robber still alive he would be a follower of Abu Hanifa.[34]

Early Islam scholars
  • v
  • t
  • e
Early Islamic scholars Muhammad (570–632) prepared the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions `Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taughtAli (607–661) fourth caliph taughtAisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taughtAbd Allah ibn Abbas (618–687) taughtZayd ibn Thabit (610–660) taughtUmar (579–644) second caliph taughtAbu Hurairah (603–681) taught Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taughtHusayn ibn Ali (626–680) taughtQasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (657–725) taught and raised by AishaUrwah ibn Zubayr (died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taughtSaid ibn al-Musayyib (637–715) taughtAbdullah ibn Umar (614–693) taughtAbd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624–692) taught by Aisha, he then taught Ibrahim al-Nakha’i taughtAli ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659–712) taughtHisham ibn Urwah (667–772) taughtIbn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taughtSalim ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar taughtUmar ibn Abdul Aziz (682–720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar Hammad bin ibi Sulman taughtMuhammad al-Baqir (676–733) taughtFarwah bint al-Qasim Abu Bakr's great grand daughter Jafar's mother Abu Hanifa (699–767) wrote Al Fiqh Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah Shia and originally by the Fatimid and taughtZayd ibn Ali (695–740)Ja'far bin Muhammad Al-Baqir (702–765) Ali's and Abu Bakr's great great grand son taughtMalik ibn Anas (711–795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina period now mostly followed by Sunni in Africa and taughtAl-Waqidi (748–822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn AnasAbu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas Abu Yusuf (729–798) wrote Usul al-fiqhMuhammad al-Shaybani (749–805)Al-Shafi‘i (767–820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni and taughtIsmail ibn IbrahimAli ibn al-Madini (778–849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the CompanionsIbn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography Isma'il ibn Ja'far (719–775)Musa al-Kadhim (745–799)Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni and hadith booksMuhammad al-Bukhari (810–870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari hadith booksMuslim ibn al-Hajjaj (815–875) wrote Sahih Muslim hadith booksMuhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824–892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi hadith booksAl-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles Ibn Majah (824–887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah hadith bookAbu Dawood (817–889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood Hadith Book Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi hadith book followed by Twelver ShiaMuhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-TabariAbu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (874–936) wrote Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, Kitāb al-luma, Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna Ibn Babawayh (923–991) wrote Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih jurisprudence followed by Twelver ShiaSharif Razi (930–977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha followed by Twelver ShiaNasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver ShiaAl-Ghazali (1058–1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on SufismRumi (1207–1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi on Sufism Key: Some of Muhammad's CompanionsKey: Taught in MedinaKey: Taught in IraqKey: Worked in SyriaKey: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadithKey: Worked in Iran Works This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Find sources: "Abu Hanifa" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (August 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Scholarly works by Abu Hanifa Title Description Al-Fiqh al-Akbar Al-Fiqh al-Absat Kitaab-ul-Aathaar Narrated by Imam Muhammad al-Shaybani & Imam Abu Yusuf – compiled from a total of 70,000 hadith Aalim wa'l-muta‘allim At Tareeq Al Aslam Musnad Imam ul A’zam Abu Hanifah Confusion regarding Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar

The attribution of Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar has been disputed by A.J. Wensick,[35] as well as Zubair Ali Zai.[36]

Other scholars have upheld that Abu Hanifa was the author such as Muhammad Zahid Al-Kawthari, al-Bazdawi, and Abd al-Aziz al-Bukhari.[37]

Scholars such as Mufti Abdur-Rahman have pointed out that the book being brought into question by Wensick is actually another work by Abu Hanifa called: "Al-Fiqh Al-Absat".[37]

  1. ^ a b c A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications. pp. 24–5. ISBN 978-1780744209..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}
  2. ^ Mohsen Zakeri (1995), Sasanid soldiers in early Muslim society: the origins of 'Ayyārān and Futuwwa, p.293
  3. ^ a b c d S. H. Nasr (1975), "The religious sciences", in R.N. Frye, The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4, Cambridge University Press. pg 474: "Abū Ḥanīfah, who is often called the "grand imam"(al-Imam al-'Azam) was Persian
  4. ^ a b c Cyril Glasse, "The New Encyclopedia of Islam", Published by Rowman & Littlefield, 2008. pg 23: "Abu Hanifah, a Persian, was one of the great jurists of Islam and one of the historic Sunni Mujtahids"
  5. ^ ABŪ ḤANĪFA, Encyclopædia Iranica
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Pakatchi, Ahmad and Umar, Suheyl, "Abū Ḥanīfa", in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
  7. ^ Abu Bakr al-Jassas al-Razi. Ahkam al-Quran. Dar Al-Fikr Al-Beirutiyya. pp. volume 1 page 100.
  8. ^ a b Meri, Josef W. (October 31, 2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 9781135456030.
  9. ^ Hisham M. Ramadan, Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, (AltaMira Press: 2006), p.26
  10. ^ "Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Abu Yusuf. Oxford University Press.
  11. ^ Ya'qubi, vol. III, p.86; Muruj al-dhahab, vol. III, pp. 268–270.
  12. ^ Ammar, Abu (2001). "Criticism levelled against Imam Abu Hanifah". Understanding the Ahle al-Sunnah: Traditional Scholarship & Modern Misunderstandings. Islamic Information Centre. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  13. ^ "Islamic Hijri Calendar For Rajab – 150 Hijri". habibur.com. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  14. ^ Najeebabadi, Akbar S. (2001). The History of Islam. vol, 2. Darussalam Press. pp. 287. ISBN 9960-892-88-3.
  15. ^ Nemoy, Leon. (1952). Karaite Anthology: Excerpts from the Early Literature. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 0-300-00792-2.
  16. ^ Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire
  17. ^ a b Burak, Guy (2015). The Second Formation of Islamic Law: The Ḥanafī School in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-107-09027-9.
  18. ^ Tāhzibul Kamal by Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi
  19. ^ Māganīl Akhīar by Imām Aini
  20. ^ "40 Great Students of Imam Abu Hanifah". ilmfeed.com. March 26, 2014.
  21. ^ See:
    *Reuben Levy, Introduction to the Sociology of Islam, pg. 236–237. London: Williams and Norgate, 1931–1933.
    *Chiragh Ali, The Proposed Political, Legal and Social Reforms. Taken from Modernist Islam 1840–1940: A Sourcebook, pg. 280. Edited by Charles Kurzman. New York City: Oxford University Press, 2002.
    *Mansoor Moaddel, Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse, pg. 32. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
    *Keith Hodkinson, Muslim Family Law: A Sourcebook, pg. 39. Beckenham: Croom Helm Ltd., Provident House, 1984.
    *Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, edited by Hisham Ramadan, pg. 18. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.
    *Christopher Roederrer and Darrel Moellendorf [de], Jurisprudence, pg. 471. Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd., 2007.
    *Nicolas Aghnides, Islamic Theories of Finance, pg. 69. New Jersey: Gorgias Press LLC, 2005.
    *Kojiro Nakamura, "Ibn Mada's Criticism of Arab Grammarians." Orient, v. 10, pgs. 89–113. 1974
  22. ^ Nadwi, Sayyid Ijteba. Nuqoosh-e-Tabinda. (in Urdu) (1994 First ed). Jamia Nagar: Dar Irnaws p. 254
  23. ^ "The Leading Fiqh Scholars (Founders of the four schools of Fiqh)".
  24. ^ a b Imām-ul-A’zam Abū Ḥanīfah, The Theologian
  25. ^ http://www.islamicinformationcentre.co.uk/alsunna7.htm last accessed June 8, 2011
  26. ^ "Imam-ul-A'zam Abū Ḥanīfah, The Theologian". Masud.co.uk. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  27. ^ a b Magill, Frank Northen (January 1, 1998). Dictionary of World Biography: The Middle Ages. Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 9781579580414.
  28. ^ Magill, Frank Northen (January 1, 1998). Dictionary of World Biography: The Middle Ages. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 9781579580414.
  29. ^ Hallaq, Wael B. (January 1, 2005). The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 159. ISBN 9780521005807.
  30. ^ Waines, David (November 6, 2003). An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge University Press. p. 66. ISBN 9780521539067.
  31. ^ Houtsma, M. Th (January 1, 1993). E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. BRILL. p. 840. ISBN 9004097902.
  32. ^ Esposito, John (2017). "The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims" (PDF). The Muslim 500. p. 32. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
  33. ^ Camilla Adang, "This Day I have Perfected Your Religion For You: A Zahiri Conception of Religious Authority," p.33. Taken from Speaking for Islam: Religious Authorities in Muslim Societies. Ed. Gudrun Krämer and Sabine Schmidtke. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2006
  34. ^ Ignác Goldziher, The Zahiris, pg. 15. Volume 3 of Brill Classics in Islam. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2008. ISBN 9789004162419
  35. ^ Wensick, A.J. (1932). The Muslim Creed. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 125.
  36. ^ Zubair Ali ZaiIs Fiqh ul-Akbar Imaam Abu Haneefah's book. Taken from The Story of the Fabricated book and the Rabbaanee Scholars, pg. 19–20. Trns. Abu Hibbaan and Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari.
  37. ^ a b Ibn Yusuf Mangera, Mufti Abdur-Rahman (November 2007). Imam Abu Hanifa's Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar Explained (First ed.). California, USA: White Thread Press. pp. 24–35. ISBN 978-1-933764-03-0.
References Wikiquote has quotations related to: Abu Hanifa
  • al-Quduri, Ahmad ibn Muhammad (2010). Mukhtasar al-Quduri. Translated by Tahir Mahmood al-Kiani (First ed.). Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd. ISBN 1842001183.
  • Nu'mani, Shibli (1998). Imām Abū Ḥanīfah – Life and Works. Translated by M. Hadi Hussain. Islamic Book Service, New Delhi. ISBN 81-85738-59-9.
  • Abdur-Rahman ibn Yusuf, Imam Abu Hanifa's Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar Explained
External links
  • The Life of Imam Abu Hanifa Biography at Lost Islamic History
  • Imam Abu Hanifa by Jamil Ahmad
  • Al-Wasiyyah of Imam Abu Hanifah Translated into English by Shaykh Imam Tahir Mahmood al-Kiani
  • Book on Imam e Azam Abu Hanifa (Urdu)
  • Abu Hanifa on Muslim heritage
  • Imām Abū Ḥanīfah By Shiekh G. F. Haddad
  • Some teachers and students of Imam Abu Hanifa
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(Wasil ibn 'Ata')
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(Ibn Maymūn)
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Key booksSunni books
  • Al-Baz al-Ashhab
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  • Al-Milal wa al-Nihal
  • Al-Irshad
  • Al-Aqidah al-Tahawiyyah
  • Al-Sawad al-A'zam
  • Kitab al-Tawhid
  • Tabsirat al-Adilla
  • The Moderation in Belief
Shia books
  • Tajrid al-I'tiqad
  • Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity
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Jama’ahAhl al-Hadith
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(Hasan ibn
ibn al-
  • Abū ʿAbdillāh Muḥāmmad ibn Karrām ibn Arrāk ibn Huzāba ibn al-Barā’ as-Sijjī
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Other sects
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    • Muhammad ibn Ziyād al-Kūfī
Other Murjīs
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      • Muʿāmmar ibn Ahmar
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      • Umayr ibn Bayān al-ʿIjlī
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      • Mufāddāl ibn Umār as-Sāyrāfī
    • Ghurābīyya
  • Mānsūrīyya
    • Abū Mānsūr al-ʿIjlī
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    • Abū Abdillāh Mugīre ibn Sāīd al-ʿIjlī el-Bajalī
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  • Saba'īyya
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  • Baba Ishak – Babai revolt
  • Balım Sultan – Bektashi Order
  • Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu – Rifa`i / Galibi Order
  • Mā’marīyya
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    • Bishriyya
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      • Abū Abdi’l-Lāh Ahmad ibn Abī Du'ad Faraj ibn Carīr ibn Mâlik al-Iyādī
  • Bahshamiyya
    • Abū Hāshīm Abdu’s-Salām ibn Muḥāmmad ibn Abdi’l-Wahhāb al-Jubbā'ī
  • Huzaylīyya
    • Abū’l-Huzayl Muḥāmmad ibn al-Huzayl ibn Abdillāh al-Allāf al-Abdī al-Bāsrī
      • Abū Ma‘n Sūmāma ibn Ashras an-Nūmayrī al-Bāsrī al-Baghdādī
  • Ikhshīdiyya
  • Nazzāmīyya
    • Ali al-Aswarī
    • Abū Bakr Muḥāmmad ibn Abdillāh ibn Shabīb al-Basrī
    • Hābītīyya
      • Ahmad ibn Hābīt
  • Sumamīyya
    • Sumāma ibn Ashras
  • Kā‘bīyya
    • Abū’l-Kāsīm Abdullāh ibn Ahmad ibn Māhmūd al-Balhī al-Kā‘bī
  • Ahle Qur'an
  • Kala Kato
  • Tolu-e-Islam
    • Muhammad Iqbal
    • Ghulam Ahmed Pervez
  • United Submitters International
    • Rashad Khalifa
    • Edip Yüksel
  • Ahmadiyya
    • Mirza Ghulam
  • Kabbalist Dönmes
    • Sabbatai Zevi – Sabbatean
  • Mahdavīyya
    • Muhammad Jaunpuri – Zikris
  • Nation of Islam
    • Wallace Fard Muhammad's doctrine
  • Nur movement
    • Said Nursî / Fethullah Gülen – Hizmet
  • Modernist Salafism
    • Muhammad Abduh
    • Muhammad Asad
    • Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani
    • Rashid Rida
    • Other Islamic modernists
  • Ṭarīqah
    • Ahmed Raza Khan – Barelvi
    • Hilmi Tunahan – Süleymancı
    • Other orders
  • Tawassul
Other beliefs
  • Sadaqah
  • Sunnah
  • Taqwa
  • Tawakkul
  • Tewafuq
  • Thawab
  • Other scholars of Sunni schools of jurisprudence:
  • Hanafi
  • Hanbali
  • Maliki
  • Shafi'i
  • Zahiri
  • v
  • t
  • e
Muslim scholars of the Hanafi School
  • by century (AH
  • CE)
  • Abu Hanifa (founder of the school)
  • Abdullah ibn Mubarak
  • Abu Yusuf
  • Muhammad al-Shaybani
  • Yahya ibn Ma'in
  • Al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi
  • Abu Mansur al-Maturidi
  • Al-Tahawi
  • Isa ibn Aban
  • Yahya ibn Aktham
  • Al-Ḫaṣṣāf
  • Al-Hakim al-Samarqandi
  • Abu al-Layth al-Samarqandi
  • Al-Jassas
  • Ali Hujwiri
  • Sarakhsi
  • Abu al-Yusr al-Bazdawi
  • Abu al-Mu'in al-Nasafi
  • Abu Ishaq al-Saffar al-Bukhari
  • Abu Hafs Umar al-Nasafi
  • Siraj al-Din al-Ushi
  • Nur al-Din al-Sabuni
  • Jamal al-Din al-Ghaznawi
  • Burhan al-Din al-Marghinani
  • Rumi
  • Taftazani
  • Akmal al-Din al-Babarti
  • Badr al-Din al-Ayni
  • Ibn Abi al-Izz
  • Shams al-Din al-Fanari
  • Shams al-Din al-Samarqandi
  • Uthman bin Ali Zayla'i
  • Al-Sharif al-Jurjani
  • 'Ala' al-Din al-Bukhari
  • Ali Qushji
  • Khidr Bey
  • Ali al-Qari
  • Ahmad Sirhindi
  • Abdul-Haqq Dehlavi
  • Shihab al-Din al-Khafaji
  • Ebussuud Efendi
  • Ibn Kemal
  • Ibrāhīm al-Ḥalabī
  • Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi
  • Khayr al-Din al-Ramli
  • Qazi Syed Rafi Mohammad
  • Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi
  • Murtada al-Zabidi
  • Qazi Syed Inayatullah
  • Qazi Syed Mohammad Rafi
  • Qazi Syed Mohammad Zaman
  • Shah Waliullah Dehlawi
  • Shah Abdul Aziz
  • Syed Ahmad Barelvi
  • Shah Ismail Dehlvi
  • Syed Hayatullah
  • Abd Allah ibn Abbas ibn Siddiq
  • Al-Maydani
  • Abd al-Hayy al-Lucknawi
  • Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi
  • Naeem-ud-Deen Muradabadi
  • Abdul Hamid Qadri Badayuni
  • Amjad Ali Aazmi
  • Mustafa Raza Khan Qadri
  • Arshadul Qaudri
  • Haji Dost Muhammad Qandhari
  • Ibn Abidin
  • Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri
  • Meher Ali Shah
  • Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
  • Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi
  • Muhammad Yaqub Nanautawi
  • Shibli Nomani
  • Hamiduddin Farahi
  • Yusuf Ma Dexin
  • Ashraf Ali Thanwi
  • Hussain Ahmed Madani
  • Anwar Shah Kashmiri
  • Shabbir Ahmad Usmani
  • Muhammad Ilyas Kandhlawi
  • Muhammad Zakariyya al-Kandhlawi
  • Mahmud al-Hasan
  • Abd Allah Siraj
  • Abul A'la Maududi
  • Amin Ahsan Islahi
  • Abdul Hamid Qadri Badayuni
  • Abdul Haq Akorwi
  • Sheikh Abubakr Ahmad
  • Abul Hasan Ali Hasani Nadwi
  • Akhtar Raza Khan
  • Arshadul Qaudri
  • Asad Muhammad Saeed as-Sagharji
  • Azizul Haque
  • Faraz Rabbani
  • Ghulam Rasool Jamaati
  • Hamid Raza Khan
  • Iftikhar-ul-Hasan Kandhlawi
  • Inamul Hasan Kandhlawi
  • Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi
  • Muhammad Abdul Malek
  • Muhammad Idrees Dahiri
  • Muhammad Masihullah Khan
  • Muhammad Taqi Usmani
  • Muhammad Yusuf Kandhlawi
  • Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari
  • Muhammad Abu Zahra
  • Muntakhib al-Haqq
  • Mustafa Raza Khan Qadri
  • Nurul Islam Farooqi
  • Qamaruzzaman Azmi
  • Qazi Mian Muhammad Amjad
  • Shabbir Ahmad Usmani
  • Shah Saeed Ahmed Raipuri
  • Syed Shujaat Ali Qadri
  • Yusuf Motala
  • Maulana Zubair ul Hassan
  • Muhammad Karam Shah al-Azhari
  • Shah Ahmad Noorani
Scholars of other Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence
  • Hanbali
  • Maliki
  • Shafi'i
  • Zahiri
  • v
  • t
  • e
People of KhorasanScientists
  • Abu Hatam Isfizari
  • Abu Maʿshar
  • Abu Wafa
  • Abu Ubayd Juzjani
  • Abu Zayd Balkhi
  • Alfraganus
  • Ali Qushji
  • Avicenna
  • Birjandi
  • Biruni
  • Hasib Marwazi
  • Ibn Hayyan
  • Abu Ja'far al-Khazin
  • Khazini
  • Khojandi
  • Khwarizmi
  • Nasawi
  • Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
  • Omar Khayyam
  • Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī
  • Sijzi
  • Algazel
  • Amiri
  • Avicenna
  • Farabi
  • Haji Bektash Veli
  • Nasir Khusraw
  • Sijistani
  • Shahrastani
Islamic scholars
  • Abu Dawood
  • Abu Hanifa
  • Ansari
  • Baghavi
  • Bayhaqi
  • Bazdawi
  • Bukhari
  • Ghazali
  • Hakim Nishapuri
  • Ibn Tayfour Sajawandi
  • Juwayni
  • Marghinani
  • Maturidi
  • Ibn Mubarak
  • Mulla al-Qari
  • Muqatil
  • Muslim
  • Nasafi
  • Nasa'i
  • Qushayri
  • Razi
  • Siraj ud-Din Sajawandi
  • Sarakhsi
  • Shaykh Tusi
  • Taftazani
  • Tha'labi Nishapuri
  • Tirmidhi
  • Zamakhshari
Poets and artists
  • Abū-Sa'īd Abul-Khayr
  • Anvari
  • Aruzi Samarqandi
  • Asadi Tusi
  • Attar Nishapuri
  • Behzad
  • Daqiqi
  • Farrukhi Sistani
  • Ferdowsi
  • Jami
  • Nasir Khusraw
  • Rabia Balkhi
  • Rudaki
  • Rumi
  • Sanā'ī
Historians and
political scientists
  • Abu'l-Fadl Bayhaqi
  • Abu'l-Hasan Isfaraini
  • Abu'l-Ma'ali Nasrallah
  • Abu Muslim Khorasani
  • Abu Sa'id Gardezi
  • Ali-Shir Nava'i
  • Ata-Malik Juvayni
  • Aufi
  • Muhammad Bal'ami
  • Gawhar Shad
  • Ibn Khordadbeh
  • Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani
  • Khalid ibn Barmak
  • Nizam al-Mulk
  • Tahir ibn Husayn
  • Yahya Barmaki
  • Ahmad ibn Nizam al-Mulk
  • Shihab al-Nasawi
Authority control
  • BNF: cb16251130t (data)
  • GND: 11899204X
  • ISNI: 0000 0001 1577 0954
  • LCCN: n82031776
  • NTA: 073542784
  • SELIBR: 175991
  • SUDOC: 119722321
  • TDVİA: ebu-hanife
  • VIAF: 88126052
  • WorldCat Identities: lccn-n82031776



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