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Morris Dees
Morris Seligman Dees, Jr. (born December 16, 1936) is an American attorney who is known as the co-founder and chief trial counsel for the Southern Poverty

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Morris DeesDees in 2015BornMorris Seligman Dees Jr.
(1936-12-16) December 16, 1936 (age 82)
Shorter, Alabama, U.S.[1]ResidenceMontgomery, Alabama, U.S.OccupationCivil and political rights, social justice activist

Morris Seligman Dees, Jr. (born December 16, 1936) is an American attorney who is known as the co-founder and chief trial counsel for the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), based in Montgomery, Alabama. He is a former market engineer for book publishing.[2] Along with his law partner, Joseph J. Levin Jr., Dees founded the SPLC in 1971.[3] Dees and his colleagues at the SPLC have been "credited with devising innovative ways to cripple hate groups" such as the Ku Klux Klan, particularly by using "damage litigation".[4] On March 14, 2019 the SPLC announced that Dees had been fired from the organization and that the SPLC would be hiring an "outside organization" to assess the SPLC's workplace climate.[5][6]

Contents
  • 1 Early life
  • 2 Marketing career
  • 3 Civil rights legal practice
  • 4 Civil lawsuit strategy
  • 5 Criticism
  • 6 Target of violence
  • 7 Political activity
  • 8 Awards and recognition
  • 9 Representation in other media
  • 10 Bibliography
  • 11 Footnotes
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links
Early life

Dees was born in 1936 in Shorter, Alabama, the son of Annie Ruth (Frazer) and Morris Seligman Dees, Sr., tenant cotton farmers.[2][7] His family was Baptist.[8] His grandfather named his son as "Morris Seligman" after a Jewish friend.[9] After graduating magna cum laude from the University of Alabama School of Law in 1960,[10] Dees returned to Montgomery, Alabama, where he opened a law office.

Marketing career

Dees ran a book publishing business, Fuller & Dees Marketing Group. After what Dees described in his autobiography as "a night of soul searching at a snowed-in Cincinnati airport" in 1967, he sold the company in 1969 to Times Mirror, the parent company of the Los Angeles Times. While major civil rights legislation had been passed, Dees knew there were many injustices and organizations that continued to oppose minority rights. He used the revenue from the sale to found the Southern Poverty Law Center in 1971.[11] Dees's former partner Millard Fuller founded Habitat for Humanity International in 1976. He served there in executive roles until 2005.

Civil rights legal practice

In his 1991 autobiography[12] Dees wrote that in 1962, as a young lawyer, he had represented Ku Klux Klan member Claude Henley, who faced Federal charges for attacking Freedom Riders in an incident documented by a Life magazine photographer. When Dees learned that another lawyer had asked for $15,000 to represent Henley, Dees offered to do the job for $5,000, which was roughly the median household salary in America at the time. Dees's defense helped Henley gain an acquittal. But Dees said he later had an "epiphany" and regretted defending Henley.

In 1969, Dees sued the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) in Montgomery, Alabama, at the request of African-American civil rights activist Mary Louise Smith. She said that her son Vincent and nephew Edward[13] had been refused admission to attend a YMCA summer camp.[14] The YMCA was a private organization and therefore not bound by the provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964,[15] which prohibited racial discrimination in public facilities.[16]

But Dees discovered that, in order to avoid desegregating its recreational facilities,[14] the city of Montgomery had signed a secret agreement with the YMCA to operate them as private facilities and on the city's behalf.[16] He introduced evidence of this agreement in court and challenged the constitutionality of the YMCA position. The trial court ruled that the YMCA effectively had a "municipal charter" by this agreement with the city, and was therefore bound by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (and Civil Rights Act) to desegregate its facilities.[17] According to historian Timothy Minchin, Dees was "emboldened by this victory" when he founded the SPLC in 1971.[16] The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit(α) later affirmed the trial judge's finding, reversing only his order that the YMCA use affirmative action to racially integrate its board of directors.[18]

Civil lawsuit strategy

Dees was one of the principal architects of an innovative strategy that entailed using litigation through civil lawsuits in order to secure a court judgment for monetary damages against an organization for a wrongful act. The courts seized organization assets (money, land, buildings, other property) in order to gain payment of the judgment.

SPLC lawyers have used this legal strategy to hold different factions of the Ku Klux Klan accountable for the actions of their members. In 1981, Dees successfully sued the United Klans of America and won a $7 million judgment for the mother of Michael Donald, an African American who had been lynched by UKA members in Alabama.[19][20] Payment of the judgment bankrupted the United Klans of America and resulted in its national headquarters being sold to help satisfy the judgment. All funds secured in this manner were paid to the family of the deceased.[citation needed]

A decade later, in 1991, Dees obtained a judgment of $12 million against Tom Metzger's White Aryan Resistance.[19] He was also instrumental in securing a $6.5 million judgment in 2001 against the Aryan Nations. Dees's most famous cases have involved landmark damage awards that have driven several prominent neo-Nazi groups into bankruptcy, effectively causing them to disband. They have sometimes re-organized under different names and different leaders.

Criticism

Dees' critics have included the Montgomery Advertiser, which has portrayed his work with the SPLC as self-promotional, contending that Dees exaggerates the threat of hate groups.[4] A 2000 article by Ken Silverstein in Harper's Magazine alleged that Dees kept the SPLC focused on fighting anti-minority groups such as the KKK, instead of focusing on issues like homelessness, mostly because of the greater fundraising potential of the former. The article also claimed that the SPLC "spends twice as much on fund-raising – $5.76 million last year – as it does on legal services for victims of civil rights abuses."[21] Stephen Bright, an Atlanta-based civil rights attorney and president of the Southern Center for Human Rights, wrote in 2007 that Dees was "a con man and fraud", who "has taken advantage of naive, well-meaning people – some of moderate or low incomes – who believe his pitches and give to his $175-million operation."[22]

These comments were made after a controversy pitting Dees against much of the civil rights community in his support of the nomination of Edward E. Carnes to be a Federal appeals court judge. Carnes was a well-known proponent of the death penalty, which has been shown to be disproportionately applied as a sentence against African-American men.[23]

Target of violence

Dees's legal actions against racial nationalist groups have made him a target of many of these organizations. He has received numerous death threats from some of these groups.[24] In 2007 Dees said that more than 30 people had been jailed in connection with plots to either kill him or blow up the center.[25] The Montgomery Advertiser reported that a July 29, 2007 letter on such a plot was sent by Hal Turner, a radio talk show host, paid FBI informant and white supremacist, after the SPLC filed a lawsuit against the Imperial Klans of America (IKA) in Meade County, Kentucky.[25] During the IKA trial a former member of the IKA said that the Klan head told him to kill Dees.[26] Morris Dees and William F. McMurry represented the plaintiff in the trial against the IKA in November 2008.[27]

Political activity

Dees started in politics by working in 1958 for Southern politician George Wallace, later governor of Alabama.[28] Indicating his change of direction, in 1972 he served as Senator George McGovern's national finance director,[29] in 1976 as President Jimmy Carter's national finance director, and in 1980 as national finance chairman for Senator Ted Kennedy's Democratic primary presidential campaign against Carter.[30]

In 2004 Dees ran for the board of the Sierra Club as a protest candidate, qualifying by petition.[31]

Awards and recognition
  • In 1993 he received the Salem Award for Human Rights and Social Justice.[32]
  • In 2006, the law firm of Skadden Arps partnered with the University of Alabama School of Law to create the Morris Dees Justice Award in honor of Dees, an Alabama graduate. The award is given annually to a lawyer who has "devoted his or her career to serving the public interest and pursuing justice, and whose work has brought positive change in the community, state or nation".[33]
  • The American Bar Association awarded Dees the ABA Medal, the association's highest honor, during a meeting of the ABA House of Delegates on August 7, 2012.[34]
  • In addition, on March 4, 2016 Dees received the Martin Luther King Jr. Nonviolent Peace Prize, the highest award given by the King Center for Nonviolent Social Change. The award recognizes Dees' achievements in fighting racism and his commitment to nonviolence.[35]

In the early 21st century, Dees has presented numerous lectures on civil rights and justice at universities.[36][37][38] In 2009, he was the keynote speaker at the graduation ceremony for San Francisco State University.[39] He was identified as a Freedom hero by The My Hero Project.[40]

Representation in other media

The TV movie entitled Line of Fire: The Morris Dees Story (1991) dramatized his campaigns against white supremacist hate groups.[41]

He published his autobiography A Season for Justice (1991) that same year. It was updated in 2003 with new material about his case against the Aryan Nations in Idaho, and reissued as A Lawyer's Journey: The Morris Dees Story, in a biographical series published by the American Bar Association.

Dees's work was featured on the National Geographic's Inside American Terror in 2008.[42]

Bibliography
  • Dees, Morris and Steve Fiffer (2003). A Lawyer's Journey: The Morris Dees Story. Chicago: American Bar Association. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}ISBN 1-57073-994-3.
  • Dees, Morris (1997). Gathering Storm: America's Militia Threat. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-092789-5.
  • Dees, Morris, and Steve Fiffer. (1993) Hate on Trial: The Case Against America's Most Dangerous Neo-Nazi. New York: Villard Books. ISBN 0-679-40614-X.
  • Dees, Morris; Steve Fiffer (1991). A Season for Justice: The Life and Times of Civil Rights Lawyer Morris Dees. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-19189-X.
Footnotes
  1. ^ "SPLCenter.org: Morris Dees Biography". Southern Poverty Law Center. 2009. Archived from the original on February 6, 2009. Retrieved May 25, 2009.
  2. ^ a b "Attorney Morris Dees pioneer in using 'damage litigation' to fight hate groups". CNN. September 8, 2000. Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved August 17, 2007.
  3. ^ Dees, Morris, and Steve Fiffer. 1991. A Season For Justice. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 132–33. ISBN 0-684-19189-X
  4. ^ a b Sack, Kevin (May 12, 1996). "A Son of Alabama Takes On Americans Who Live to Hate". The New York Times.
  5. ^ Associated Press (March 14, 2019). "Civil rights organization announces dismissal of founder". Washington Post.
  6. ^ Brown, Melissa (March 14, 2019). "Southern Poverty Law Center fires co-founder Morris Dees". Montgomery Adviser.
  7. ^ Monroe, Carla R. "Morris Dees | biography – American civil rights lawyer". Britannica.com. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
  8. ^ "Morris Dees: Biography: Family History and Childhood". Learntoquestion.com. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
  9. ^ "People's Lawyers: Crusaders for Justice in American History – Diana Klebanow, Franklin L. Jonas". Books.google.ca. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
  10. ^ Legends. University of Alabama. Accessed April 24, 2017
  11. ^ Kent, Francis B (December 14, 1975). "Poverty Law Center Scores in South". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
  12. ^ Dees, Morris (1991). A Season for Justice: The Life and Times of Civil Rights Lawyer Morris Dees (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, ISBN 978-0-671-77875-0, pp. 84–85
  13. ^ Dees and Fiffer (1991) p. 108
  14. ^ a b Robert Heinrich (2008). Montgomery: The Civil Rights Movement and Its Legacies. Ph.D. dissertation. Brandeis University. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-549-69927-9.
  15. ^ YMCA desegregation ruling turns 40, The Louisiana Weekly, July 26, 2010. Retrieved December 9, 2010; URL replaced with version archived December 20, 2010.
  16. ^ a b c Timothy Minchin (March 25, 2011). After the Dream: Black and White Southerners since 1965. University Press of Kentucky. p. 68. ISBN 0-8131-2988-5.
  17. ^ Paul Finkelman (October 10, 2006). Encyclopedia of American Civil Liberties. Taylor & Francis. p. 4836. ISBN 978-1-135-94704-0. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
  18. ^ Dees and Fiffer (1991), p. 125
  19. ^ a b Andrea Stone, "Morris Dees: At the Center of the Racial Storm," USA Today, August 3, 1996, A-7.
  20. ^ "The Nation Klan Must Pay $7 Million". Los Angeles Times. February 13, 1987. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  21. ^ Ken Silverstein, "The church of Morris Dees: How the Southern Poverty Law Center profits from intolerance", 'Harper's Magazine, November 2000
  22. ^ Ken Silverstein, "The Southern Poverty Business Model", Harper's Magazine blog, November 2, 2007
  23. ^ Smothers, Ronald (September 9, 1992). "Judicial Nomination Sunders Old Allies". The New York Times. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
  24. ^ "Group is accused of plotting assassinations, bombings. 2 others will plead guilty Thursday." St Louis Post-Dispatch (MO) (May 13, 1998): pB1.
  25. ^ a b Klass, Kym (August 17, 2007). "Southern Poverty Law Center beefs up security". Montgomery Advertiser. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  26. ^ "Former member: Ky. Klan plotted to kill attorney". Associated Press. November 13, 2008. Retrieved September 18, 2007.[dead link]
  27. ^ "Jordan Gruver v. Imperial Klans of America". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  28. ^ Bill Morlin (January 26, 1999). "Targeted by hate groups, Dees also has their number". The Spokesman-Review. p. A4.
  29. ^ Stone, Andrea (August 3, 1996). "Morris Dees: At center of the racial storm". USA Today. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  30. ^ Shogan, Robert (October 28, 1979). "Kennedy to Tell Candidacy Prior to Thanksgiving". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 17, 2007.
  31. ^ "Morris Dees' Sierra Club candidate statement seeks tolerance". Southern Poverty Law Center. January 22, 2004. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
  32. ^
  33. ^ "About the Award", The Morris Dees Justice Award, University of Alabama School of Law. 2007. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 10, 2007. Retrieved August 19, 2007.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  34. ^ Weiss, Debra Cassens (August 7, 2012). "Civil Rights Activist Morris Dees Receives ABA Medal". ABA Journal Law News Now. American Bar Association. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  35. ^ "The King Center". The Nonviolent Peace Prize Award. The King Center. Retrieved December 23, 2016.
  36. ^ "Morris Dees Speaking". Emporia State University. 2006. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  37. ^ "Civil Rights Legend Morris Dees to Discuss Litigating Against Hate Groups". University of Texas at Austin. March 2007. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2009.
  38. ^ "Morris Dees to speak on "The Current Status of Hate Groups in the United States"". University of Michigan. March 2007. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  39. ^ Zinko, Carolyne (May 23, 2009). "Civil rights icons lead S.F. State graduation". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 25, 2009.
  40. ^ "Morris Seligman Dees". The My Hero Project. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
  41. ^ Line of Fire: The Morris Dees Story, 1991, retrieved October 12, 2016
  42. ^ "Micheal McDonald clip on KKK: Inside American Terror". National Geographic. 2008. Archived from the original on October 30, 2008. Retrieved November 18, 2008.
References
  • Dees, Morris, and Steve Fiffer. 1991. A Season For Justice, (Dees' autobiography) New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-19189-X
  • Egerton, John (July 14, 1988). "Poverty Palace: How the Southern Poverty Law Center got rich fighting the Klan". The Progressive. Madison, Wis.: 14–17. ISSN 0033-0736. OCLC 757703819.
    • Also published as Egerton, John (May–June 1988). "The klan basher". Foundation News. Foundation Center: 38–43. (Archived at Special Collections and University Archives Jean and Alexander Heard Library Vanderbilt University)
  • Hall, Dave, Tym Burkey and Katherine M. Ramsland. 2008. Into the Devil's Den. New York: Ballantine. ISBN 978-0-345-49694-2
External links Wikiquote has quotations related to: Morris Dees

Official

  • Southern Poverty Law Center – Official website
  • Morris Dees: Center founder and chief trial counsel – Official website

Other

  • Appearances on C-SPAN
  • Morris Dees on IMDb
  • Line of Fire: The Morris Dees Story on IMDb
  • Line of Fire: The Morris Dees Story at the TCM Movie Database
Authority control
  • ISNI: 0000 0000 8475 3739
  • LCCN: n90707904
  • SNAC: w6c0090z
  • SUDOC: 085771112
  • VIAF: 114774691
  • WorldCat Identities (via VIAF): 114774691


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