Ravi Shankar
Ravi Shankar
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Ravi Shankar
Ravi Shankar (IPA: [ˈrɔbi ˈʃɔŋkɔr]; 7 April 1920 – 11 December 2012), born Rabindra Shankar Chowdhury, his name often preceded by the title Pandit (Master)

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For other people named Ravi Shankar, see Ravi Shankar (disambiguation).

Pandit
Ravi Shankar Shankar performing at Woodstock in 1969Background informationBirth name Rabindra Shankar ChowdhuryBorn (1920-04-07)7 April 1920
Benares, Benares State, British Raj
(now Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, Republic of India)Died 11 December 2012(2012-12-11) (aged 92)
San Diego, California, United StatesGenres Indian classical musicOccupation(s)
  • Musician
  • composer
Instruments
  • Sitar
  • vocals
Years active 1930–2012Labels
  • World Pacific
  • Angel
  • HMV
  • Apple
  • Dark Horse
  • Private Music
  • East Meets West Music[1]
Associated acts
  • Uday Shankar
  • Allauddin Khan
  • Ali Akbar Khan
  • Lakshmi Shankar
  • Yehudi Menuhin
  • Chatur Lal
  • Alla Rakha
  • George Harrison
  • Anoushka Shankar
  • Norah Jones
  • John Coltrane
Website ravishankar.org

Ravi Shankar (IPA: ; 7 April 1920 – 11 December 2012), born Rabindra Shankar Chowdhury,[2] his name often preceded by the title Pandit (Master), was an Indian musician and a composer of Hindustani classical music. He was one of the best-known proponents of the sitar in the second half of the 20th century and influenced many other musicians throughout the world. In 1999, Shankar was awarded India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna.

Shankar was born to a Bengali family in India,[3] and spent his youth touring India and Europe with the dance group of his brother Uday Shankar. He gave up dancing in 1938 to study sitar playing under court musician Allauddin Khan. After finishing his studies in 1944, Shankar worked as a composer, creating the music for the Apu Trilogy by Satyajit Ray, and was music director of All India Radio, New Delhi, from 1949 to 1956.

In 1956, Shankar began to tour Europe and the Americas playing Indian classical music and increased its popularity there in the 1960s through teaching, performance, and his association with violinist Yehudi Menuhin and Beatles guitarist George Harrison. His influence on the latter helped popularize the use of Indian instruments in pop music throughout the 1960s. Shankar engaged Western music by writing compositions for sitar and orchestra, and toured the world in the 1970s and 1980s. From 1986 to 1992, he served as a nominated member of Rajya Sabha, the upper chamber of the Parliament of India. He continued to perform until the end of his life.

Contents
  • 1 Early life
  • 2 Career
    • 2.1 Training and work in India
    • 2.2 1956–69: International performances
    • 2.3 1970–2012: International performances
    • 2.4 Collaboration with George Harrison
  • 3 Style and contributions
  • 4 Recognition
    • 4.1 Indian governmental honours
    • 4.2 Other governmental and academic honours
    • 4.3 Arts awards
    • 4.4 Other honours and tributes
  • 5 Personal life and family
  • 6 Illness and death
  • 7 Discography
  • 8 Books
  • 9 Notes
  • 10 References
  • 11 Bibliography
  • 12 External links
Early life

Shankar was born on 7 April 1920 in Benares, then the capital of the eponymous princely state, in a Bengali family, as the youngest of seven brothers.[2][4][5] His father, Shyam Shankar Chowdhury, was a Middle Temple barrister and scholar from East Bengal (now Bangladesh). A respected statesman, lawyer and politician, he served for several years as dewan (Prime minister) of Jhalawar, Rajasthan, and used the Sanskrit spelling of the family name and removed its last part.[2][6] Shyam was married to Hemangini Devi who hailed from a small village named Nasrathpur in Mardah block of Ghazipur district, near Benares and his father was a prosperous landlord. Shyam later worked as a lawyer in London, England,[2] and there he married a second time while Devi raised Shankar in Benares, and did not meet his son until he was eight years old.[2] Shankar shortened the Sanskrit version of his first name, Ravindra, to Ravi, for "sun".[2] Shankar had five siblings: Uday (who became a famous choreographer and dancer), Rajendra, Debendra and Bhupendra. Shankar attended the Bengalitola High School in Benares between 1927 and 1928.[7]

At the age of ten, after spending his first decade in Benares, Shankar went to Paris with the dance group of his brother, choreographer Uday Shankar.[8][9] By the age of 13 he had become a member of the group, accompanied its members on tour and learned to dance and play various Indian instruments.[4][5] Uday's dance group toured Europe and the United States in the early to mid-1930s and Shankar learned French, discovered Western classical music, jazz, cinema and became acquainted with Western customs.[10] Shankar heard Allauddin Khan – the lead musician at the court of the princely state of Maihar – play at a music conference in December 1934 in Calcutta, and Uday convinced the Maharaja of Maihar in 1935 to allow Khan to become his group's soloist for a tour of Europe.[10] Shankar was sporadically trained by Khan on tour, and Khan offered Shankar training to become a serious musician under the condition that he abandon touring and come to Maihar.[10]

Career Training and work in India Shankar at a meeting with Satyajit Ray for the sound production of Pather Panchali (1955)

Shankar's parents had died by the time he returned from the European tour, and touring the West had become difficult because of political conflicts that would lead to World War II.[11] Shankar gave up his dancing career in 1938 to go to Maihar and study Indian classical music as Khan's pupil, living with his family in the traditional gurukul system.[8] Khan was a rigorous teacher and Shankar had training on sitar and surbahar, learned ragas and the musical styles dhrupad, dhamar, and khyal, and was taught the techniques of the instruments rudra veena, rubab, and sursingar.[8][12] He often studied with Khan's children Ali Akbar Khan and Annapurna Devi.[11] Shankar began to perform publicly on sitar in December 1939 and his debut performance was a jugalbandi (duet) with Ali Akbar Khan, who played the string instrument sarod.[13]

Shankar completed his training in 1944.[4] He moved to Mumbai and joined the Indian People's Theatre Association, for whom he composed music for ballets in 1945 and 1946.[4][14] Shankar recomposed the music for the popular song "Sare Jahan Se Achcha" at the age of 25.[15][16] He began to record music for HMV India and worked as a music director for All India Radio (AIR), New Delhi, from February 1949 to January 1956.[4] Shankar founded the Indian National Orchestra at AIR and composed for it; in his compositions he combined Western and classical Indian instrumentation.[17] Beginning in the mid-1950s he composed the music for the Apu Trilogy by Satyajit Ray, which became internationally acclaimed.[5][18] He was music director for several Hindi movies including Godaan and Anuradha.[19]

1956–69: International performances Concert flier, 1967

V. K. Narayana Menon, director of AIR Delhi, introduced the Western violinist Yehudi Menuhin to Shankar during Menuhin's first visit to India in 1952.[20] Shankar had performed as part of a cultural delegation in the Soviet Union in 1954 and Menuhin invited Shankar in 1955 to perform in New York City for a demonstration of Indian classical music, sponsored by the Ford Foundation.[21][22][a]

Shankar heard about the positive response Khan received and resigned from AIR in 1956 to tour the United Kingdom, Germany, and the United States.[24] He played for smaller audiences and educated them about Indian music, incorporating ragas from the South Indian Carnatic music in his performances, and recorded his first LP album Three Ragas in London, released in 1956.[24] In 1958, Shankar participated in the celebrations of the tenth anniversary of the United Nations and UNESCO music festival in Paris.[14] From 1961, he toured Europe, the United States, and Australia, and became the first Indian to compose music for non-Indian films.[14][b] Shankar founded the Kinnara School of Music in Mumbai in 1962.[25]

Shankar befriended Richard Bock, founder of World Pacific Records, on his first American tour and recorded most of his albums in the 1950s and 1960s for Bock's label.[24] The Byrds recorded at the same studio and heard Shankar's music, which led them to incorporate some of its elements in theirs, introducing the genre to their friend George Harrison of the Beatles.[26][27] In 1967, Shankar performed a well-received set at the Monterey Pop Festival.[28][29][30] While complimentary of the talents of several of the rock artists at the festival, he said he was "horrified" to see Jimi Hendrix set fire to his guitar on stage:[31] "That was too much for me. In our culture, we have such respect for musical instruments, they are like part of God."[32] Shankar's live album from Monterey peaked at number 43 on Billboard's pop LPs chart in the US, which remains the highest placing he achieved on that chart.[33]

Shankar won a Grammy Award for Best Chamber Music Performance for West Meets East, a collaboration with Yehudi Menuhin.[34][35][36] He opened a Western branch of the Kinnara School of Music in Los Angeles, in May 1967, and published an autobiography, My Music, My Life, in 1968.[14][25] In 1968, he composed the score for the film Charly.

He performed at the Woodstock Festival in August 1969, and found he disliked the venue.[35] In the late 1960s Shankar distanced himself from the hippie movement and drug culture:[37][38] He explained during an interview:

.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}

It makes me feel rather hurt when I see the association of drugs with our music. The music to us is religion. The quickest way to reach godliness is through music. I don't like the association of one bad thing with the music.[39]

1970–2012: International performances

In October 1970 Shankar became chair of the department of Indian music of the California Institute of the Arts after previously teaching at the City College of New York, the University of California, Los Angeles, and being guest lecturer at other colleges and universities, including the Ali Akbar College of Music.[14][40][41] In late 1970, the London Symphony Orchestra invited Shankar to compose a concerto with sitar. Concerto for Sitar & Orchestra was performed with André Previn as conductor and Shankar playing the sitar.[5][42][c] Shankar performed at the Concert for Bangladesh in August 1971, held at Madison Square Garden in New York. After the musicians had tuned up on stage for over a minute, the crowd of rock-music fans broke into applause, to which the amused Shankar responded: "If you like our tuning so much, I hope you will enjoy the playing more."[44] Although interest in Indian music had decreased in the early 1970s, the live album from the concert became one of the best-selling recordings to feature the genre and won Shankar a second Grammy Award.[36][41]

.mw-parser-output .quotebox{background-color:#F9F9F9;border:1px solid #aaa;box-sizing:border-box;padding:10px;font-size:88%}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatleft{margin:0.5em 1.4em 0.8em 0}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatright{margin:0.5em 0 0.8em 1.4em}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.centered{margin:0.5em auto 0.8em auto}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatleft p,.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatright p{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .quotebox-title{background-color:#F9F9F9;text-align:center;font-size:larger;font-weight:bold}.mw-parser-output .quotebox-quote.quoted:before{font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;font-weight:bold;font-size:large;color:gray;content:" “ ";vertical-align:-45%;line-height:0}.mw-parser-output .quotebox-quote.quoted:after{font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;font-weight:bold;font-size:large;color:gray;content:" ” ";line-height:0}.mw-parser-output .quotebox .left-aligned{text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .quotebox .right-aligned{text-align:right}.mw-parser-output .quotebox .center-aligned{text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .quotebox cite{display:block;font-style:normal}@media screen and (max-width:360px){.mw-parser-output .quotebox{min-width:100%;margin:0 0 0.8em!important;float:none!important}} As for Shankar and the sitar, they are extensions one of the other, each seeming to enter into the other's soul in one of the world's supreme musical arts. It is a thing inimitable, beyond words and forever new. For, as Shankar explained, 90 percent of all the music played was improvised.

Paul Hume,
music editor, Washington Post[45]

Shankar's demanding tour schedule weakened his health, and he suffered a heart attack in Chicago in November 1974, causing him to miss a portion of the tour.[46][d] The touring band visited the White House on invitation of John Gardner Ford, son of US President Gerald Ford.[46] Shankar toured and taught for the remainder of the 1970s and the 1980s and released his second concerto, Raga Mala, conducted by Zubin Mehta, in 1981.[47][48][49] Shankar was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Music Score for his work on the 1982 movie Gandhi. [e]

He performed in Moscow in 1988, and had first been there to play in 1954.[51][52] His 1988 concert was performed with 140 musicians, including the Russian Folk Ensemble and members of the Moscow Philharmonic, along with his own group of Indian musicians.[51]

He served as a member of the Rajya Sabha, the upper chamber of the Parliament of India, from 12 May 1986 to 11 May 1992, after being nominated by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.[16][53] Shankar composed the dance drama Ghanashyam in 1989.[25] His liberal views on musical co-operation led him to contemporary composer Philip Glass, with whom he released an album, Passages, in 1990[8], in a project initiated by Peter Baumann of the band Tangerine Dream).

Shankar performing with Anoushka Shankar in 2007

Because of the positive response to Shankar's 1996 career compilation In Celebration, Shankar wrote a second autobiography, Raga Mala.[54] He performed in between 25 and 40 concerts every year during the late 1990s.[8] Shankar taught his daughter Anoushka Shankar to play sitar and in 1997 became a Regents' Professor at University of California, San Diego.[55][56]

He performed with Anoushka for the BBC in 1997 at the Symphony Hall, Birmingham England.[57] In the 2000s, he won a Grammy Award for Best World Music Album for Full Circle: Carnegie Hall 2000 and toured with Anoushka, who released a book about her father, Bapi: Love of My Life, in 2002.[36][58][f] After Harrison's death in 2001, Mr. Shankar performed at the Concert for George, a celebration of Harrison's music staged at the Royal Albert Hall in London in 2002.[61]

In June 2008, Shankar played what was billed as his last European concert,[37] but his 2011 tour included dates in the United Kingdom.[62][63]

On 1 July 2010, at the Southbank Centre's Royal Festival Hall, London, England, Anoushka Shankar, on sitar, performed with the London Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by David Murphy what was billed the first Symphony by Ravi Shankar.[g]

Collaboration with George Harrison George Harrison, US President Gerald Ford, and Ravi Shankar in the Oval Office in December 1974

Beatles guitarist George Harrison, who was first introduced to Shankar's music by American singers Roger McGuinn and David Crosby,[66]:113 who were big fans of Shankar, became influenced by Shankar's music. He went on to help popularize Shankar and use of Indian instruments in pop music throughout the 1960s.[67] Olivia Harrison explains:

When George heard Indian music, that really was the trigger, it was like a bell that went off in his head. It not only awakened a desire to hear more music, but also to understand what was going on in Indian philosophy. It was a unique diversion.[66]:114

Harrison became interested in Indian classical music, bought a sitar and used it to record the song "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)".[68] In 1968 he went to India to take lessons from Shankar, some of which were captured on film.[69] This led to Indian music being used by other musicians and created the raga rock trend.[68] As the sitar and Indian music grew in popularity, groups such as The Rolling Stones, The Animals and The Byrds began using it in some of their songs.[51] The influence even extended to blues musicians such as Michael Bloomfield, who created a raga-influenced improvisation number, "East-West" (Bloomfield scholars have cited its working title as "The Raga" when Bloomfield and his collaborator Nick Gravenites began to develop the idea) for the Butterfield Blues Band in 1966.

I think Ravi was rather taken aback, because he was a classical musician, and rock and roll was really out of his sphere. He thought it rather amusing that George took to him so much, but he and George really bonded. Ravi realised that it wasn't just a fashion for George, that he had dedication. Ravi had such integrity, and was someone to be respected, and at the same time huge fun. George hadn't really met anyone like that, and he really encouraged his interest.

Patti Boyd[66]:119

Harrison met Shankar in London in June 1966 and visited India later that year for six weeks to study sitar under Shankar in Srinagar.[16][35][70] During the visit, a documentary film about Shankar named Raga was shot by Howard Worth, and released in 1971.[71][72] Shankar's association with Harrison greatly increased Shankar's popularity and Ken Hunt of AllMusic would state that Shankar had become "the most famous Indian musician on the planet" by 1966.[4][35]

George Harrison organized the charity Concert for Bangladesh in August 1971, in which Shankar participated.[35][73] During the 1970s, Shankar and Harrison worked together again, recording Shankar Family & Friends in 1973 and touring North America the following year to a mixed response after Shankar had toured Europe with the Harrison-sponsored Music Festival from India.[74] Shankar wrote a second autobiography, Raga Mala, with Harrison as editor.

Style and contributions Play media Shankar plays the raga Madhuvanti at the Shiraz Arts Festival in Iran in the 1970s

Shankar developed a style distinct from that of his contemporaries and incorporated influences from rhythm practices of Carnatic music.[8] His performances begin with solo alap, jor, and jhala (introduction and performances with pulse and rapid pulse) influenced by the slow and serious dhrupad genre, followed by a section with tabla accompaniment featuring compositions associated with the prevalent khyal style.[8] Shankar often closed his performances with a piece inspired by the light-classical thumri genre.[8]

Shankar has been considered one of the top sitar players of the second half of the 20th century.[43] He popularised performing on the bass octave of the sitar for the alap section and became known for a distinctive playing style in the middle and high registers that used quick and short deviations of the playing string and his sound creation through stops and strikes on the main playing string.[8][43] Narayana Menon of The New Grove Dictionary noted Shankar's liking for rhythmic novelties, among them the use of unconventional rhythmic cycles.[75] Hans Neuhoff of Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart has argued that Shankar's playing style was not widely adopted and that he was surpassed by other sitar players in the performance of melodic passages.[43] Shankar's interplay with Alla Rakha improved appreciation for tabla playing in Hindustani classical music.[43] Shankar promoted the jugalbandi duet concert style and claims to have introduced new ragas Tilak Shyam, Nat Bhairav and Bairagi.[8]

Recognition Ravi Shankar in Delhi in 2009 Indian governmental honours
  • Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1962)[76]
  • Padma Bhushan (1967)[77]
  • Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship (1975)[78]
  • Padma Vibhushan (1981)[77]
  • Kalidas Samman from the Government of Madhya Pradesh for 1987–88[79]
  • Bharat Ratna (1999)[80]
Other governmental and academic honours
  • Ramon Magsaysay Award (1992)[81]
  • Commander of the Legion of Honour of France (2000)[82]
  • Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) by Elizabeth II for "services to music" (2001)[83]
  • Honorary degrees from universities in India and the United States.[14]
  • Honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters
  • Honorary Doctor of Laws from the University of Melbourne, Australia (2010)[84]
Arts awards
  • 1964 fellowship from the John D. Rockefeller 3rd Fund
  • Silver Bear Extraordinary Prize of the Jury at the 1957 Berlin International Film Festival (for composing the music for the movie Kabuliwala).[85]
  • UNESCO International Music Council (1975)
  • Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize (1991)[86]
  • Praemium Imperiale for music from the Japan Art Association (1997)[8]
  • Polar Music Prize (1998)[87]
  • Five Grammy Awards
    • 1967: Best Chamber Music Performance - West Meets East (with Yehudi Menuhin)
    • 1973: Album of the Year - The Concert for Bangladesh (with George Harrison)
    • 2002: Best World Music Album - Full Circle: Carnegie Hall 2000
    • 2013: Best World Music Album - The Living Room Sessions Pt. 1
    • Lifetime Achievement Award received at the 55th Annual Grammy Awards[88]
  • Nominated for an Academy Award.[14][36][50]
  • Posthumous nomination in the 56th Annual Grammy Awards for his album "The Living Room Sessions Part 2".[89]
  • First recipient of the Tagore Award in recognition of his outstanding contribution to cultural harmony and universal values (2013; posthumous)[90]
Other honours and tributes
  • American jazz saxophonist John Coltrane named his son Ravi Coltrane after Shankar.[91]
  • On 7 April 2016 Google published a Google Doodle to honor his work.[92]
Personal life and family

Shankar married Allauddin Khan's daughter Annapurna Devi (Roshanara Khan) in 1941 and their son, Shubhendra Shankar, was born in 1942.[12] He separated from Devi during 1962 and continued a relationship with Kamala Shastri, a dancer, that had begun in the late 1940s.[93]

An affair with Sue Jones, a New York concert producer, led to the birth of Norah Jones in 1979.[93] He separated from Shastri in 1981 and lived with Jones until 1986.

An affair with Sukanya Rajan, whom he had known since the 1970s,[93] led to the birth of their daughter Anoushka Shankar in 1981. In 1989 he married Sukanya Rajan at Chilkur Temple in Hyderabad.[94]

Shankar's son, Shubhendra "Shubho" Shankar, often accompanied him on tours.[95] He could play the sitar and surbahar, but elected not to pursue a solo career. Shubhendra died of pneumonia in 1992.[95]

Ananda Shankar, the experimental fusion musician, is his nephew.

Norah Jones became a successful musician in the 2000s, winning eight Grammy Awards in 2003.[96] Anoushka Shankar was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best World Music Album in 2003.[96] Anoushka and her father were both nominated for Best World Music Album at the 2013 Grammy Awards for separate albums.[97]

Shankar was a Hindu,[98] and a devotee of the Hindu deity, Hanuman. As well, he was an "ardent" devotee of the revered Bengali Hindu saint, Sri Anandamayi Ma. Shankar used to visit Anandamayi Ma frequently and performed for her on various occasions. Shankar wrote of his hometown, Benares (Varanasi), and his initial encounter with "Ma":[99]

"Varanasi is the eternal abode of Lord Shiva, and one of my favorite temples is that of Lord Hanuman, the monkey god. The city is also where one of the miracles that have happened in my life took place: I met Ma Anandamayi, a great spiritual soul. Seeing the beauty of her face and mind, I became her ardent devotee. Sitting at home now in Encinitas, in Southern California, at the age of 88, surrounded by the beautiful greens, multi-colored flowers, blue sky, clean air, and the Pacific Ocean, I often reminisce about all the wonderful places I have seen in the world. I cherish the memories of Paris, New York, and a few other places. But Varanasi seems to be etched in my heart!"

In his later years, Shankar became a vegetarian.[100] He wore a large diamond ring which he said was "manifested" by Sathya Sai Baba.[101] He lived with Sukanya in Encinitas, California.[102]

Shankar performed his final concert, with daughter Anoushka, on 4 November 2012 at the Terrace Theater in Long Beach, California.

Illness and death

On 9 December 2012, Shankar was admitted to Scripps Memorial Hospital in La Jolla, San Diego, California after complaining of breathing difficulties. He died on 11 December 2012 at around 16:30 PST after undergoing heart valve replacement surgery.[103][104]

The Swara Samrat festival, organized on 5–6 January 2013 and dedicated to Ravi Shankar and Ali Akbar Khan, included performances by such musicians as Shivkumar Sharma, Birju Maharaj, Hariprasad Chaurasia, Zakir Hussain, and Girija Devi.[105]

Discography Main article: Ravi Shankar discography Books
  • Shankar, Ravi (1968). My Music, My Life. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-20113-1..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • Shankar, Ravi (1979). Learning Indian Music: A Systematic Approach. Onomatopoeia. OCLC 21376688.
  • Shankar, Ravi (1997). Raga Mala: The Autobiography of Ravi Shankar. Genesis Publications. ISBN 0-904351-46-7.
Notes
  • Indian classical music portal
  1. ^ Shankar declined to attend because of problems in his marriage, but recommended Ali Akbar Khan to play instead.[22] Khan reluctantly accepted and performed with tabla (percussion) player Chatur Lal in the Museum of Modern Art, and he later became the first Indian classical musician to perform on American television and record a full raga performance, for Angel Records.[23]
  2. ^ Chatur Lal accompanied Shankar on tabla until 1962, when Alla Rakha assumed the role.[24]
  3. ^ Hans Neuhoff of Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart has criticized the usage of the orchestra in this concerto as "amateurish".[43]
  4. ^ In his absence, Shankar's sister-in-law, singer Lakshmi Shankar, conducted the touring orchestra.[46]
  5. ^ Shankar lost to John Williams' ET[50]
  6. ^ Anoushka performed a composition by Shankar for the 2002 Harrison memorial Concert for George and Shankar wrote a third concerto for sitar and orchestra for Anoushka and the Orpheus Chamber Orchestra.[59][60]
  7. ^ This performance was recorded and is available on CD.[64] The website of the Ravi Shankar Foundation provides the information that "The symphony was written in Indian notation in 2010, and has been interpreted by his student and conductor, David Murphy."[65] The information available on the website does not explain this process of "interpretation" of Ravi Shankar's notation by David Murphy, nor how Ravi Shankar's Indian notation could accommodate Western orchestral writing.
References
  1. ^ "East Meets West Music & Ravi Shankar Foundation". East Meets West Music, Inc. Ravi Shankar Foundation. 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Lavezzoli 2006, p. 48
  3. ^ "Pandit Ravi Shankar". Cultural India. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Hunt, Ken. "Ravi Shankar – Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
  5. ^ a b c d Massey 1996, p. 159
  6. ^ Ghosh 1983, p. 7
  7. ^ "Shankar, Ravi (Biography)". Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Slawek 2001, pp. 202–203
  9. ^ Ghosh 1983, p. 55
  10. ^ a b c Lavezzoli 2006, p. 50
  11. ^ a b Lavezzoli 2006, p. 51
  12. ^ a b Lavezzoli 2006, p. 52
  13. ^ Lavezzoli 2006, p. 53
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Ghosh 1983, p. 57
  15. ^ Sharma 2007, pp. 163–164
  16. ^ a b c Deb, Arunabha (26 February 2009). "Ravi Shankar: 10 interesting facts". Mint. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  17. ^ Lavezzoli 2Ravi ShankarRavi ShankarRavi Shankar006, p. 56
  18. ^ Schickel, Richard (12 February 2005). "The Apu Trilogy (1955, 1956, 1959)". Time. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  19. ^ "A lesser known side of Ravi Shankar". Hindustan Times. 12 December 2012. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  20. ^ Lavezzoli 2006, p. 47
  21. ^ Lavezzoli 2006, p. 57
  22. ^ a b Lavezzoli 2006, p. 58
  23. ^ Lavezzoli 2006, pp. 58–59
  24. ^ a b c d Lavezzoli 2006, p. 61
  25. ^ a b c Brockhaus, p. 199
  26. ^ Lavezzoli 2006, p. 62
  27. ^ Photo of George Harrison and Ravi Shankar
  28. ^ Photo of Ravi Shankar performing in late 1960s
  29. ^ Ravi Shankar interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1969)
  30. ^ Ravi Shankar performing at the Monterey Pop (June 1967), 18 min.
  31. ^ video: "Jimi Hendrix Sets Guitar On Fire at Monterey Pop Festival, 1967"
  32. ^ "Ravi Shankar, Indian sitar maestro, dies", BBC, 12 December 2012
  33. ^ Gallo, Phil (12 December 2012). "Ravi Shankar's Impact on Pop Music: An Appreciation". billboard.com. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  34. ^ "West Meets East" album cover
  35. ^ a b c d e Glass, Philip (9 December 2001). "George Harrison, World-Music Catalyst And Great-Souled Man; Open to the Influence of Unfamiliar Cultures". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
  36. ^ a b c d "Past Winners Search". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  37. ^ a b O'Mahony, John (8 June 2008). "Ravi Shankar bids Europe adieu". The Taipei Times. UK. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  38. ^ ±
  39. ^ Independent Star-News, Associated Press interview, Nov. 4, 1967
  40. ^ Ghosh 1983, p. 56
  41. ^ a b Lavezzoli 2006, p. 66
  42. ^ Lavezzoli 2006, p. 221
  43. ^ a b c d e Neuhoff 2006, pp. 672–673
  44. ^ "Ravi Shankar, who introduced The Beatles to the sitar and father of Norah Jones, dies aged 92 - Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  45. ^ Hume, Paul. "A Sensational Jam Session With India's Ravi Shankar", Washington Post, Sept. 11, 1968
  46. ^ a b c Lavezzoli 2006, p. 196
  47. ^ Photo of Ravi Shankar with conductor Zubin Mehta joking around after a concert
  48. ^ Rogers, Adam (8 August 1994). "Where Are They Now?". Newsweek. Retrieved 10 July 2009.
  49. ^ Lavezzoli 2006, p. 222
  50. ^ a b Piccoli, Sean (19 April 2005). "Ravi Shankar remains true to his Eastern musical ethos". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  51. ^ a b c "Ravi Shankar, Sitarist Who Introduced Indian Music to the West, Dies at 92", New York Times, Dec. 12, 2012
  52. ^ "Ravi Shankar - Inside the Kremlin"
  53. ^ "'Rajya Sabha Members'/Biographical Sketches 1952 – 2003" (PDF). Rajya Sabha. 6 January 2004. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
  54. ^ Lavezzoli 2006, p. 197
  55. ^ "Shankar advances her music". The Washington Times. 16 November 1999. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
  56. ^ "Legendary Virtuoso Sitarist Rave Shankar Accepts Regents' Professor Appointment at University of California, San Diego". UCSDnews. 18 September 1997.
  57. ^ "Ravi Shankar & Anoushka Shankar Live: Raag Khamaj (1997)"
  58. ^ Lavezzoli 2006, p. 411
  59. ^ Idato, Michael (9 April 2004). "Concert for George". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  60. ^ "Anoushka enthralls at New York show". The Hindu. India. 4 February 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  61. ^ video: Concert for George, at the Royal Albert Hall, 2002
  62. ^ Barnett, Laura (6 June 2011). "Portrait of the artist: Ravi Shankar, musician". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  63. ^ Photo of Ravi Shankar (3rd from left) and his wife Sukanya Shankar with former Beatle Sir Paul McCartney (2nd from left) and Ringo Starr (right).
  64. ^ "New album: Ravi Shankar Symphony – exclusive on iTunes - London Philharmonic Orchestra News". London Philharmonic Orchestra News. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  65. ^ "Ravi Shankar". Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  66. ^ a b c Thomson, Graeme. George Harrison: Behind the Locked Door, Overlook-Omnibus (2016) ISBN 1468313932
  67. ^ Photo of Ravi Shankar and George Harrison
  68. ^ a b Schaffner 1980, p. 64
  69. ^ video: "Ravi Shankar teaches George Harrison how to play sitar in 1968
  70. ^ Kozinn, Allan (1 December 2001). "George Harrison, 'Quiet Beatle' And Lead Guitarist, Dies at 58". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
  71. ^ Thompson, Howard (24 November 1971). "Screen: Ravi Shankar; ' Raga,' a Documentary, at Carnegie Cinema". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
  72. ^ "Raga (2010 Remaster)". East Meets West Music. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  73. ^ Photo of Ravi Shankar performing at the Concert for Bangladesh
  74. ^ Lavezzoli 2006, p. 195
  75. ^ Menon 1995, p. 220
  76. ^ "SNA: List of Akademi Awardees – Instrumental – Sitar". Sangeet Natak Akademi. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
  77. ^ a b "Padma Awards" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  78. ^ "SNA: List of Akademi Fellows". Sangeet Natak Akademi. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
  79. ^ "राष्ट्रीय कालिदास सम्मान" [Rashtriya Kalidas Samman] (in Hindi). Department of Public Relations of Madhya Pradesh. 2006. Archived from the original on 25 July 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
  80. ^ "Padma Awards". Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
  81. ^ "Citation for Ravi Shankar". Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  82. ^ Massey, Reginald (12 December 2012). "Ravi Shankar obituary: Indian virtuoso who took the sitar to the world". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  83. ^ "Sir Ravi". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 113 (19): 14. 12 May 2001. ISSN 0006-2510.
  84. ^ "Citation for Doctor of Laws honoris causa – Mr Ravi Shankar" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  85. ^ "Archive > Annual Archives > 1957 > Prize Winners". Berlin International Film Festival. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
  86. ^ "Ravi Shankar – The 2nd Fukuoka Asian Culture Prizes 1991". Asian Month. 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  87. ^ van Gelder, Lawrence (14 May 1998). "Footlights". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  88. ^ PTI (6 December 2012). "Arts / Music : Ravi Shankar to be honoured with lifetime Grammy". The Hindu. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  89. ^ "Pt Ravi Shankar gets posthumous Grammy nomination". India Today. 7 December 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  90. ^ PTI (6 March 2013). "Arts / Music : Ravi Shankar to be honoured with Tagore Award". Zee News. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  91. ^ Watrous, Peter (16 June 1998). "Pop Review; Just Music, No Oedipal Problems". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
  92. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOnicTvtiTA
  93. ^ a b c "Hard to say no to free love: Ravi Shankar". Press Trust of India. Rediff.com. 13 May 2003. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  94. ^ "Balaji temple in Hyderabad was stage for Pandit Ravi Shankar's secret wedding". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  95. ^ a b Lindgren, Kristina (21 September 1992). "Shubho Shankar Dies After Long Illness at 50". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 31 August 2009.
  96. ^ a b Venugopal, Bijoy (24 February 2003). "Norah's night at the Grammys". Rediff.com. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
  97. ^ Jamkhandikar, Shilpa (6 December 2012). "It's Ravi Shankar versus daughter Anoushka at the Grammys". Reuters. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  98. ^ Melwani, Lavina (24 December 1999). "In Her Father's Footsteps". Rediff.com. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  99. ^ Dunn, Jerry Camarillo (2009). My Favorite Place on Earth: Celebrated People Share Their Travel Discoveries. National Geographic Books. p. 213
  100. ^ "Signing up for the veg revolution". Screen. 8 December 2000. Archived from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
  101. ^ Schnabel, Tom (April 27, 2011). "Ravi Shankar, Sai Baba, and the Huge Diamond Ring". KCRW. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
  102. ^ Varga, George (10 April 2011). "At 91, Ravi Shankar seeks new musical vistas". signonsandiego.com. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
  103. ^ Allan Kozinn (12 December 2012). "Ravi Shankar, Sitarist Who Introduced Indian Music to the West, Dies at 92". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 December 2012. Mr. Shankar died in San Diego, at a hospital near his home. He had been treated for upper-respiratory and heart ailments in the last year and underwent heart-valve replacement surgery last Thursday, his family said. ...
  104. ^ Photo of Ravi Shankar in January 2012
  105. ^ "Classical legends leave their mark". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 January 2013.
Bibliography
  • "Shankar, Ravi". Brockhaus Enzyklopädie (in German). 20 (19th ed.). Mannheim: F. A. Brockhaus GmbH. 1993. ISBN 3-7653-1120-0.
  • Ghosh, Dibyendu (December 1983). "A Humble Homage to the Superb". In Ghosh, Dibyendu. The Great Shankars. Kolkata: Agee Prakashani. p. 7. OCLC 15483971.
  • Ghosh, Dibyendu (December 1983). "Ravishankar". In Ghosh, Dibyendu. The Great Shankars. Kolkata: Agee Prakashani. p. 55. OCLC 15483971.
  • Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8264-1815-5.
  • Massey, Reginald (1996). The Music of India. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-332-9.
  • Menon, Narayana (1995) . "Shankar, Ravi". In Sadie, Stanley. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 17 (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 1-56159-174-2.
  • Neuhoff, Hans (2006). "Shankar, Ravi". In Finscher, Ludwig. Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: allgemeine Enzyklopädie der Musik (in German). 15 (2nd ed.). Bärenreiter. ISBN 3-7618-1122-5.
  • Schaffner, Nicholas (1980). The Boys from Liverpool: John, Paul, George, Ringo. Taylor and Francis. ISBN 0-416-30661-6.
  • Sharma, Vishwamitra (2007). Famous Indians of the 20th Century. Pustak Mahal. ISBN 81-223-0829-5.
  • Slawek, Stephen (2001). "Shankar, Ravi". In Sadie, Stanley. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 23 (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 0-333-60800-3.
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  • Rajeshwar Shastri Dravid
  • Kazi Nazrul Islam
  • Hafiz Ali Khan
  • Bal Krishna Sharma Naveen
  • Ayyadevara Kaleswara Rao
  • Acharya Shivpujan Sahay
  • Vithal Nagesh Shirodkar
1961
  • Rustomji Bomanji Billimoria
  • Seth Govind Das
  • Verrier Elwin
  • Niranjan Das Gulhati
  • L. Venkatakrishna Iyer
  • Rai Krishnadas
  • Sumitranandan Pant
  • Svetoslav Roerich
  • Bhagwan Sahay
  • Bindeshwari Prasad Verma
  • K. Venkataraman
  • Ardeshir Ruttonji Wadia
1962
  • Ramchandra Narayan Dandekar
  • Prem Chandra Dhanda
  • Asaf Ali Asghar Fyzee
  • Bade Ghulam Ali Khan
  • Daulat Singh Kothari
  • Mithan Jamshed Lam
  • Sudhansu Sobhan Maitra
  • Sisir Kumar Mitra
  • Tarabai Modak
  • Niaz Fatehpuri
  • Jal Ratanji Patel
  • Narayan Sitaram Phadke
  • V. Raghavan
  • Dukhan Ram
  • T. S. Soundram
  • Mahankali Seetharama Rao
  • Moturi Satyanarayana
  • Sitaram Seksaria
  • Santosh Kumar Sen
  • Tarlok Singh
  • Raja Radhika Raman Sinha
1963
  • Makhanlal Chaturvedi
  • Omeo Kumar Das
  • Nitish Chandra Laharry
  • Badri Nath Prasad
  • Kanuri Lakshmana Rao
  • Rahul Sankrityayan
  • Ramanlal Gokaldas Saraiya
  • T. R. Seshadri
  • Sardar Harnarain Singh
  • Ramkumar Verma
1964
  • Sheikh Abdullah
  • Nuruddin Ahmed
  • Rafiuddin Ahmed
  • Jacob Chandy
  • Kunji Lal Dubey
  • Tushar Kanti Ghosh
  • Dara Nusserwanji Khurody
  • Anukul Chandra Mukherjee
  • Jnanendra Nath Mukherjee
  • Bhola Nath Mullik
  • R. K. Narayan
  • Chintaman Govind Pandit
  • Tribhuvandas Kishibhai Patel
  • Bal Gandharva
  • T. N. Ramachandran
  • Khushwant Lal Wig
1965
  • Joginder Singh Dhillon
  • Bhalchandra Babaji Dikshit
  • Narasinh Narayan Godbole
  • Nawang Gombu
  • Sonam Gyatso
  • Kashmir Singh Katoch
  • Akbar Ali Khan
  • S. L. Kirloskar
  • Mohan Singh Kohli
  • Pratap Chandra Lal
  • Mohammad Mujeeb
  • Jayant Narlikar
  • Ramaswamy Rajaram
  • K. R. Ramanathan
  • Satyajit Ray
  • Triguna Sen
  • Harbaksh Singh
  • Vrindavan Lal Verma
  • Manikya Lal Verma
1966
  • Babubhai Maneklal Chinai
  • Puliyur Krishnaswamy Duraiswami
  • Verghese Kurien
  • Zubin Mehta
  • K. P. Kesava Menon
  • Mannathu Padmanabha Pillai
  • K. Shankar Pillai
  • Vikram Sarabhai
  • Vinayak Sitaram Sarwate
  • Homi Sethna
  • Jodh Singh
  • Haribhau Upadhyaya
1967
  • Mulk Raj Anand
  • Tara Cherian
  • Krishna Kanta Handique
  • Akshay Kumar Jain
  • Pupul Jayakar
  • Ali Akbar Khan
  • D. P. Kohli
  • Ramanathan Krishnan
  • C. K. Lakshmanan
  • S. I. Padmavati
  • D. C. Pavate
  • Datto Vaman Potdar
  • B. Shiva Rao
  • Khwaja Ghulam Saiyidain
  • Mihir Sen
  • Ravi Shankar
  • M. L. Vasanthakumari
1968
  • Acharya Vishva Bandhu
  • Prabhu Lal Bhatnagar
  • Mary Clubwala Jadhav
  • K. Shivaram Karanth
  • Bismillah Khan
  • Vishnu Sakharam Khandekar
  • Sam Manekshaw
  • Mansukhlal Atmaram Master
  • M. G. K. Menon
  • Waman Bapuji Metre
  • Gujarmal Modi
  • Murugappa Channaveerappa Modi
  • Benjamin Peary Pal
  • Brahm Prakash
  • Manikonda Chalapathi Rau
  • C. R. Rao
  • Radhanath Rath
  • Mariadas Ruthnaswamy
  • Firaq Gorakhpuri
  • Shripad Damodar Satwalekar
  • G. Sankara Kurup
  • Periyasaamy Thooran
  • Mamidipudi Venkatarangayya
1969
  • Tarasankar Bandyopadhyay
  • Rahim-ud-in Khan Dagar
  • Mohanlal Lallubhai Dantwala
  • Keshavrao Krishnarao Datey
  • Keshav Prasad Goenka
  • Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer
  • Vithalbhai Jhaveri
  • Prithviraj Kapoor
  • Kesarbai Kerkar
  • Krishna Kripalani
  • Adinath Lahiri
  • Gobind Behari Lal
  • Kasturbhai Lalbhai
  • Lata Mangeshkar
  • V. K. Narayana Menon
  • Saghar Nizami
  • Nanasaheb Parulekar
  • Yashwant Dinkar Pendharkar
  • Vitthal Laxman Phadke
  • Raja Rao
  • Niharranjan Ray
  • Prafulla Kumar Sen
  • Haroon Khan Sherwani
  • Naval Tata
  • S. S. Vasan
# Posthumous conferral
  • 1954–1959
  • 1960–1969
  • 1970–1979
  • 1980–1989
  • 1990–1999
  • 2000–2009
  • 2010–2019
  • v
  • t
  • e
Sangeet Natak Akademi fellows1954–1960
  • Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar (1954)
  • Karaikudi Sambasiva Iyer (1954)
  • Prithviraj Kapoor (1954)
  • Anjanibai Malpekar (1958)
1961–1980
  • Gopeshwar Banerjee (1962)
  • D. Annaswami Bhagavathar (1962)
  • Uday Shankar (1962)
  • Papanasam Sivan (1962)
  • Swami Prajnanananda (1963)
  • Shrikrishna Narayan Ratanjankar (1963)
  • Pichu Sambamoorthi (1963)
  • Mama Warerkar (1963)
  • T. L. Venkatarama Aiyar (1964)
  • C. Saraswathi Bai (1964)
  • Birendra Kishore Roy Choudhury (1964)
  • B. R. Deodhar (1964)
  • V. Raghavan (1964)
  • P. V. Rajamannar (1964)
  • Vinayak Narayan Patwardhan (1965)
  • Ganesh Hari Ranade (1965)
  • Dilipkumar Roy (1965)
  • Jaideva Singh (1965)
  • D. G. Vyas (1965)
  • Ashutosh Bhattacharya (1966)
  • E. Krishna Iyer (1966)
  • Sombhu Mitra (1966)
  • Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar (1966)
  • Ebrahim Alkazi (1967)
  • Rukmini Devi Arundale (1967)
  • Musiri Subramania Iyer (1967)
  • Bade Ghulam Ali Khan (1967)
  • P. K. Kunju Kurup (1967)
  • Shambhu Maharaj (1967)
  • V. Satyanarayana Sarma (1967)
  • Adya Rangacharya 'Shriranga' (1967)
  • Kali Charan Patnaik (1968)
  • K. C. D. Brahaspati (1970)
  • Kapila Vatsyayan (1970)
  • Dilip Chandra Vedi (1970)
  • Tarapada Chakraborty (1972)
  • Krishnarao Phulambrikar (1972)
  • Rallapalli Ananta Krishna Sharma (1972)
  • K. Shivaram Karanth (1973)
  • Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay (1974)
  • Jnan Prakash Ghosh (1974)
  • M. S. Subbulakshmi (1974)
  • T. Balasaraswati (1975)
  • Zubin Mehta (1975)
  • Rasiklal Chhotalal Parikh (1975)
  • Ravi Shankar (1975)
  • Embar S. Vijayaraghavachariar (1975)
  • Santidev Ghosh (1976)
  • Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer (1976)
  • Hirjibhai Rustomji Doctor (1977)
  • Tinuvengadu Subramania Pillai (1978)
  • B. Puttaswamayya (1978)
  • P. L. Deshpande (1979)
  • D. T. Joshi (1979)
  • Sumati Mutatkar (1979)
  • T. P. Kuppiah Pillai (1979)
  • V. K. Narayana Menon (1980)
1981–2000
  • Mani Madhava Chakyar (1982)
  • Mallikarjun Mansur (1982)
  • M. Kirupanandawari (1984)
  • Chandravadan Mehta (1984)
  • Siyaram Tiwari (1984)
  • V. V. Swarna Venkatesa Deekshithar (1986)
  • Komal Kothari (1986)
  • S. Ramanathan (1986)
  • Satyajit Ray (1986)
  • Lata Mangeshkar (1989)
  • Utpal Dutt (1990)
  • Ram Gopal (1990)
  • Alain Daniélou (1991)
  • Kelucharan Mohapatra (1991)
  • T. S. Parthasarathy (1991)
  • Ali Akbar Khan (1992)
  • D. K. Pattammal (1992)
  • Prem Lata Sharma (1992)
  • Girish Karnad (1993)
  • Mrinalini Sarabhai (1993)
  • Bismillah Khan (1994)
  • Yehudi Menuhin (1994)
  • Maheswar Neog (1994)
  • Vilayat Khan (1995)
  • Ammannur Madhava Chakyar (1996)
  • Gangubai Hangal (1996)
  • Habib Tanvir (1996)
  • Badal Sarkar (1997)
  • Bhimsen Joshi (1998)
  • Birju Maharaj (1998)
  • K. P. Kittappa Pillai (1998)
  • Vijay Tendulkar (1998)
2001–present
  • M. Balamuralikrishna (2001)
  • B. V. Karanth (2001)
  • Vempati Chinna Satyam (2001)
  • Shanno Khurana (2002)
  • Kavalam Narayana Panicker (2002)
  • Chandralekha (2004)
  • Annapurna Devi (2004)
  • Bindhyabasini Devi (2004)
  • Ramankutty Nair (2004)
  • Zohra Sehgal (2004)
  • Tapas Sen (2004)
  • Rohini Bhate (2006)
  • T. N. Krishnan (2006)
  • Kishan Maharaj (2006)
  • Gursharan Singh (2006)
  • N. Khelchandra Singh (2006)
  • Sushil Kumar Saxena (2007)
  • Khaled Choudhury (2008)
  • Sitara Devi (2008)
  • Bhupen Hazarika (2008)
  • R. C. Mehta (2008)
  • Kishori Amonkar (2009)
  • Jasraj (2009)
  • Lalgudi Jayaraman (2009)
  • Yamini Krishnamurthy (2009)
  • Shriram Lagoo (2009)
  • Kamlesh Dutt Tripathi (2009)
  • Girija Devi (2010)
  • T. K. Murthy (2010)
  • Nataraja Ramakrishna (2010)
  • M. Chandrasekaran (2011)
  • Hariprasad Chaurasia (2011)
  • Kalamandalam Gopi (2011)
  • Chandrashekhara Kambara (2011)
  • Heisnam Kanhailal (2011)
  • Mukund Lath (2011)
  • Shivkumar Sharma (2011)
  • Rajkumar Singhajit Singh (2011)
  • Umayalpuram K. Sivaraman (2011)
  • Padma Subrahmanyam (2011)
  • N. Rajam (2012)
  • Ratan Thiyam (2012)
  • T. H. Vinayakram (2012)
  • Mahesh Elkunchwar (2013)
  • Kanak Rele (2013)
  • R. Sathyanarayana (2013)
  • Tulsidas Borkar (2014)
  • S. R. Janakiraman (2014)
  • Vijay Kumar Kichlu (2014)
  • M. S. Sathyu (2014)
  • C. V. Chandrasekhar (2015)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Ramon Magsaysay Award winners of India
  • Amitabha Chowdhury
  • Anshu Gupta
  • Aruna Roy
  • Arun Shourie
  • Arvind Kejriwal
  • Baba Amte
  • Banoo Jehangir Coyaji
  • Bezwada Wilson
  • Bharat Vatwani
  • B. G. Verghese
  • Chandi Prasad Bhatt
  • C. D. Deshmukh
  • Dara Nusserwanji Khurody
  • Ela Bhatt
  • Gour Kishore Ghosh
  • Harish Hande
  • Jockin Arputham
  • James Michael Lyngdoh
  • Jayaprakash Narayan
  • Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay
  • Kiran Bedi
  • Kulandei Francis
  • K. V. Subbanna
  • Lakshmi Chand Jain
  • Laxminarayan Ramdas
  • Mabelle Arole
  • Mahasweta Devi
  • Mahesh Chandra Mehta
  • Manibhai Desai
  • Mandakini Amte
  • Mother Teresa
  • M. S. Subbulakshmi
  • M. S. Swaminathan
  • Nileema Mishra
  • Palagummi Sainath
  • Pandurang Shastri Athavale
  • Prakash Amte
  • P. K. Sethi
  • Rajendra Singh
  • Ravi Shankar
  • R. K. Laxman
  • Rajanikant Arole
  • Sanjiv Chaturvedi
  • Satyajit Ray
  • Sombhu Mitra
  • Sandeep Pandey
  • Shantha Sinha
  • Sonam Wangchuk
  • T. M. Krishna
  • T. N. Seshan
  • Tribhuvandas Kishibhai Patel
  • V. Shanta
  • Verghese Kurien
  • Vinoba Bhave
List of Ramon Magsaysay Award winners
  • v
  • t
  • e
Laureates of the Polar Music Prize1990s
  • Paul McCartney / the Baltic states (1992)
  • Dizzy Gillespie / Witold Lutosławski (1993)
  • Quincy Jones / Nikolaus Harnoncourt (1994)
  • Elton John / Mstislav Rostropovich (1995)
  • Joni Mitchell / Pierre Boulez (1996)
  • Bruce Springsteen / Eric Ericson (1997)
  • Ray Charles / Ravi Shankar (1998)
  • Stevie Wonder / Iannis Xenakis (1999)
2000s
  • Bob Dylan / Isaac Stern (2000)
  • Burt Bacharach / Robert Moog / Karlheinz Stockhausen (2001)
  • Miriam Makeba / Sofia Gubaidulina (2002)
  • Keith Jarrett (2003)
  • B.B. King / György Ligeti (2004)
  • Gilberto Gil / Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (2005)
  • Led Zeppelin / Valery Gergiev (2006)
  • Sonny Rollins / Steve Reich (2007)
  • Pink Floyd / Renée Fleming (2008)
  • Peter Gabriel / José Antonio Abreu / El Sistema (2009)
2010s
  • Björk / Ennio Morricone (2010)
  • Kronos Quartet / Patti Smith (2011)
  • Paul Simon / Yo-Yo Ma (2012)
  • Youssou N'Dour / Kaija Saariaho (2013)
  • Chuck Berry / Peter Sellars (2014)
  • Emmylou Harris / Evelyn Glennie (2015)
  • Max Martin / Cecilia Bartoli (2016)
  • Sting / Wayne Shorter (2017)
  • Metallica / Afghanistan National Institute of Music (2018)
Family
  • v
  • t
  • e
Shankar family1st generation
  • Shyam Shankar Chowdhury
2nd generation
  • Uday Shankar
  • Ravi Shankar
  • Amala Shankar
  • Lakshmi Shankar
  • Annapurna Devi
  • Sue Jones
3rd generation
  • Ananda Shankar
  • Tanusree Shankar
  • Mamata Shankar
  • Vijayashree Shankar Subramaniam
  • L. Subramaniam
  • Shubhendra Shankar
  • Anoushka Shankar
  • Norah Jones
  • Joe Wright
4th generation
  • Ratul Shankar
  • Gingger Shankar
  • Ambi Subramaniam
  • Bindu Subramaniam
  • v
  • t
  • e
Anoushka ShankarStudio albums
  • Anoushka
  • Anourag
  • Rise
  • Rise Remixes
  • Breathing Under Water
  • Traveller
  • Traces of You
  • Home
Live albums
  • Live at Carnegie Hall
  • Concert for George
Benefit concerts
  • Concert for George
  • A Billion Hands Concert
Related articles
  • Ravi Shankar (father)
  • Norah Jones (half-sister)
  • Joe Wright (husband)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Norah Jones
  • Discography
  • Awards and nominations
Studio albums
  • Come Away with Me (2002)
  • Feels Like Home (2004)
  • Not Too Late (2007)
  • The Fall (2009)
  • Little Broken Hearts (2012)
  • Day Breaks (2016)
Compilation albums
  • ... Featuring Norah Jones
Extended plays
  • First Sessions
Other albums
  • New York City
  • The Little Willies
  • Live from Austin, TX
  • El Madmo
  • Here We Go Again: Celebrating the Genius of Ray Charles
  • Rome
  • For the Good Times
  • Foreverly
  • No Fools, No Fun
Singles
  • "Don't Know Why"
  • "Feelin' the Same Way"
  • "Come Away with Me"
  • "Turn Me On"
  • "Here We Go Again"
  • "Sunrise"
  • "What Am I to You?"
  • "Thinking About You"
  • "Not Too Late"
  • "Sinkin' Soon"
  • "Until the End"
  • "Chasing Pirates"
  • "Young Blood"
  • "It's Gonna Be"
  • "Happy Pills"
Concert tours
  • Little Broken Hearts Tour
  • Daybreaks World Tour
Related articles
  • The Little Willies
  • Puss n Boots
  • Ravi Shankar (father)
  • Anoushka Shankar (half-sister)
  • Lee Alexander
  • "Everybody Needs a Best Friend"
  • Book
Other associations
  • v
  • t
  • e
Woodstock FestivalFounders
  • Michael Lang
  • John P. Roberts
  • Joel Rosenman
  • Artie Kornfeld
August 15, 1969
  • Richie Havens
  • Swami Satchidananda
  • Sweetwater
  • Bert Sommer
  • Tim Hardin
  • Ravi Shankar
  • Melanie
  • Arlo Guthrie
  • Joan Baez
August 16, 1969
  • Quill
  • Country Joe McDonald
  • John Sebastian
  • Santana
  • Keef Hartley
  • The Incredible String Band
  • Canned Heat
  • Mountain
  • Grateful Dead
  • Creedence Clearwater Revival
August 17, 1969
August 18, 1969
  • Janis Joplin
  • Sly and the Family Stone
  • The Who
  • Jefferson Airplane
  • Joe Cocker and The Grease Band
  • Country Joe and the Fish
  • Ten Years After
  • The Band
  • Blood, Sweat & Tears
  • Johnny and Edgar Winter
  • Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young
  • Paul Butterfield Blues Band
  • Sha Na Na
  • Jimi Hendrix
Related
  • Bethel Woods Center for the Arts
  • Hog Farm Collective
  • List of performances and events
  • My Generation
  • The Road to Woodstock
  • Taking Woodstock (book
  • film)
  • Wavy Gravy
  • Woodstock (film)
  • Woodstock '79
  • Woodstock Reunion 1979
  • Woodstock '89
  • Woodstock '94
  • Woodstock '99
  • Heroes of Woodstock Tour
  • Woodstock Nation
  • Woodstock Nation (1969 book by Abbie Hoffman)
  • Woodstock Revisited
  • Altamont Free Concert
  • Max Yasgur
Recordings
  • At the Woodstock Festival (1970)
  • Woodstock: Music from the Original Soundtrack and More (1970)
  • Woodstock 2 (1971)
  • The Best of Woodstock (1994)
  • Woodstock: Three Days of Peace and Music (1994)
  • Woodstock Diary (1994)
  • Live at Woodstock (Jimi Hendrix album) (1999)
  • Live at Woodstock (Joe Cocker album) (2009)
  • The Woodstock Experience (2009)
  • Woodstock: 40 Years On: Back to Yasgur's Farm (2009)
  • "Lay Down (Candles in the Rain)" (Melanie song)
  • "Woodstock" (Joni Mitchell song)
  • v
  • t
  • e
George HarrisonStudio albums
  • Wonderwall Music
  • Electronic Sound
  • All Things Must Pass
  • Living in the Material World
  • Dark Horse
  • Extra Texture (Read All About It)
  • Thirty Three & 1/3
  • George Harrison
  • Somewhere in England
  • Gone Troppo
  • Cloud Nine
  • Brainwashed
Live albums
  • The Concert for Bangladesh
  • Live in Japan
Compilations
  • The Best of George Harrison
  • Best of Dark Horse 1976–1989
  • Let It Roll: Songs by George Harrison
  • Early Takes: Volume 1
Box sets
  • The Dark Horse Years 1976–1992
  • Collaborations (with Ravi Shankar)
  • The Apple Years 1968–75
  • George Harrison – The Vinyl Collection
Books
  • I, Me, Mine
  • Songs by George Harrison
  • Songs by George Harrison 2
  • Raga Mala (as editor)
RelatedArticles
  • Discography
  • Songs
  • Awards and nominations
  • Asian Music Circle
  • Beware of ABKCO! (bootleg)
  • Bhaktivedanta Manor
  • The Concert for Bangladesh
  • Concert for George
  • Dark Horse Records
  • Friar Park
  • Harrisongs
  • "Homer's Barbershop Quartet"
  • "Horse to the Water"
  • Kinfauns
  • Material World Charitable Foundation
  • Ravi Shankar's Music Festival from India
  • 1974 North American tour
  • 1991 Japanese tour
  • Wonderful Today
People
  • John Barham
  • The Beatles
  • Pattie Boyd (wife)
  • Eric Clapton
  • Derek and the Dominos
  • Olivia Harrison (wife)
  • Dhani Harrison (son)
  • Jim Keltner
  • Jeff Lynne
  • A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
  • Billy Preston
  • The Quarrymen
  • Radha Krishna Temple
  • The Rutles
  • Ravi Shankar
  • Derek Taylor
  • Traveling Wilburys
  • Klaus Voormann
  • Gary Wright
Albums
  • Is This What You Want?
  • That's the Way God Planned It
  • Doris Troy
  • Encouraging Words
  • The Radha Krsna Temple
  • Joi Bangla (EP)
  • Footprint
  • Straight Up
  • Raga
  • Brother
  • In Concert 1972
  • Shankar Family & Friends
  • The Place I Love
  • Ravi Shankar's Music Festival from India
  • Traveling Wilburys Vol. 1
  • Traveling Wilburys Vol. 3
  • Ravi Shankar: In Celebration
  • Chants of India
Films
  • HandMade Films
  • All You Need Is Cash
  • Blue Suede Shoes: A Rockabilly Session
  • The Concert for Bangladesh (film)
  • Concert for George (film)
  • George Harrison: Living in the Material World
  • Little Malcolm
  • Monty Python's Life of Brian
  • Raga
Tributes
  • Songs from the Material World: A Tribute to George Harrison
  • "Never Without You"
  • Concert for George (album)
  • Harrison on Harrison: Jazz Explorations of George Harrison
  • Tribute To
  • George Fest
  • Book
  • Category
Authority control
  • WorldCat Identities
  • BNE: XX885220
  • BNF: cb138997049 (data)
  • GND: 118764993
  • ISNI: 0000 0001 2141 8949
  • LCCN: n50001487
  • LNB: 000197302
  • MusicBrainz: 697f8b9f-0454-40f2-bba2-58f35668cdbe
  • NDL: 00456221
  • NKC: ola2002159395
  • NLA: 35492497
  • SELIBR: 358805
  • SNAC: w6s487p7
  • SUDOC: 06700931X
  • VIAF: 84975629



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