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Razia Sultana
known for being the only female ever to rule the Delhi Sultanate. Razia Sultana was the daughter of Shams-ud-din Iltutmish, who had begun life as a

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This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Razia Sultan Sultan Grave of Razia Sultan in Bulbul-i-Khan near Turkmen Gate, Delhi Sultan of Delhi Reign 10 November 1236 – 14 October 1240 Coronation 10 November 1236 Predecessor Rukn ud din Firuz Successor Muiz ud din Bahram Born c. 1205
Budaun, Uttar Pradesh, India Died 14 October 1240 (aged 35)
Delhi, Delhi Sultanate Burial Bulbul-i-Khan near Turkmen Gate, Delhi Spouse Malik Altunia Full name Raziya Begum bint. Shams-ud-Din Iltutmish Regnal name Jalâlat-ud-Dîn Raziyâ House Mamluk Father Iltutmish Mother Qutub Begum Religion Islam

Raziya Sultana, sometime Raziyya Sultan, (1205 – October 13, 1240) was the Sultan of Delhi from 10 November 1236 to 14 October 1240. A member of the Mamluk dynasty, she is known for being the only female ever to rule the Delhi Sultanate.

  • 1 Early life and career
  • 2 Love life and marriage
  • 3 Death
  • 4 Legacy
    • 4.1 In popular culture
  • 5 Claimed burial sites
  • 6 References
  • 7 Bibliography
  • 8 External links

Early life and career

Razia Sultana was the daughter of Shams-ud-din Iltutmish, who had begun life as a Turk slave and ended it as Sultan of Delhi. Iltutmish had been a great favorite of his master, Qutb ud din Aibak, the first Sultan of Delhi, and had been married to his daughter Turkan Khatun. She was the mother of Razia. She had a full-brother named Nasiruddin Mahmud. Razia being a member of the ruling family, grew up in privileged circumstances and was close to the levers of power both within the harem (where her mother was dominant) and in the court, where she was a favorite of both her maternal grandfather and her father. This was in contrast with her half-brothers Rukn ud din Firuz, and Muiz ud din Bahram who were the sons of former slave-girls, and thus grew up quite distant from the centers of power.

When Razia was five years old, Qutubuddin Aibak died and was succeeded by Iltutmish. Razia was a favorite of her father, and as a child was allowed to be present around him while he dealt with affairs of state. Later, like some other princesses of the time, she was trained to administer a kingdom if required, in the absence of her father or her husband. Her abilities and diligence, no less than her mother's royal lineage, commended Razia to Iltutmish and made her a confirmed favorite with him. Nevertheless, Iltutmish's eldest son Nasiruddin Mahmud (Razia's brother) was groomed by Iltutmish to succeed him.

However, Nasir ud din Mahmud died suddenly in 1229 CE, and Iltutmish was at a loss as to a successor, because he felt that none of his several surviving sons, born of his other wives, were worthy of the throne. In 1230, he had to leave the capital in order to lead an invasion against Gwalior. During his absence, Razia acted as a competent regent, with the assistance of the Sultan's trusted minister. Iltutmish returned to Delhi in 1231 after having captured Gwalior, and the issue of succession was foremost on his mind. Iltutmish became the first sultan to appoint a woman as his successor when he designated Razia as his heir apparent. Razia was the first and only female ruler of Delhi Sultanate. However, after Iltutmish died on Wednesday 30 April 1236, Razia's half-brother Rukn ud din Firuz was elevated to the throne instead.

Rukn ud din Firuz's reign was short. With Iltutmish's widow Shah Turkaan for all practical purposes running the government, Rukn ud din abandoned himself to the pursuit of personal pleasure and debauchery, to the outrage of the citizenry. On November 9, 1236, both Rukn ud din and his mother Shah Turkaan were assassinated after only six months in power. With reluctance, the nobility agreed to allow Razia to reign as Sultana of Delhi.

Razia was an efficient ruler and possessed all the qualities of a monarch. According to Minhaj-i-Siraj, she was "sagacious, just, beneficent, the patron of the learned, a dispenser of justice, the cherisher of her subjects, and of warlike talent, and endowed with all the admirable attributes and qualifications necessary for a king. She is also famous for her romantic involvement and legends with her lover and later turned husband, Malik Ikhtiar-ud-din Altunia "

Love life and marriage

Razia and Malik Ikhtiar-ud-din Altunia, the governor of Bathinda, were childhood friends. Some recognize them as childhood sweethearts who were strongly in love with each other. However, when Altunia was in Bathinda, the Turkic aristocracy spread rumors about Razia's romantic involvement with Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut, an Abyssinian Siddi (Habshi) slave. This triggered Altunia's jealousy and he led a rebellion against Razia, simply with the intention of getting her back.


Meanwhile, Razia's half-brother, Muiz ud din Bahram, had usurped the throne. Altunia and Razia undertook a military campaign to take back the sultanate from Bahram, but they were defeated on the 24th of Rabi' al-awwal 638 A.H. (October 1240). They fled Delhi and reached Kaithal the next day, where their remaining forces abandoned them. They were killed on the 25th of Rabi' al-awwal 638 A.H., this date corresponds to October 13, 1240. Bahram, for his part, reigned from 1240 to 1242, but would be dethroned for incompetence.

The place of Razia's burial is disputed by historians. There are 3 places where Razia is claimed to be buried. They are Delhi, Kaithal and Tonk, Rajasthan.

Legacy Billon Jital of Razia

Razia was reportedly devoted to the cause of her empire and to her subjects. There is no record that she made any attempt to remain aloof from her subjects, rather it appears she preferred to mingle among them. She especially protected and preserved the indigenous cultures of her Hindu subjects during her reign. Her reign was characterised as spirited and dynamic by many.

In popular culture

Razia Sultan is a 1983 biopic on Razia Sultan, with Hema Malini taking the titular role.

In 2015, & TV started airing Razia Sultan, a TV series on the life of Razia Sultan, starring Pankhuri Awasthy. It highlighted her tough journey towards becoming a Sultana and her much spoken about passionate love life with Altunia.

Claimed burial sites

There are conflicting accounts regarding her actual site of grave. No archaeological or documentary evidences are found to confirm the site of her grave. The dispute is whether she was buried in Kaithal or Delhi or Tonk, and also where were Altunia and Yakut buried.

It is claimed that Razia's grave lies in neglected condition among the narrow lanes of Old Delhi that is in a courtyard in Bulbul-i-khana, Shahjahanabad, near the Turkman Gate entrance.

There is a tradition that Razia Sultana was buried in Kaithal. Altunia was also buried next to her.There was also a masjid nearby.
Viceroy of India (Lord Linlithgow) in 1938 came to kaithal to visit Razia's tomb. He approved a special grant for the restoration of the tomb. After that Director General Archaeology India visited the tomb but due to second world war, the grant could not be spent on the restoration.

  1. ^ Table of Delhi Kings: Muazzi Slave King The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 368..
  2. ^ "The rise and fall of Delhi's only female monarch". 
  3. ^ a b Reina Pennington (2003). Amazons to Fighter Pilots: a Biographical Dictionary of Military Women. Westport, CT: Greenwood press. p. 355. ISBN 0313291977. 
  4. ^ Sharma, Sudha (March 21, 2016). The Status of Muslim Women in Medieval India. SAGE Publications India. pp. 196, n.2, 3. ISBN 978-9-351-50567-9. 
  5. ^ Jackson-Laufer, Guida Myrl (1999). Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 341. ISBN 978-1-576-07091-8. 
  6. ^ Siddiqi, Iqtidar Husain (1992). Perso-Arabic sources of information on the life and conditions in the Sultanate of Dellhi. Munshiram Manoharlal Punlishers. p. 6. 
  7. ^ Gloria Steinem (Introduction), Herstory: Women Who Changed the World, eds. Deborah G. Ohrn and Ruth Ashby, Viking, (1995) p. 34-36. ISBN 978-0670854349 Archived June 19, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Satish Chandra, History of Medieval India(800–1700), New Delhi, Orient Longman, (2007), p.100. ISBN 81-250-3226-6
  9. ^ Reina Pennington (2003). Amazons to Fighter Pilots: a Biographical Dictionary of Military Women. Westport, CT: Greenwood press. p. 356. ISBN 0313291977. 
  10. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 74–76. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4. 
  11. ^ Richard Pankhurst (21 May 1999) "Ethiopia Across the Red Sea and Indian Ocean" Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine., Addis Ababa, Addis Tribune.
  12. ^ Razia Sultan The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period, 1867–1877.
  13. ^ Conversion of Islamic and Christian dates
  14. ^ Verde, Tom. 2016. Malika II: Radiyya bint Iltutmish. AramcoWorld. Volume 67 (3). May/June 2016. Pages 34–37.
  15. ^ Majumdar, R.C., ed. The History and Culture of the Indian People. Volume V. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1957
  16. ^ "Razia Sultan". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  17. ^ "Pankhuri Awasthi follows Hema Malini for 'Razia Sultan'". Times of India. IANS. 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-16. Retrieved 2015-04-09. 
  19. ^ "A forgotten tomb". thehindu.com. August 9, 2013. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  20. ^ 1- Book Name "Taareekh-e-Punjab by Kalidas Rai, 2- "Taareekh Buzargaan-e-Kaithal by Sheikh Muhammad Shakir Shah Abadi
  21. ^ Book Name "Ehad-e-Gul by Syed Fayyaz Hussain Zaidi
Preceded by
Rukn ud din Firuz Mamluk Dynasty
1236–1240 Succeeded by
Muiz ud din Bahram Preceded by
Rukn ud din Firuz Sultan of Delhi
1236–1240 Succeeded by
Muiz ud din Bahram Bibliography
  • Asif, Salman, and Kate Montgomery. Razia: Warrior Queen of India. London: Hood Hood Books, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43208215
  • Goel, Devendra, Chandrakant Chadda, Nirupa Roy, Jairaj, Kamran, M. Kumar, N.A. Ansari, and Lachhiram. Razia sultan Raziyā Sultāna. Mumbai: Shemaroo Entertainemtn, 2012. DVD; NTSC all regions; 5.1 surround sound. Hindi with English subtitles. Abstract: A tale of stormy love and passion for each other and unflinching loyalty between Razia, the Queen Empress of India and an Abyssinian slave Yaqub. She became immortalised as a symbol of the highest, the noblest and the most sacred in love. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/905056178
  • Dasgupta, Shahana. Razia: The People's Queen. New Delhi: Rupa & Co, 2001. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/422540172
  • Maqbul Arshad. Razia Sultana. Lahore: Maqbul Academy, 1900. Fiction: Juvenile audience: Urdu. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/651942430
  • Waeerkar, Ram, and Anant Pai. Sultana Razia: Empress of India. Mumbai: Amar Chitra Katha, ACK Media, 2009. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/609715545
  • Zakaria, Rafiq. Razia, Queen of India. : Popular Prakashan, 1966. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1210383
External links
  • Project Continua: Biography of Sultan Raziyya bint Iltutmish

  • An Impartial History of the Only Empress of India : Jalalat -al-din Razia Sultan (r. 1236/7-40 C.E.) : http://ishq-e-dilli.blogspot.in/2016/06/an-impartial-history-of-only-empress-of.html
  • Exploring Razia Sultan’s Tomb at Mohalla Bulbuli Khana,Delhi : http://ishq-e-dilli.blogspot.in/2016/07/exploring-razia-sultans-tomb-at-mohalla.html

Sultana Razia
Sultana Razia
Intelligent, brave, competent and just, Razia was chosen by her father, Sultan Iltutmish, to succeed him to the throne of Delhi. The people loved her and trusted her but the Amirs or nobles found it difficult to swear loyalty to a woman. Sultana Razia ruled for only three and a half years but she proved her father right by being a wise and just ruler who protected and nurtured her subjects. She led her armies and was a brave soldier. Her only enemy were the times that did not accept a woman as a leader.

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Razia Sultana
Razia Sultana
Script : Yagya Sharma  Illustrator : Pratap Mulick  ISBN : 81-7508-064-7  Vol. No : 563  With Akbar coming to the throne of the Mughal Empire in early 1556, the Mughals had become a part of India. As a conqueror, Akbar triumphed all over North India. He added Gujrat, Bengal, Orissa, Kashmir and Sindh to his empire. He was victorious in Central and South India too. In his efforts to consolidate his empire, Akbar appointed Rajput nobles to the highest posts in his empire. Thus he succeeded in winning the goodwill of the Hindus. The Rajputs flocked to serve him and do him honour.During this period when almost everyone in Northern India had bowed down before Akbar, only the lone, unbending figure of Rana Pratap stood against him. He refused to accept Akbar’s supremacy. Had he agreed to surrender, Rana Pratap could have led an easy and comfortable life at the court of Akbar. But for this brave Rajput warrior king, his freedom was his honour, which he cherished even more than his own life. Greatly outnumbered by Akbar’s huge forces, Rana lived a hunted life in the jungles and suffered grave hardships. But these sufferings only spurred him on his struggle for freedom.This Chitra Katha presents the tale of Rana Pratap’s heroic struggle against the might of the Mughal emperor. Minimum Order Quantity is 4 Books. Delivery : Worldwide within 21 days.

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Razia: Queen of India
Razia: Queen of India
The story of Razia, one of the most colorful characters in Indian history and the only queen who ever sat on the throne of Delhi, has never before been told. This chronicle, based on recently uncovered sources, is singularly fascinating, both for its insight on India's history and for its compelling story.

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Razia Sultana
Razia Sultana

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Solid and Hazardous Waste Management: Science and Engineering
Solid and Hazardous Waste Management: Science and Engineering
Solid and Hazardous Waste Management: Science and Engineering presents the latest on the rapid increase in volume and types of solid and hazardous wastes that have resulted from economic growth, urbanization, and industrialization and how they have challenged national and local governments to ensure effective and sustainable management of these waste products. The book offers universal coverage of the technologies used for the management and disposal of waste products, such as plastic waste, bio-medical wastes, hazardous wastes, and e-wastes.Covers both traditional and new technologies for Identifying and categorizing the source and nature of the wasteProvides methods for the safe disposal of municipal solid wastes, plastic waste, bio-medical wastes, hazardous wastes, and e-wastesPresents technologies that can be used for transportation and processing (including resource recovery) of the wasteDiscusses reclamation, reuse, and recovery of energy from MSW

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Selected Songs from PAKEEZAH and RAZIA SULTAN
Selected Songs from PAKEEZAH and RAZIA SULTAN
15 songs from the movies PAKEEZAH and RAZIA SULTAN.

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Sultana Razia ( Amar Chitra Katha Comics )
Sultana Razia ( Amar Chitra Katha Comics )
Razia was the daughter of the king of one of the Muslim dynasties that ruled Delhi in the 13th century. Though a woman was not easily allowed to rule over a people in those days, she had all the qualities required in an administrator. Her father therefore willed her heir to the throne in preference to her less able stepbrothers. Sensing the objections from courtiers to her ascension to the throne, Razia proclaimed allegiance to one of her stepbrother. He however turned out to be inefficient and Razia was made the queen. She proved herself a just and fair ruler, and abolished the tax on Hindu subjects for their non-islamic faith. Court intrigues continued against her and Sultana (queen) Razia could rule for barely three and a half years. She died in one of the battles with the courtiers, "for no fault other than that she was a woman" as a historian said.

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Maturation in Penaeid Shrimps: Biochemical Changes
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Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and F. penicillatus are commercially important species of Pakistan coast. The biochemical changes during maturation are important to know the specific requirement of shrimp for maturation and formulation of maturation diets. Among the biochemical constituents, particularly lipids play most significant role during maturation. Such studies have not been undertaken previously on these two species from the entire range of its distribution. The variations in proximate composition, lipid classes and fatty acid composition have been studied in both the species in mid gut gland, ovary and muscle at four different stages of maturation, i.e. immature; early maturing; late maturing and ripe. The biochemical constituents showed an increasing trend as the maturation proceeds, though the specific variations were found in the concentration of all of the constituents studied and their trend of increase in both the species. The variations were pronounced in the ovarian tissue, whereas, moderate variations were found in the mid gut gland and minimal in the muscle during maturity stages. Based on the results, maturations diets were also formulated for F. merguiensis.

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