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Razia Sultana
Razia Sultan, sometimes razia sultana, (1205 – 14 October 1240) was the Sultan of Delhi from 10 October 1236 to 14 October 1240. A member of the Mamluk

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This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Razia Sultan the great sultan of Delhi Sultan of DelhiReign 10 October 1236 -14 October 1240Coronation 10 October 1236Predecessor Rukn ud din FiruzSuccessor Muiz ud din BahramBorn c. 1205
Budaun, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaDied 14 October 1240 (aged 35)
Delhi, Delhi SultanateBurial Bulbul-i-Khan near Turkmen Gate, DelhiSpouse Malik Altunia Full name Raziya Begum bint. Shams-ud-Din IltutmishRegnal name Jalâlat-ud-Dîn RaziyâHouse MamlukFather IltutmishMother Qutub BegumReligion Islam

Razia Sultan, sometimes razia sultana, (1205 – 14 October 1240) was the Sultan of Delhi from 10 October 1236 to 14 October 1240. A member of the Mamluk dynasty, she is known for being the only female ever to rule the Delhi Sultanate.[1]

  • 1 Early life and Career
  • 2 Personal Life
  • 3 Death
  • 4 Legacy
    • 4.1 In popular culture
  • 5 Claimed burial sites
  • 6 References
  • 7 Bibliography
  • 8 External links
Early life and Career

Razia Sultana was the daughter of Shams-ud-din Iltutmish,[2] who had begun life as a Turk slave and ended it as Sultan of Delhi.[3] Iltutmish had been a great favorite of his master, Qutb ud din Aibak, the first Sultan of Delhi, and had been married to his only daughter Qutb Begum, who gave birth to Razia.[4][5]

She had her own brother named Nasiruddin Mahmud.[6] Razia being a member of the ruling family, grew up in privileged circumstances and was close to the levers of power both within the harem (where her mother was dominant) and in the court, where she was a favorite of both her maternal grandfather and her father. This was in contrast with her half-brothers Rukn ud din Firuz, and Muiz ud din Bahram who were the sons of former slave-girls, and thus grew up quite distant from the centers of power.

When Razia was five years old, Qutubuddin Aibak died and was succeeded by Iltutmish. Razia was a favorite of her father, and as a child was allowed to be present around him while he dealt with affairs of state. Later, like some other princesses of the time, she was trained to administer a kingdom if required, in the absence of her father or her husband.[7] Her abilities and diligence, no less than her mother's royal lineage, commended Razia to Iltutmish and made her a confirmed favorite with him. Nevertheless, Iltutmish's eldest son Nasiruddin Mahmud (Razia's brother) was groomed by Iltutmish to succeed him.

However, Nasir ud din Mahmud died suddenly in 1229 CE, and Iltutmish was at a loss as to a successor because he felt that none of his several surviving sons, born of his other wives, were worthy of the throne.[3] In 1230, he had to leave the capital in order to lead an invasion against Gwalior. During his absence, Razia acted as a competent regent, with the assistance of the Sultan's trusted minister. Iltutmish returned to Delhi in 1231 after having captured Gwalior, and the issue of succession was foremost on his mind. Iltutmish became the first sultan to appoint a woman as his successor when he designated Razia as his heir apparent. Razia was the first and only female ruler of Delhi Sultanate. However, after Iltutmish died on Wednesday 30 April 1236, Razia's half-brother Rukn ud din Firuz was elevated to the throne instead.

Rukn ud din Firuz's reign was short. With Iltutmish's widow Shah Turkaan for all practical purposes running the government, Rukn ud din abandoned himself to the pursuit of personal pleasure and debauchery, to the outrage of the citizenry. On 9 November 1236, both Rukn ud din and his mother Shah Turkaan were assassinated[8] after only six months in power. With reluctance, the nobility agreed to allow Razia to reign as Sultana of Delhi.[9]

Razia was an efficient ruler and possessed all the qualities of a monarch. According to Minhaj-i-Siraj, she was "sagacious, just, beneficent, the patron of the learned, a dispenser of justice, the cherisher of her subjects, and of warlike talent, and endowed with all the admirable attributes and qualifications necessary for a king. She is also famous for her romantic involvement and legends with her lover and later turned husband, Malik Ikhtiar-ud-din Altunia "[10]

Personal Life

Razia and Malik Ikhtiar-ud-din Altunia, the governor of Bathinda, were childhood friends. Some recognize them as childhood sweethearts who were strongly in love with each other. However, when Altunia was in Bathinda, the Turkic aristocracy spread rumors about Razia's romantic involvement with Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut, an Abyssinian Siddi (Habshi) slave. This triggered Altunia's jealousy and he led a rebellion against Razia, simply with the intention of getting her back.[11] As Iltutmish wanted Razia to rule over India, to keep her father’s promise Razia did not marry Altunia but she kept a friendly relationship.


Meanwhile, Razia's half-brother, Muiz ud din Bahram, had usurped the throne. Altunia and Razia undertook a military campaign to take back the sultanate from Bahram, but they were defeated on the 24th of Rabi' al-awwal 638 A.H. (October 1240). They fled Delhi and reached Kaithal the next day, where their remaining forces abandoned them. They were killed on the 25th of Rabi' al-awwal 638 A.H.,[12] this date corresponds to 13 October 1240.[13] Bahram, for his part, reigned from 1240 to 1242, but would be dethroned for incompetence.

The place of Razia's burial is disputed by historians. There are 3 places where Razia is claimed to be buried. They are Delhi, Kaithal and Tonk, Rajasthan.[14]

Legacy Billon Jital of Razia

Razia was reportedly devoted to the cause of her empire and to her subjects. There is no record that she made any attempt to remain aloof from her subjects, rather it appears she preferred to mingle among them. She especially protected and preserved the indigenous cultures of her Hindu subjects during her reign.[15] Her reign was characterised as spirited and dynamic by many.

In popular culture

Razia Sultan is a 1983 biopic on Razia Sultan, with Hema Malini taking the titular role.[16]

In 2015, & TV started airing Razia Sultan, a TV series on the life of Razia Sultan, starring Pankhuri Awasthy. It highlighted her tough journey towards becoming a Sultana and her much spoken about passionate love life with Altunia.[17]

Claimed burial sites

There are conflicting accounts regarding her actual site of grave. No archaeological or documentary evidences are found to confirm the site of her grave. The dispute is whether she was buried in Kaithal[18] or Delhi or Tonk, and also where were Altunia and Yakut buried.

It is claimed that Razia's grave lies in neglected condition among the narrow lanes of Old Delhi that is in a courtyard in Bulbul-i-khana, Shahjahanabad, near the Turkman Gate entrance.[19]

There is a tradition that Razia Sultana was buried in Kaithal.[20] Altunia was also buried next to her. There was also a masjid nearby.
Viceroy of India (Lord Linlithgow) in 1938 came to kaithal to visit Razia's tomb. He approved a special grant for the restoration of the tomb.[21] After that Director General Archaeology India visited the tomb but due to second world war, the grant could not be spent on the restoration.

  1. ^ Table of Delhi Kings: Muazzi Slave King The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 368..
  2. ^ "The rise and fall of Delhi's only female monarch". 
  3. ^ a b Reina Pennington (2003). Amazons to Fighter Pilots: a Biographical Dictionary of Military Women. Westport, CT: Greenwood press. p. 355. ISBN 0313291977. 
  4. ^ Sharma, Sudha (21 March 2016). The Status of Muslim Women in Medieval India. SAGE Publications India. pp. 196, n.2, 3. ISBN 978-9-351-50567-9. 
  5. ^ Jackson-Laufer, Guida Myrl (1999). Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 341. ISBN 978-1-576-07091-8. 
  6. ^ Siddiqi, Iqtidar Husain (1992). Perso-Arabic sources of information on the life and conditions in the Sultanate of Delhi. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. p. 6. 
  7. ^ Gloria Steinem (Introduction), Herstory: Women Who Changed the World, eds. Deborah G. Ohrn and Ruth Ashby, Viking, (1995) p. 34-36. ISBN 978-0670854349 Archived 19 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Satish Chandra, History of Medieval India(800–1700), New Delhi, Orient Longman, (2007), p.100. ISBN 81-250-3226-6
  9. ^ Reina Pennington (2003). Amazons to Fighter Pilots: a Biographical Dictionary of Military Women. Westport, CT: Greenwood press. p. 356. ISBN 0313291977. 
  10. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 74–76. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4. 
  11. ^ Richard Pankhurst (21 May 1999) "Ethiopia Across the Red Sea and Indian Ocean" Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine., Addis Ababa, Addis Tribune.
  12. ^ Razia Sultan The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period, 1867–1877.
  13. ^ Conversion of Islamic and Christian dates
  14. ^ Verde, Tom. 2016. Malika II: Radiyya bint Iltutmish. AramcoWorld. Volume 67 (3). May/June 2016. Pages 34–37.
  15. ^ Majumdar, R.C., ed. The History and Culture of the Indian People. Volume V. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1957
  16. ^ "Razia Sultan". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  17. ^ "Pankhuri Awasthi follows Hema Malini for 'Razia Sultan'". Times of India. IANS. 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-16. Retrieved 2015-04-09. 
  19. ^ "A forgotten tomb". thehindu.com. 9 August 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2017. 
  20. ^ 1- Book Name "Taareekh-e-Punjab by Kalidas Rai, 2- "Taareekh Buzargaan-e-Kaithal by Sheikh Muhammad Shakir Shah Abadi
  21. ^ Book Name Ehad-e-Gul by Syed Fayyaz Hussain Zaidi
Preceded by
Rukn ud din Firuz Mamluk Dynasty
1236–1240 Succeeded by
Muiz ud din Bahram Preceded by
Rukn ud din Firuz Sultan of Delhi
1236–1240 Succeeded by
Muiz ud din Bahram Bibliography
  • Asif, Salman, and Kate Montgomery. Razia: Warrior Queen of India. London: Hood Hood Books, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43208215
  • Goel, Devendra, Chandrakant Chadda, Nirupa Roy, Jairaj, Kamran, M. Kumar, N.A. Ansari, and Lachhiram. Razia sultan Raziyā Sultāna. Mumbai: Shemaroo Entertainemtn, 2012. DVD; NTSC all regions; 5.1 surround sound. Hindi with English subtitles. Abstract: A tale of stormy love and passion for each other and unflinching loyalty between Razia, the Queen Empress of India and an Abyssinian slave Yaqub. She became immortalised as a symbol of the highest, the noblest and the most sacred in love. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/905056178
  • Dasgupta, Shahana. Razia: The People's Queen. New Delhi: Rupa & Co, 2001. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/422540172
  • Maqbul Arshad. Razia Sultana. Lahore: Maqbul Academy, 1900. Fiction: Juvenile audience: Urdu. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/651942430
  • Waeerkar, Ram, and Anant Pai. Sultana Razia: Empress of India. Mumbai: Amar Chitra Katha, ACK Media, 2009. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/609715545
  • Zakaria, Rafiq. Razia, Queen of India. : Popular Prakashan, 1966. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1210383
External links
  • Project Continua: Biography of Sultan Raziyya bint Iltutmish
  • An Impartial History of the Only Empress of India : Jalalat -al-din Razia Sultan (r. 1236/7-40 C.E.) : http://ishq-e-dilli.blogspot.in/2016/06/an-impartial-history-of-only-empress-of.html
  • Exploring Razia Sultan’s Tomb at Mohalla Bulbuli Khana,Delhi : http://ishq-e-dilli.blogspot.in/2016/07/exploring-razia-sultans-tomb-at-mohalla.html
Authority control
  • ISNI: 0000 0000 9722 2814

Razia Sultan
Razia Sultan
Starring: AJIT, DHARMENDRA, HEMA MALINI, PARVEEN BABI, PRADEEP KUMAR, RADHA SALUJA, SARIKA,SOHRAB MODI, TAJDAR AMROHI, VIJAYENDRA Synopsis: Razia Sultan, a celluloid marvel depicts the pulsating tale of stormy love, unflinching loyalty and sacrifice unfolded from the leaves of History. It is the story of the tempestuous love between a bewitching beauty, Razia, the Queen Empress of India and a lowly Abyssinian slave Yaqub. Razia staked and lost everything - her honor, kingdom and life - for her love but did not allow the powerful proud Turks, affronted by her love for a slave, to trample and break her sacrament of love for a slave. She laid down her life to keep the flame of her love ablaze and high and became immortalized in the hearts of her subjects as a symbol of the highest, the noblest and the most sacred in love.With the passage of time, however, she was branded as a vain sinful lover and it was not until the 20 the century that a creative and sensitive artist Kamal Amrohi got her to the silver screen with all her glory and honor and restored her rightful place in History in the form of his most loving creation - RAZIA SULTAN - an unforgettable and memorable marvel and extravaganza.When sold by Amazon.com, this product will be manufactured on demand using DVD-R recordable media. Amazon.com's standard return policy will apply.

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Razia Sultana by JAIRAJ NIRUPA ROY
Razia Sultana by JAIRAJ NIRUPA ROY
Script :Ã' Yagya SharmaÃ'  Illustrator :Ã' Pratap MulickÃ'  ISBN :Ã' 81-7508-064-7Ã'  Vol. No :Ã' 563Ã'  With Akbar coming to the throne of the Mughal Empire in early 1556, the Mughals had become a part of India. As a conqueror, Akbar triumphed all over North India. He added Gujrat, Bengal, Orissa, Kashmir and Sindh to his empire. He was victorious in Central and South India too. In his efforts to consolidate his empire, Akbar appointed Rajput nobles to the highest posts in his empire. Thus he succeeded in winning the goodwill of the Hindus. The Rajputs flocked to serve him and do him honour.During this period when almost everyone in Northern India had bowed down before Akbar, only the lone, unbending figure of Rana Pratap stood against him. He refused to accept Akbarâ€ÂTMs supremacy. Had he agreed to surrender, Rana Pratap could have led an easy and comfortable life at the court of Akbar. But for this brave Rajput warrior king, his freedom was his honour, which he cherished even more than his own life. Greatly outnumbered by Akbarâ€ÂTMs huge forces, Rana lived a hunted life in the jungles and suffered grave hardships. But these sufferings only spurred him on his struggle for freedom.This Chitra Katha presents the tale of Rana Pratapâ€ÂTMs heroic struggle against the might of the Mughal emperor. Minimum Order Quantity is 4 Books. Delivery : Worldwide within 21 days.

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Sultana Razia
Sultana Razia
Intelligent, brave, competent and just, Razia was chosen by her father, Sultan Iltutmish, to succeed him to the throne of Delhi. The people loved her and trusted her but the Amirs or nobles found it difficult to swear loyalty to a woman. Sultana Razia ruled for only three and a half years but she proved her father right by being a wise and just ruler who protected and nurtured her subjects. She led her armies and was a brave soldier. Her only enemy were the times that did not accept a woman as a leader.

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Setting the stage for women in india - the first woman to rule Delhi was Razia Sultan, in the 13th century. Her father Iltutmish, ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, had named her the successor, but some nobles, alarmed at the prospect of a woman ruler, put her brother on the throne. He proved incompetent, and in 1236, Razia became Sultan . A feminist of her times -she insisted on being called "Sultan", because "Sultana" meant the wife of the ruler. She held an open court and dressed like a man, because living in purdah made it difficult to be in control. She governed ably, rode at the frontline in battle, and wrote poetry. Promoted education -Nasiriya college, established by Iltutmish, flourished during her three-and-a-half-year reign. Help us and our miniature artist Mohan tell these stories of amazing Indian women with the eco leather tote.

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Hell's Ground
Hell's Ground
Pakistan's first splatter flick in the tradition of Friday the 13th and The Texas Chainsaw Massacre delivers spine-tingling thrills when an attractive group of teens pile into a van that runs out of gas in the middle of a dark mysterious forest. Their ghoulish nightmare begins when rotting fresh-eating zombies and a decapitated head-toting screaming banshee-like hitchhiker begin to terrorize them at every turn. But when a mysterious figure dressed in a blood-drenched burqa appears sporting a medieval weapon dripping in gore even the teens prayers won't save them from a night of savage demented horror. Special Features: Director's Commentary Ice Cream Zombieland Documentary LUMS Premiere Interviews And Speeches From the Pakistani Premiere Zuj Music Promo Original Trailer

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Razia Sultan: रजिया सुल्तान (Hindi Edition)
Razia Sultan: रजिया सुल्तान (Hindi Edition)
तेरहवीं शताब्दी ईस्वी में जब दिल्ली सल्तनत पर लड़ाका तुर्की कबीले शासन कर रहे थे, एक यतीम शहजादी का दिल्ली के तख्त पर काबिज हो जाना बहुत ही आश्चर्य जनक घटना थी किंतु सख्त इरादों की मलिका रजिया ने उस युग में ऐसा कर दिखाया। घोड़े पर बैठकर तलवार चलाने वाली सुन्दर औरत को तुर्की अमीर कभी भी दिल्ली के तख्त पर नहीं देखना चाहते थे किंतु दिल्ली की गरीब और निरीह जनता ने उसे दिल्ली की मल्लिका बनाया। यही कारण था कि तुर्की अमीर तब तक रजिया के दुश्मन बने रहे जब तक कि रजिया खत्म नहीं हो गई। यह पुस्तक रजिया के उन्हीं संघर्षों पर केन्द्रित है और रजिया का वास्तविक इतिहास है जो कि तेरहवीं शताब्दी के भारत के इतिहास की महत्वपूर्ण घटना है। सदियां आयेंगी और जायेंगी किंतु रजिया सुल्तान इतिहास में चमकीले तारे की तरह सदैव चमकती रहेगी।

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