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Points of the compass
addition of the four intercardinal (or ordinal) directions—northeast (NE), southeast (SE), southwest (SW), and northwest (NW)—to indicate the eight principal

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"Compass point" and "ENE" redirect here. For other uses, see Compass Point (disambiguation) and Ene (disambiguation). For the train company, see Southeastern (train operating company). For the journal, see Hastings West-Northwest Journal of Environmental Law and Policy. 16-point compass rose

The points of the compass mark the divisions on a compass, which is primarily divided into four points: north, south, east, and west. These cardinal directions are further subdivided by the addition of the four intercardinal (or ordinal) directions—northeast (NE), southeast (SE), southwest (SW), and northwest (NW)—to indicate the eight principal winds. In meteorological usage, further intermediate points between cardinal and ordinal points, such as north-northeast (NNE) are added to give the 16 points of a compass rose.[1]

32-point compass rose

At the most complete division are the full thirty-two points of the mariner's compass,[2] which adds points such as north by east (NbE) between north and north-northeast, and northeast by north (NEbN) between north-northeast and northeast. A compass point allows reference to a specific course (or azimuth) in a colloquial fashion, without having to compute or remember degrees.

The European nautical tradition retained the term "one point" to describe ​1⁄32 of a circle in such phrases as "two points to starboard". By the middle of the 18th century, the 32-point system was extended with half- and quarter-points to allow 128 directions to be differentiated.[3]

Contents
  • 1 Compass points
    • 1.1 8-wind compass rose
    • 1.2 16-wind compass rose
    • 1.3 32-wind compass rose
  • 2 Traditional names
  • 3 32 compass points
  • 4 Half- and quarter-points
    • 4.1 128 compass directions
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links
Compass points Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see Northeast (disambiguation), Northwest (disambiguation), Southeast (disambiguation) and Southwest (disambiguation).

The names of the compass point directions follow these rules:

8-wind compass rose
  • The four cardinal directions are north (N), east (E), south (S), west (W), at 90° angles on the compass rose.
  • The four ordinal (or intercardinal) directions are formed by bisecting the angle of the cardinal winds: northeast (NE), southeast (SE), southwest (SW) and northwest (NW). The name of each ordinal is simply a combination of the cardinals that it bisects.
  • The eight principal winds (or main winds) are the four cardinals and four ordinals considered together, that is: N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW. Each principal wind is 45° from its two neighbours. The principal winds form the basic 8-wind compass rose.
16-wind compass rose
  • The eight half-winds are the direction points obtained by bisecting the angles between the principal winds. The half-winds are north-northeast (NNE), east-northeast (ENE), east-southeast (ESE), south-southeast (SSE), south-southwest (SSW), west-southwest (WSW), west-northwest (WNW) and north-northwest (NNW). The name of each half-wind is constructed by combining the names of the principal winds to either side, with the cardinal wind coming first and the ordinal wind second.
  • The eight principal winds and the eight half-winds together form the 16-wind compass rose, with each compass point at a ​22 1⁄2° angle from its two neighbours.
32-point compass rose 32-wind compass card, with English names 32-wind compass rose
  • All of the points in the 16-wind compass rose (above) plus the sixteen quarter-winds (listed below) together form the 32-wind compass rose.
  • The sixteen quarter-winds are the direction points obtained by bisecting the angles between the points on the 16-wind compass rose. The quarter-winds are: (in the first quadrant) north by east (NbE), northeast by north (NEbN), northeast by east (NEbE), and east by north (EbN); (in the second quadrant) east by south (EbS), southeast by east (SEbE), southeast by south (SEbS), and south by east (SbE); (in the third quadrant) south by west (SbW), southwest by south (SWbS), southwest by west (SWbW), and west by south (WbS); (in the fourth quadrant) west by north (WbN), northwest by west (NWbW), northwest by north (NWbN), and north by west (NbW).[4][5]
  • The name of a quarter-wind is "X by Y", where X is a principal wind and Y is a cardinal wind. As a mnemonic device, it is useful to think of "X by Y" as a shortcut for the phrase "one quarter-wind from X towards Y", where a "quarter" is ​11 1⁄4°, X is the nearest principal wind, and Y is the next (more distant) cardinal wind. So, for example, "northeast by east" means "one quarter from NE towards E", "southwest by south" means "one quarter from SW towards S", etc.

In summary, the 32-wind compass rose is yielded from the eight principal winds, eight half-winds and sixteen quarter-winds combined together, with each compass direction point at an ​11 1⁄4° angle from the next.

In the mariner's exercise of boxing the compass, all thirty-two points of the compass are named in clockwise order.[6]

Traditional names

The traditional compass rose of eight winds (and its 16-wind and 32-wind derivatives) was invented by seafarers in the Mediterranean Sea during the Middle Ages (with no obvious connection to the twelve classical compass winds of the ancient Greeks and Romans). The traditional mariner's wind names were expressed in Italian, or more precisely, the Italianate Mediterranean lingua franca common among sailors in the 13th and 14th centuries, which was principally composed of Genoese (Ligurian), mixed with Venetian, Sicilian, Provençal, Catalan, Greek and Arabic terms from around the Mediterranean basin.

32-wind compass with traditional names (and traditional colour code)

This Italianate patois was used to designate the names of the principal winds on the compass rose found in mariners' compasses and portolan charts of the 14th and 15th centuries. The "traditional" names of the eight principal winds are:

  • (N) – Tramontana
  • (NE) – Greco (or Bora in some Venetian sources)
  • (E) – Levante (sometimes Oriente)
  • (SE) – Scirocco (or Exaloc in Catalan)
  • (S) – Ostro (or Mezzogiorno in Venetian)
  • (SW) – Libeccio (or Garbino, Eissalot in Provençal)
  • (W) – Ponente (or Zephyrus in Greek)
  • (NW) – Maestro (or Mistral in Provençal)

Local spelling variations are far more numerous than listed, e.g. Tramutana, Gregale, Grecho, Sirocco, Xaloc, Lebeg, Libezo, Leveche, Mezzodi, Migjorn, Magistro, Mestre, etc. Traditional compass roses will typically have the initials T, G, L, S, O, L, P, and M on the main points. Portolan charts also colour-coded the compass winds: black for the eight principal winds, green for the eight half-winds, and red for the sixteen quarter-winds.

Each half-wind name is simply a combination of the two principal winds that it bisects, with the shortest name usually placed first, for example: NNE is "Greco-Tramontana"; ENE is "Greco-Levante"; SSE is "Ostro-Scirocco", etc. The quarter winds are expressed with an Italian phrase, "Quarto di X verso Y" (pronounced [7][8][9] one quarter from X towards Y), or "X al Y" (X to Y) or "X per Y" (X by Y). There are no irregularities to trip over; the closest principal wind always comes first, the more distant one second, for example: north-by-east is "Quarto di Tramontana verso Greco"; and northeast-by-north is "Quarto di Greco verso Tramontana".

32 compass points

The table below shows how the 32 compass points are named.

Each point has an angular range of 11.250 degrees where: middle azimuth is the horizontal angular direction (from north) of the given compass bearing; minimum is the lower angular limit of the compass point; and maximum is the upper angular limit of the compass point.

No. Compass point Abbreviation Traditional wind point Minimum Middle azimuth Maximum 0 North N Tramontana 354.375° 0.000° 5.625° 1 North by east NbE Quarto di Tramontana verso Greco 5.625° 11.250° 16.875° 2 North-northeast NNE Greco-Tramontana 16.875° 22.500° 28.125° 3 Northeast by north NEbN Quarto di Greco verso Tramontana 28.125° 33.750° 39.375° 4 Northeast NE Greco 39.375° 45.000° 50.625° 5 Northeast by east NEbE Quarto di Greco verso Levante 50.625° 56.250° 61.875° 6 East-northeast ENE Greco-Levante 61.875° 67.500° 73.125° 7 East by north EbN Quarto di Levante verso Greco 73.125° 78.750° 84.375° 8 East E Levante 84.375° 90.000° 95.625° 9 East by south EbS Quarto di Levante verso Scirocco 95.625° 101.250° 106.875° 10 East-southeast ESE Levante-Scirocco 106.875° 112.500° 118.125° 11 Southeast by east SEbE Quarto di Scirocco verso Levante 118.125° 123.750° 129.375° 12 Southeast SE Scirocco 129.375° 135.000° 140.625° 13 Southeast by south SEbS Quarto di Scirocco verso Ostro 140.625° 146.250° 151.875° 14 South-southeast SSE Ostro-Scirocco 151.875° 157.500° 163.125° 15 South by east SbE Quarto di Ostro verso Scirocco 163.125° 168.750° 174.375° 16 South S Ostro 174.375° 180.000° 185.625° 17 South by west SbW Quarto di Ostro verso Libeccio 185.625° 191.250° 196.875° 18 South-southwest SSW Ostro-Libeccio 196.875° 202.500° 208.125° 19 Southwest by south SWbS Quarto di Libeccio verso Ostro 208.125° 213.750° 219.375° 20 Southwest SW Libeccio 219.375° 225.000° 230.625° 21 Southwest by west SWbW Quarto di Libeccio verso Ponente 230.625° 236.250° 241.875° 22 West-southwest WSW Ponente-Libeccio 241.875° 247.500° 253.125° 23 West by south WbS Quarto di Ponente verso Libeccio 253.125° 258.750° 264.375° 24 West W Ponente 264.375° 270.000° 275.625° 25 West by north WbN Quarto di Ponente verso Maestro 275.625° 281.250° 286.875° 26 West-northwest WNW Maestro-Ponente 286.875° 292.500° 298.125° 27 Northwest by west NWbW Quarto di Maestro verso Ponente 298.125° 303.750° 309.375° 28 Northwest NW Maestro 309.375° 315.000° 320.625° 29 Northwest by north NWbN Quarto di Maestro verso Tramontana 320.625° 326.250° 331.875° 30 North-northwest NNW Maestro-Tramontana 331.875° 337.500° 343.125° 31 North by west NbW Quarto di Tramontana verso Maestro 343.125° 348.750° 354.375° 32 North N Tramontana 354.375° 360.000° 5.625° Half- and quarter-points Compass rose from "American Practical Navigator" 1916

By the middle of the 18th century, the 32-point system had been further extended by using half- and quarter-points to give a total of 128 directions.[3] These fractional points are named by appending, for example 1/4east, 1/2east, or 3/4east to the name of one of the 32 points. Each of the 96 fractional points can be named in two ways, depending on which of the two adjoining whole points is used, for example, N3/4E is equivalent to NbE1/4N. Either form is easily understood but alternative conventions as to correct usage developed in different countries and organisations. "It is the custom in the United States Navy to box from north and south toward east and west, with the exception that divisions adjacent to a cardinal or inter-cardinal point are always referred to that point."[10] The Royal Navy used the additional "rule that quarter points were never read from a point beginning and ending with the same letter."[11]

Compass roses very rarely named the fractional points and only showed small, unlabelled markers as a guide for helmsmen.

128 compass directions

The table below shows how each of the 128 directions are named. The first two columns give the number of points and degrees clockwise from north. The third gives the equivalent bearing to the nearest degree from north or south towards east or west. The "CW" column gives the fractional-point bearings increasing in the clockwise direction and "CCW" counterclockwise. The final three columns show three common naming conventions: No "by" avoids the use of "by" with fractional points; "USN" is the system used by the US Navy; and "RN" is the Royal Navy system. Colour coding shows whether each of the three naming systems matches the "CW" or "CCW" column.

Points Degrees Bearing CW CCW No "by" USN RN 000/0 000° 00′ 00″ N N 001/4 002° 48′ 45″ N 03° E N1/4E NbE3/4N N1/4E N1/4E N1/4E 001/2 005° 37′ 30″ N 06° E N1/2E NbE1/2N N1/2E N1/2E N1/2E 003/4 008° 26′ 15″ N 08° E N3/4E NbE1/4N N3/4E N3/4E N3/4E 010/0 011° 15′ 00″ N 11° E NbE 01 1/4 014° 03′ 45″ N 14° E NbE1/4E NNE3/4N NNE3/4N NbE1/4E NbE1/4E 01 1/2 016° 52′ 30″ N 17° E NbE1/2E NNE1/2N NNE1/2N NbE1/2E NbE1/2E 01 3/4 019° 41′ 15″ N 20° E NbE3/4E NNE1/4N NNE1/4N NbE3/4E NbE3/4E 020/0 022° 30′ 00″ N 23° E NNE 02 1/4 025° 18′ 45″ N 25° E NNE1/4E NEbN3/4N NNE1/4E NNE1/4E NNE1/4E 02 1/2 028° 07′ 30″ N 28° E NNE1/2E NEbN1/2N NNE1/2E NNE1/2E NNE1/2E 02 3/4 030° 56′ 15″ N 31° E NNE3/4E NEbN1/4N NNE3/4E NNE3/4E NNE3/4E 030/0 033° 45′ 00″ N 34° E NEbN 03 1/4 036° 33′ 45″ N 37° E NEbN1/4E NE3/4N NE3/4N NE3/4N NE3/4N 03 1/2 039° 22′ 30″ N 39° E NEbN1/2E NE1/2N NE1/2N NE1/2N NE1/2N 03 3/4 042° 11′ 15″ N 42° E NEbN3/4E NE1/4N NE1/4N NE1/4N NE1/4N 040/0 045° 00′ 00″ N 45° E NE 04 1/4 047° 48′ 45″ N 48° E NE1/4E NEbE3/4N NE1/4E NE1/4E NE1/4E 04 1/2 050° 37′ 30″ N 51° E NE1/2E NEbE1/2N NE1/2E NE1/2E NE1/2E 04 3/4 053° 26′ 15″ N 53° E NE3/4E NEbE1/4N NE3/4E NE3/4E NE3/4E 050/0 056° 15′ 00″ N 56° E NEbE 05 1/4 059° 03′ 45″ N 59° E NEbE1/4E ENE3/4N ENE3/4N NEbE1/4E NEbE1/4E 05 1/2 061° 52′ 30″ N 62° E NEbE1/2E ENE1/2N ENE1/2N NEbE1/2E NEbE1/2E 05 3/4 064° 41′ 15″ N 65° E NEbE3/4E ENE1/4N ENE1/4N NEbE3/4E NEbE3/4E 060/0 067° 30′ 00″ N 68° E ENE 06 1/4 070° 18′ 45″ N 70° E ENE1/4E EbN3/4N ENE1/4E ENE1/4E EbN3/4N 06 1/2 073° 07′ 30″ N 73° E ENE1/2E EbN1/2N ENE1/2E ENE1/2E EbN1/2N 06 3/4 075° 56′ 15″ N 76° E ENE3/4E EbN1/4N ENE3/4E ENE3/4E EbN1/4N 070/0 078° 45′ 00″ N 79° E EbN 07 1/4 081° 33′ 45″ N 82° E EbN1/4E E3/4N E3/4N E3/4N E3/4N 07 1/2 084° 22′ 30″ N 84° E EbN1/2E E1/2N E1/2N E1/2N E1/2N 07 3/4 087° 11′ 15″ N 87° E EbN3/4E E1/4N E1/4N E1/4N E1/4N 080/0 090° 00′ 00″ E E 08 1/4 092° 48′ 45″ S 87° E E1/4S EbS3/4E E1/4S E1/4S E1/4S 08 1/2 095° 37′ 30″ S 84° E E1/2S EbS1/2E E1/2S E1/2S E1/2S 08 3/4 098° 26′ 15″ S 82° E E3/4S EbS1/4E E3/4S E3/4S E3/4S 090/0 101° 15′ 00″ S 79° E EbS 09 1/4 104° 03′ 45″ S 76° E EbS1/4S ESE3/4E ESE3/4E ESE3/4E EbS1/4S 09 1/2 106° 52′ 30″ S 73° E EbS1/2S ESE1/2E ESE1/2E ESE1/2E EbS1/2S 09 3/4 109° 41′ 15″ S 70° E EbS3/4S ESE1/4E ESE1/4E ESE1/4E EbS3/4S 100/0 112° 30′ 00″ S 68° E ESE 10 1/4 115° 18′ 45″ S 65° E ESE1/4S SEbE3/4E ESE1/4S SEbE3/4E SEbE3/4E 10 1/2 118° 07′ 30″ S 62° E ESE1/2S SEbE1/2E ESE1/2S SEbE1/2E SEbE1/2E 10 3/4 120° 56′ 15″ S 59° E ESE3/4S SEbE1/4E ESE3/4S SEbE1/4E SEbE1/4E 110/0 123° 45′ 00″ S 56° E SEbE 11 1/4 126° 33′ 45″ S 53° E SEbE1/4S SE3/4E SE3/4E SE3/4E SE3/4E 11 1/2 129° 22′ 30″ S 51° E SEbE1/2S SE1/2E SE1/2E SE1/2E SE1/2E 11 3/4 132° 11′ 15″ S 48° E SEbE3/4S SE1/4E SE1/4E SE1/4E SE1/4E 120/0 135° 00′ 00″ S 45° E SE 12 1/4 137° 48′ 45″ S 42° E SE1/4S SEbS3/4E SE1/4S SE1/4S SE1/4S 12 1/2 140° 37′ 30″ S 39° E SE1/2S SEbS1/2E SE1/2S SE1/2S SE1/2S 12 3/4 143° 26′ 15″ S 37° E SE3/4S SEbS1/4E SE3/4S SE3/4S SE3/4S 130/0 146° 15′ 00″ S 34° E SEbS 13 1/4 149° 03′ 45″ S 31° E SEbS1/4S SSE3/4E SSE3/4E SSE3/4E SSE3/4E 13 1/2 151° 52′ 30″ S 28° E SEbS1/2S SSE1/2E SSE1/2E SSE1/2E SSE1/2E 13 3/4 154° 41′ 15″ S 25° E SEbS3/4S SSE1/4E SSE1/4E SSE1/4E SSE1/4E 140/0 157° 30′ 00″ S 23° E SSE 14 1/4 160° 18′ 45″ S 20° E SSE1/4S SbE3/4E SSE1/4S SbE3/4E SbE3/4E 14 1/2 163° 07′ 30″ S 17° E SSE1/2S SbE1/2E SSE1/2S SbE1/2E SbE1/2E 14 3/4 165° 56′ 15″ S 14° E SSE3/4S SbE1/4E SSE3/4S SbE1/4E SbE1/4E 150/0 168° 45′ 00″ S 11° E SbE 15 1/4 171° 33′ 45″ S 08° E SbE1/4S S3/4E S3/4E S3/4E S3/4E 15 1/2 174° 22′ 30″ S 06° E SbE1/2S S1/2E S1/2E S1/2E S1/2E 15 3/4 177° 11′ 15″ S 03° E SbE3/4S S1/4E S1/4E S1/4E S1/4E 160/0 180° 00′ 00″ S S 16 1/4 182° 48′ 45″ S 03° W S1/4W SbW3/4S S1/4W S1/4W S1/4W 16 1/2 185° 37′ 30″ S 06° W S1/2W SbW1/2S S1/2W S1/2W S1/2W 16 3/4 188° 26′ 15″ S 08° W S3/4W SbW1/4S S3/4W S3/4W S3/4W 170/0 191° 15′ 00″ S 11° W SbW 17 1/4 194° 03′ 45″ S 14° W SbW1/4W SSW3/4S SSW3/4S SbW1/4W SbW1/4W 17 1/2 196° 52′ 30″ S 17° W SbW1/2W SSW1/2S SSW1/2S SbW1/2W SbW1/2W 17 3/4 199° 41′ 15″ S 20° W SbW3/4W SSW1/4S SSW1/4S SbW3/4W SbW3/4W 180/0 202° 30′ 00″ S 23° W SSW 18 1/4 205° 18′ 45″ S 25° W SSW1/4W SWbS3/4S SSW1/4W SSW1/4W SSW1/4W 18 1/2 208° 07′ 30″ S 28° W SSW1/2W SWbS1/2S SSW1/2W SSW1/2W SSW1/2W 18 3/4 210° 56′ 15″ S 31° W SSW3/4W SWbS1/4S SSW3/4W SSW3/4W SSW3/4W 190/0 213° 45′ 00″ S 34° W SWbS 19 1/4 216° 33′ 45″ S 37° W SWbS1/4W SW3/4S SW3/4S SW3/4S SW3/4S 19 1/2 219° 22′ 30″ S 39° W SWbS1/2W SW1/2S SW1/2S SW1/2S SW1/2S 19 3/4 222° 11′ 15″ S 42° W SWbS3/4W SW1/4S SW1/4S SW1/4S SW1/4S 200/0 225° 00′ 00″ S 45° W SW 20 1/4 227° 48′ 45″ S 48° W SW1/4W SWbW3/4S SW1/4W SW1/4W SW1/4W 20 1/2 230° 37′ 30″ S 51° W SW1/2W SWbW1/2S SW1/2W SW1/2W SW1/2W 20 3/4 233° 26′ 15″ S 53° W SW3/4W SWbW1/4S SW3/4W SW3/4W SW3/4W 210/0 236° 15′ 00″ S 56° W SWbW 21 1/4 239° 03′ 45″ S 59° W SWbW1/4W WSW3/4S WSW3/4S SWbW1/4W SWbW1/4W 21 1/2 241° 52′ 30″ S 62° W SWbW1/2W WSW1/2S WSW1/2S SWbW1/2W SWbW1/2W 21 3/4 244° 41′ 15″ S 65° W SWbW3/4W WSW1/4S WSW1/4S SWbW3/4W SWbW3/4W 220/0 247° 30′ 00″ S 68° W WSW 22 1/4 250° 18′ 45″ S 70° W WSW1/4W WbS3/4S WSW1/4W WSW1/4W WbS3/4S 22 1/2 253° 07′ 30″ S 73° W WSW1/2W WbS1/2S WSW1/2W WSW1/2W WbS1/2S 22 3/4 255° 56′ 15″ S 76° W WSW3/4W WbS1/4S WSW3/4W WSW3/4W WbS1/4S 230/0 258° 45′ 00″ S 79° W WbS 23 1/4 261° 33′ 45″ S 82° W WbS1/4W W3/4S W3/4S W3/4S W3/4S 23 1/2 264° 22′ 30″ S 84° W WbS1/2W W1/2S W1/2S W1/2S W1/2S 23 3/4 267° 11′ 15″ S 87° W WbS3/4W W1/4S W1/4S W1/4S W1/4S 240/0 270° 00′ 00″ W W 24 1/4 272° 48′ 45″ N 87° W W1/4N WbN3/4W W1/4N W1/4N W1/4N 24 1/2 275° 37′ 30″ N 84° W W1/2N WbN1/2W W1/2N W1/2N W1/2N 24 3/4 278° 26′ 15″ N 82° W W3/4N WbN1/4W W3/4N W3/4N W3/4N 250/0 281° 15′ 00″ N 79° W WbN 25 1/4 284° 03′ 45″ N 76° W WbN1/4N WNW3/4W WNW3/4W WNW3/4W WbN1/4N 25 1/2 286° 52′ 30″ N 73° W WbN1/2N WNW1/2W WNW1/2W WNW1/2W WbN1/2N 25 3/4 289° 41′ 15″ N 70° W WbN3/4N WNW1/4W WNW1/4W WNW1/4W WbN3/4N 260/0 292° 30′ 00″ N 68° W WNW 26 1/4 295° 18′ 45″ N 65° W WNW1/4N NWbW3/4W WNW1/4N NWbW3/4W NWbW3/4W 26 1/2 298° 07′ 30″ N 62° W WNW1/2N NWbW1/2W WNW1/2N NWbW1/2W NWbW1/2W 26 3/4 300° 56′ 15″ N 59° W WNW3/4N NWbW1/4W WNW3/4N NWbW1/4W NWbW1/4W 270/0 303° 45′ 00″ N 56° W NWbW 27 1/4 306° 33′ 45″ N 53° W NWbW1/4N NW3/4W NW3/4W NW3/4W NW3/4W 27 1/2 309° 22′ 30″ N 51° W NWbW1/2N NW1/2W NW1/2W NW1/2W NW1/2W 27 3/4 312° 11′ 15″ N 48° W NWbW3/4N NW1/4W NW1/4W NW1/4W NW1/4W 280/0 315° 00′ 00″ N 45° W NW 28 1/4 317° 48′ 45″ N 42° W NW1/4N NWbN3/4W NW1/4N NW1/4N NW1/4N 28 1/2 320° 37′ 30″ N 39° W NW1/2N NWbN1/2W NW1/2N NW1/2N NW1/2N 28 3/4 323° 26′ 15″ N 37° W NW3/4N NWbN1/4W NW3/4N NW3/4N NW3/4N 290/0 326° 15′ 00″ N 34° W NWbN 29 1/4 329° 03′ 45″ N 31° W NWbN1/4N NNW3/4W NNW3/4W NNW3/4W NNW3/4W 29 1/2 331° 52′ 30″ N 28° W NWbN1/2N NNW1/2W NNW1/2W NNW1/2W NNW1/2W 29 3/4 334° 41′ 15″ N 25° W NWbN3/4N NNW1/4W NNW1/4W NNW1/4W NNW1/4W 300/0 337° 30′ 00″ N 23° W NNW 30 1/4 340° 18′ 45″ N 20° W NNW1/4N NbW3/4W NNW1/4N NbW3/4W NbW3/4W 30 1/2 343° 07′ 30″ N 17° W NNW1/2N NbW1/2W NNW1/2N NbW1/2W NbW1/2W 30 3/4 345° 56′ 15″ N 14° W NNW3/4N NbW1/4W NNW3/4N NbW1/4W NbW1/4W 310/0 348° 45′ 00″ N 11° W NbW 31 1/4 351° 33′ 45″ N 08° W NbW1/4N N3/4W N3/4W N3/4W N3/4W 31 1/2 354° 22′ 30″ N 06° W NbW1/2N N1/2W N1/2W N1/2W N1/2W 31 3/4 357° 11′ 15″ N 03° W NbW3/4N N1/4W N1/4W N1/4W N1/4W 320/0 360° 00′ 00″ N N
See also
  • Bearing (navigation)
  • Cardinal direction
  • Classical compass winds
  • Compass rose
  • Course (navigation)
  • Heading (navigation)
  • Navigation
  • TVMDC
  • Wind rose
References
  1. ^ David Boardman. Graphicacy and Geography Teaching, 1983. Page 41 "In particular they should learn that wind direction is always stated as the direction from which, and not to which, the wind is blowing. Once children have grasped these eight points they can learn the full sixteen points of the compass."
  2. ^ Evans, Frederick John (1859). "Notes on the Magnetism of Ships". Pamphlets on British shipping. 1785–1861. By unknown editor. p. 8 (p. 433 of PDF). ISBN 0-217-85167-3. A deviation table having been formed by any of the processes now.so generally understood, either on the thirty-two points of the compass, the sixteen intermediate, or the eight principal pointsCS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ a b E. Chambers Cyclopaedia: or, an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Science, 5th Ed, 1743, pp. 206–7, "Points of the Compass, or Horizon, &c., in Geography and Navigation, are the points of division when the whole circle, quite around, is divided into 32 equal parts. These points are therefore at the distance of the 32d part of the circult, or 11° 15′, from each other; hence 5° 37 1/2′ is the distance of the half points and 2° 48 3/4′ is the distance of the quarter points.
  4. ^ Compass rose at geography.about.com
  5. ^ Washington Education
  6. ^ George Payn Quackenbos A Natural Philosophy: Embracing the Most Recent Discoveries 1860 "Mentioning the mariner's compass: the points of the compass in their order is called boxing the compass. — The compass box is suspended within a larger box by means of two brass hoops, or gimbals as they are called, supported at opposite ..."
  7. ^ "Wordreference.com's entry for 'quarto'".
  8. ^ "Wordreference.com's entry for 'di'".
  9. ^ "Wordreference.com's entry for 'verso'".
  10. ^ Bowditch, Nathaniel (1916). American Practical Navigator: An Epitome of Navigation and Nautical Astronomy. United States Hydrographic Office. p. 15.
  11. ^ Kemp, Peter, ed. (1988). "Box the Compass". The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea. Oxford University Press. p. 103. ISBN 0-19-282084-2.
External links
  • Wind Rose (archived) – discusses the origins of the names for compass directions.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Compass directionCardinal and ordinal directions
  • North
  • Northeast
  • East
  • Southeast
  • South
  • Southwest
  • West
  • Northwest
The eight principal winds
  • Tramontane
  • Gregale
  • Levant
  • Sirocco
  • Ostro
  • Libeccio
  • Ponente
  • Mistral


Southeast Memory Foam Travel Neck Pillow - Premium Contoured Design Super Comfortable Velvety Velour Plush Exterior Full Support w/ Carry Bag
Southeast Memory Foam Travel Neck Pillow - Premium Contoured Design Super Comfortable Velvety Velour Plush Exterior Full Support w/ Carry Bag
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Native Trees of the Southeast
Native Trees of the Southeast
The diversity of woody plants in the Southeast is unparalleled in North America. Native Trees of the Southeast is a practical, compact field guide for the identification of the more than 225 trees native to the region, from the Carolinas and eastern Tennessee south through Georgia into northern Florida and west through Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas into eastern Texas. For confident identification, nearly 600 photographs, close to 500 of them in color, illustrate leaves, flowers and fruits or cones, bark, and twigs with buds. Full descriptions are accompanied by keys for plants in both summer and winter condition, as well as over 200 range maps. Crucial differences between plants that may be mistaken for each other are discussed.

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Rico Industries NCAA Southeast Missouri State Indians Laser Inlaid Metal License Plate Tag, Silver
Rico Industries NCAA Southeast Missouri State Indians Laser Inlaid Metal License Plate Tag, Silver
Travel in style with Rico's laser inlaid metal license plate tag. Each acrylic plate comes decorated with colorful officially licensed team graphics displayed in the center of the silver-colored plate. Plates measure 12-inches in width by 6-inches in height and comes pre-drilled with holes for easy mounting on any vehicle. Made in the USA.

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Lonely Planet Southeast Asia on a shoestring (Travel Guide)
Lonely Planet Southeast Asia on a shoestring (Travel Guide)
Lonely Planet: The world’s number one travel guide publisher* Lonely Planet’s Southeast Asia on a Shoestring is your passport to having big experiences on a small budget, offering the most relevant, up-to-date advice on what to see and skip, what hidden discoveries await you and how to optimise your budget for an extended continental trip. Watch the sun rise over Cambodia’s temples of Angkor; hang out, hit the beach and learn to cook in Vietnam’s cosmopolitan, buzzing Hoi An; and kayak around the turquoise waters of Laos’ Si Phan Don. All with your trusted travel companion. Inside Lonely Planet’s Southeast Asia on a Shoestring: Budget-oriented recommendations with honest reviews - eating, sleeping, sightseeing, going out, hidden gems that most guidebooks miss Extensive planning tools and budget calculators Highlights and itineraries help you tailor your trip to your personal needs and interests Insider tips to save time and money and get around like a local, avoiding crowds and trouble spots Essential info at your fingertips - hours of operation, phone numbers, websites, transit tips, prices Cultural insights provide a richer, more rewarding travel experience - covering history, art, literature, cinema, landscapes Colour maps and images throughout Covers Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Singapore, Vietnam Useful features: First Time Southeast Asia, Big Adventures Small Budget, Off the Beaten Track, Border Crossing, Splurge, and Responsible Travel eBook Features: (Best viewed on tablet devices and smartphones) Downloadable PDF and offline maps prevent roaming and data charges Effortlessly navigate and jump between maps and reviews Add notes to personalise your guidebook experience Seamlessly flip between pages Bookmarks and speedy search capabilities get you to key pages in a flash Embedded links to recommendations' websites Zoom-in maps and images Inbuilt dictionary for quick referencing The Perfect Choice: Lonely Planet’s Southeast Asia on a shoestringis perfect for budget- and value-conscious travellers taking a big trip, and is packed with amazing sights and experiences, savvy tips and recommendations. After only a few of the destinations in this guide? Check out the relevant Lonely Planet destination guides. These are our most comprehensive titles, designed to immerse you in the culture and help you discover the best sights and get off the beaten track. About Lonely Planet: Lonely Planet is a leading travel media company and the world’s number one travel guidebook brand, providing both inspiring and trustworthy information for every kind of traveller since 1973. Over the past four decades, we’ve printed over 145 million guidebooks and grown a dedicated, passionate global community of travellers. You’ll also find our content online, and in mobile apps, video, 14 languages, nine international magazines, armchair and lifestyle books, ebooks, and more. ‘Lonely Planet guides are, quite simply, like no other.’ – New York Times ‘Lonely Planet. It's on everyone's bookshelves; it's in every traveller's hands. It's on mobile phones. It's on the Internet. It's everywhere, and it's telling entire generations of people how to travel the world.’ – Fairfax Media (Australia) *Source: Nielsen BookScan: Australia, UK, USA, 5/2016-4/2017Important Notice: The digital edition of this book may not contain all of the images found in the physical edition.

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Man Facing Southeast
Man Facing Southeast
Man Facing Southeast is Argentine director Eliseo Subiela's 1986 cult classic, a powerfully moving science-fiction parable of a saint-like stranger in an even stranger land our Earth. This critically-acclaimed gem has not been available on DVD or Blu-ray in the United States, until now.A man named Rantes (Hugo Soto) suddenly appears in a Buenos Aires psychiatric hospital expertly playing theorgan. But who is he this man with no recorded identity? Doctor Denis (Lorenzo Quinteros) dismisses Rantes' claim of being an alien visitor as a case of paranoid delusion. Beatriz (Ine s Vernengo), his only visitor, sees him as an intimate and knowing companion. And the other patients, intrigued by his mysterious intelligence, see him as their only source of hope. Inspiring, mystical, and unforgettable, Man Facing Southeast is one of the great science-fiction films of the 1980s.Special Features: Booklet with Director's Statement and essay by film historian Nancy J. Membrez, Interviews with: Director Eliseo Subiela, Lead actor Hugo Soto, Director of Photography Ricardo De Angelis

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Humminbird 600023-5 Southeast Plus
Humminbird 600023-5 Southeast Plus
The southeast States plus, version 2.0 map card has many standard and high definition lake maps for Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Kentucky. The plus Series allows for aerial image overlay on high definition waters in addition to all of the LakeMaster features. Now you have the ability to use the quality aerial photography to view the entry and exits of creek channels, see how far a Reef or weed line extends, and pick out shallow water rock piles, steep drop-offs or other features of the lake you've been missing from traditional maps. Features: - map card has many standard and high definition lake maps - allows for aerial image overlay on high definition waters - use the quality aerial photography to view the entry and exits of creek channels - see how far a Reef or weed line extends - pick out shallow water rock piles and steep drop-offs - see other features of the lake you've been missing from traditional maps. Specifications: - covers southeast States: Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Kentucky.

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Hot Sour Salty Sweet: A Culinary Journey Through Southeast Asia
Hot Sour Salty Sweet: A Culinary Journey Through Southeast Asia
Luminous at dawn and dusk, the Mekong is a river road, a vibrant artery that defines a vast and fascinating region. Here, along the world's tenth largest river, which rises in Tibet and joins the sea in Vietnam, traditions mingle and exquisite food prevails. Award-winning authors Jeffrey Alford and Naomi Duguid followed the river south, as it flows through the mountain gorges of southern China, to Burma and into Laos and Thailand. For a while the right bank of the river is in Thailand, but then it becomes solely Lao on its way to Cambodia. Only after three thousand miles does it finally enter Vietnam and then the South China Sea. It was during their travels that Alford and Duguid—who ate traditional foods in villages and small towns and learned techniques and ingredients from cooks and market vendors—came to realize that the local cuisines, like those of the Mediterranean, share a distinctive culinary approach: Each cuisine balances, with grace and style, the regional flavor quartet of hot, sour, salty, and sweet. This book, aptly titled, is the result of their journeys. Like Alford and Duguid's two previous works, Flatbreads and Flavors ("a certifiable publishing event" —Vogue) and Seductions of Rice ("simply stunning"—The New York Times), this book is a glorious combination of travel and taste, presenting enticing recipes in "an odyssey rich in travel anecdote" (National Geographic Traveler). The book's more than 175 recipes for spicy salsas, welcoming soups, grilled meat salads, and exotic desserts are accompanied by evocative stories about places and people. The recipes and stories are gorgeously illustrated throughout with more than 150 full-color food and travel photographs. In each chapter, from Salsas to Street Foods, Noodles to Desserts, dishes from different cuisines within the region appear side by side: A hearty Lao chicken soup is next to a Vietnamese ginger-chicken soup; a Thai vegetable stir-fry comes after spicy stir-fried potatoes from southwest China. The book invites a flexible approach to cooking and eating, for dishes from different places can be happily served and eaten together: Thai Grilled Chicken with Hot and Sweet Dipping Sauce pairs beautifully with Vietnamese Green Papaya Salad and Lao sticky rice. North Americans have come to love Southeast Asian food for its bright, fresh flavors. But beyond the dishes themselves, one of the most attractive aspects of Southeast Asian food is the life that surrounds it. In Southeast Asia, people eat for joy. The palate is wildly eclectic, proudly unrestrained. In Hot, Sour, Salty, Sweet, at last this great culinary region is celebrated with all the passion, color, and life that it deserves.

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Poster - Fishes of the Southeast Atlantic Coast
Poster - Fishes of the Southeast Atlantic Coast
This stunning poster includes 82 fish species, both common and exotic, found inshore, nearshore, and offshore along the Southeast Atlantic Coast of the U.S. from Cape Hatteras, NC down to Key West, FL.. Illustrations by Diane Peebles well known fine artist and aquatic illustrator based in St. Petersburg, Florida. Species selection by Dr. Bob Shipp, Professor of Marine Science at University South Alabama.

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Earth Sky & Water Poster - Peterson's Backyard Birds of the Southeast
Earth Sky & Water Poster - Peterson's Backyard Birds of the Southeast
This stunning poster includes 81 of the most common backyard birds of the region. Region includes: VA, NC, SC, GA, FL, AL, MS, TN, KY. Illustrations by Roger Tory Peterson, along with James Audubon, are Americas most famous bird naturalists and illustrators.

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