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Soyuz-2
Soyuz-2, GRAU index 14A14, is the collective designation for the new version of the Russian Soyuz rocket. In its basic form, it is a three-stage carrier

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This article is about the carrier rocket. For the 1968 test flight, see Soyuz 2 (1968 mission). Soyuz-2 (2.1a / 2.1b / ST-A / ST-B) A MetOp spacecraft ready for the launch atop a Soyuz-2.1a rocket.Function Orbital carrier rocketManufacturer TsSKB-ProgressCountry of origin RussiaCost per launch US$80 million (Arianespace)SizeHeight 46.3 m (152 ft)[1]Diameter 2.95 m (9 ft 8 in)Mass 312,000 kg (688,000 lb)[1]Stages 2 or 3Capacity Payload to LEO[a] 2.1a: 7,020 kg (15,480 lb)
2.1b: 8,200 kg (18,100 lb)[1]Payload to SSO[b] ST-A: 4,230 kg (9,330 lb)
ST-B: 4,900 kg (10,800 lb)[2]Payload to GTO[c] ST-A: 2,810 kg (6,190 lb)
ST-B: 3,250 kg (7,170 lb)[2] Associated rocketsFamily R-7 (Soyuz)Launch historyStatus ActiveLaunch sites
  • Baikonur Site 31/6
  • Plesetsk Site 43
  • Kourou ELS
  • Vostochny Site 1S
Total launches 77 (2.1a: 34, 2.1b: 39, 2.1v: 4)Successes 70 (2.1a: 31, 2.1b: 36, 2.1v: 3)Failures 4 (2.1a: 2, 2.1b: 2, 2.1v: 0)Partial failures 3 (2.1a: 1, 2.1b: 1, 2.1v: 1)First flight 2.1a: 8 November 2004
2.1b: 27 December 2006
2.1v: 28 December 2013Last flight 2.1a: 13 February 2018
2.1b: 16 June 2018
2.1v: 29 March 2018Notable payloads
  • CoRoT
  • Galileo
  • GLONASS
  • Progress
Boosters – Blok-B,V,G,D[3]No. boosters 4Length 19.6 m (64 ft)Diameter 2.68 m (8.8 ft)Empty mass 3,784 kg (8,342 lb)Gross mass 44,413 kg (97,914 lb)Propellant mass 39,160 kg (86,330 lb)Engines RD-107AThrust Sea level: 839.48 kN (188,720 lbf)
Vacuum: 1,019.93 kN (229,290 lbf)Specific impulse Sea level: 263.3 s (2.582 km/s)
Vacuum: 320.2 s (3.140 km/s)Burn time 118 secondsFuel LOX / RG-1First stage – Blok-A[3]Length 27.10 m (88.9 ft)Diameter 2.95 m (9.7 ft)Empty mass 6,545 kg (14,429 lb)Gross mass 99,765 kg (219,944 lb)Propellant mass 90,100 kg (198,600 lb)Engines RD-108AThrust Sea level: 792.41 kN (178,140 lbf)
Vacuum: 921.86 kN (207,240 lbf)Specific impulse Sea level: 257.7 s (2.527 km/s)
Vacuum: 320.6 s (3.144 km/s)Burn time 286 secondsFuel LOX / RG-1Second stage – Blok-I[3]Length 6.70 m (22.0 ft)Diameter 2.66 m (8 ft 9 in)Empty mass 2,355 kg (5,192 lb)Gross mass 27,755 kg (61,189 lb)Propellant mass 25,400 kg (56,000 lb)Engines 2.1a / STA: RD-0110
2.1b / STB: RD-0124Thrust RD-0110: 298 kN (67,000 lbf)
RD-0124: 294.3 kN (66,200 lbf)Specific impulse RD-0110: 326 seconds
RD-0124: 359 secondsBurn time 270 secondsFuel LOX / RG-1Upper stage (optional) – Fregat / Fregat-M / Fregat-MT[4]Length 1.5 m (4.9 ft)Diameter Fregat / Fregat-M: 3.35 m (11.0 ft)
Fregat-MT: 3.80 m (12.5 ft)Empty mass Fregat: 930 kg (2,050 lb)
Fregat-M: 980 kg (2,160 lb)
Fregat-MT: 1,050 kg (2,310 lb)Propellant mass Fregat: 5,250 kg (11,570 lb)
Fregat-M: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb)
Fregat-MT: 7,100 kg (15,700 lb)Engines S5.92Thrust 19.85 kN (4,460 lbf)Specific impulse 333.2 secondsBurn time 1100 secondsFuel N2O4 / UDMHUpper stage (optional) – Volga[5]Length 1.025 m (3.36 ft)Diameter 3.2 m (10 ft)Empty mass 840 kg (1,850 lb)Propellant mass 300–900 kg (660–1,980 lb)Engines 17D64[6]Thrust 2.94 kN (660 lbf)Specific impulse 307 secondsFuel N2O4 / UDMH

Soyuz-2, GRAU index 14A14, is the collective designation for the new version of the Russian Soyuz rocket. In its basic form, it is a three-stage carrier rocket for placing payloads into low Earth orbit. The first-stage boosters and two core stages feature uprated engines with improved injection systems, compared to the previous versions of the Soyuz. Digital flight control and telemetry systems allow the rocket to be launched from a fixed launch platform, whereas the launch platforms for earlier Soyuz rockets had to be rotated as the rocket could not perform a roll to change its heading in flight.

Soyuz-2 is often flown with an upper stage, which allows it to lift payloads into higher orbits, such as Molniya and geosynchronous orbits. The upper stage is equipped with independent flight control and telemetry systems from those used in the rest of the rocket. The NPO Lavochkin manufactured Fregat is the most commonly used upper stage.

Soyuz-2 rockets were first launched from Site 31 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, and Site 43 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, launch facilities shared with earlier R-7 derived rockets including the Soyuz-U and Molniya. Commercial Soyuz-2 flights are contracted by Starsem, and have launched from Site 31 at Baikonur and ELS (l'Ensemble de Lancement Soyouz), which has been built at the Guiana Space Centre on the northern coast of South America. The Soyuz-2 version ST-B can deliver 3,250 kg (7,170 lb) to geostationary transfer orbit from this equatorial site.[2] In 2016 the new Vostochny Cosmodrome started operating Soyuz-2 flights as well, from its first launch pad called Site 1S.

The Soyuz-2 has replaced the Molniya-M since 2010[7] and is taking over the missions of Soyuz-U and Soyuz-FG rockets which are gradually being phased out from 2013 to 2016 as production of Soyuz-2 ramps up.[8][9] TsSKB-Progress has halted production of Soyuz-U in April 2015; the final flight of a Soyuz-U rocket took place on 22 February 2017, carrying Progress MS-05 to the International Space Station. According to CNES officials interviewed in May 2018, launches of Soyuz from Guiana may be replaced by the Ariane 6 medium-lift version A62 in 2021.[10]

Contents
  • 1 Variants
    • 1.1 Soyuz-2.1a
    • 1.2 Soyuz-2.1b
    • 1.3 Soyuz-2.1v
    • 1.4 Modifications for various launch sites
  • 2 Notable missions
    • 2.1 Suborbital test flight
    • 2.2 Maiden launch
  • 3 Launch history
  • 4 See also
  • 5 Notes
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links
Variants

Soyuz-2 family includes 2.1a, 2.1b and 2.1v. The first two variants are modifications to the Soyuz-U launcher. The latter is a "light" version without side boosters.

When launched from the Kourou site, Soyuz-2 is always mated with the ST-type fairing; this version is called Soyuz-ST or Soyuz-STK, where additional "K" indicates special measures taken for preparing and launching the rocket in hot and humid conditions.[citation needed]

Soyuz-2.1a

The 2.1a version includes conversion from analog to digital flight control system and uprated engines on the booster and the first stage with improved injection systems. The new digital flight control and telemetry systems allow the rocket to launch from a fixed rather than angled launch platform and adjust its heading in flight. A digital control system also enables the launch of larger commercial satellites with wider and longer payload fairings such as the ST-type fairing. These fairings introduce too much aerodynamic instability for the old analog system to handle. This stage continues to use the RD-0110 engine.

The 2.1a/ST version is sometimes called Soyuz ST-A. The first launch, from Guiana, (17 December 2011 for Pléiades-HR 1A, SSOT, ELISA (4 satellites)) was a success.

Soyuz-2.1b

The 2.1b version adds an upgraded engine (RD-0124) with improved performance to the second stage. First launch took place from Plesetsk Cosmodrome Site 43 on 26 July 2008 with classified military payload.[11]

The 2.1b/ST version is sometimes called Soyuz ST-B. The first launch, from Guiana, was a success (21 October 2011), for the first two Galileo IOV satellites.

Soyuz-2.1v Main article: Soyuz-2.1v

The first draft of the 2.1v version was finished in 2009. It is a "light" version of the Soyuz-2 without the side boosters (blocks B, V, G and D). The Block A engine was replaced by the more powerful NK-33-1, which will eventually be replaced with the RD-193. The new launcher is able to deliver up to 2.8 tonnes in low Earth orbit.[12]

Modifications for various launch sites Further information: Soyuz at the Guiana Space Centre

The Soyuz-2.1a/1b versions launched from the Vostochny Cosmodrome and the Guiana Space Centre have a series of modifications over the stock units. Some of these might later be implemented on all the Soyuz-2, while some are particular requirements to the space port design.

Modifications for the Guiana Space Centre (GSC) version includes:

  • First use of a mobile service tower at the ELS that enabled vertical payload integration.[3]
  • European supplied payload adapters.[3]
  • European supplied KSE (French: Kit de Sauvegarde Européenne, lit. 'European Safeguard Kit'), a system to locate and transmit a flight termination signal.[3] It would activate the engine shutdown command and leave the vehicle in a ballistic trajectory.[13]
  • Adaptation of the S-Band telemetry system on all stages from the 5 TM bands available at Baikonur, and Plesetsk to the 3 allowed at the GSC range.[3]
  • Adaptation of the S-Band telemetry coding and frequency to the IRIG standard used at GSC.[3]
  • Adaptation of the oxygen purge system for directing to the outside the mobile gantry.[3]
  • Adaptation to the tropical GSC climate including the adaptation of the air conditioning system to local specifications and protective measures to avoid icing.[3] All holes and cavities were studied and certified to be adequately protected against intrusion of insects and rodent.[13]
  • The four boosters and the core stage were upgraded with pyrotechnic devices to breach the fuel tanks to assure that they would sink in the ocean. The other stages were shown to lose structural integrity on impact and thus proven to sink.[13]
  • At least initially, the boosters and core stage would use the pyrotechnically ignited 14D22 (RD-107A) and 14D23 (RD-108A) rather than the chemically ignited 14D22 kHz and 14D23 kHz used on the rest of the Soyuz-2.[13]

Modifications for the Vostochny Cosmodrome version includes:[14]

  • New and upgraded computer, N.A.Semikhatov NPO Automatika's Malachite-7, with six times more performance, better obsolescence protection, reduced weight.[15][16][17]
  • The new computer enabled a significant reduction on the cable network complexity thanks to multiplexing lines and using common buses.[14][17][18]
  • New nickel-cadmium batteries that eliminate the need for a dedicated battery charging station.[15]
  • The inclusion of on-board video system, that will enable real-time views of the launch.[15]
  • Since the launch pad at Vostochny also has a mobile gantry for vertical payload integration, similar to the ELS at Guiana, it has the necessary piping to direct the oxygen purges outside the gantry.[14]

On 1 October 2015 it was announced that parts of the assembly complex for the Soyuz-2 at Vostochny Cosmodrome were designed for a different modification of the rocket and are too small, so that the planned first launch in December 2015 was under question.[19] The first launch occurred on 28 April 2016 at 02:01:21 UTC.[20]

Notable missions This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2016) Suborbital test flight

On 8 November 2004, at 18:30 GMT (21:30 Moscow Time), the first Soyuz-2 carrier rocket, in the Soyuz-2.1a configuration, was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia. The rocket followed a sub-orbital trajectory, with the third stage and boilerplate payload re-entering over the Pacific Ocean.

Maiden launch

The first attempt at launching a Soyuz-2 to orbit, with the MetOp-A satellite, occurred on 17 July 2006. It was scrubbed two hours before the launch by an automatic sequence, after the onboard computer failed to check the launch azimuth. Fuelling of the rocket was underway at the time, and all launch complex equipment and on-board preliminary checks had proceeded without incident. The rocket was left fuelled on the launch pad, for the next attempt on 18 July. Launch was eventually conducted on 19 October.

Launch history Main article: List of R-7 launches # Launch date
Time (UTC) Configuration Spaceport Result Payload Remarks 1 8 November 2004
18:30 Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43 Success Zenit-8 (boilerplate) Suborbital test flight 2 19 October 2006
16:28 Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success MetOp A Weather satellite 3 24 December 2006
08:34 Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat Plesetsk
Site 43 Success Meridian 1 Military communications satellite 4 27 December 2006
14:28 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success CoRoT Astronomy satellite 5 26 July 2008
18:31 Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43 Success[21] Kosmos 2441 (Persona No.1) Imaging reconnaissance satellite Launch was successful but satellite failed after a few months of operations due to an electrical fault. 6 21 May 2009
21:53 Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat Plesetsk
Site 43 Failure[22] Meridian 2 Military communications satellite Bulging of third-stage combustion chamber led to fuel leak and automatic deactivation; satellite in unusable orbit after failed correction attempt. 7 17 September 2009
15:55 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success Meteor-M No.1
  • BLITS
  • IRIS
  • Sterkh-2
  • SumbandilaSat
  • UGATUSAT
  • Universitetsky-2
Weather satellite
+ 6 piggyback satellites 8 19 October 2010
17:11 Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success Globalstar-2 F1 (6 satellites) Communications satellites 9 2 November 2010
00:59 Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success Meridian 3 Military communications satellite 10 26 February 2011
03:07 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success Kosmos 2471 (GLONASS-K 701K) Navigation satellite 11 4 May 2011
17:41 Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success Meridian 4 Military communications satellite 12 13 July 2011
02:27 Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success Globalstar-2 F2 (6 satellites) Communications satellites 13 2 October 2011
20:15 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success Kosmos 2474 (GLONASS-M 742) Navigation satellite 14 21 October 2011
10:30 Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Success[23] Galileo IOV-1/2 Navigation satellites
First launch from Kourou 15 28 November 2011
08:25 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43 Success[24] Kosmos 2478 (GLONASS-M 746) Navigation satellite 16 17 December 2011
02:03 Soyuz ST-A
Fregat-M Kourou
ELS Success[25] Pleiades 1A
SSOT
ELISA 1/2/3/4 Imaging satellite
Earth observation satellite for Chile
Electronic Intelligence satellites 17 23 December 2011
12:08 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43 Failure[26] Meridian 5 Military communications satellite Anomaly led to premature third-stage engine deactivation followed by an explosion which caused it to veer off course; satellite not deployed. 18 28 December 2011
17:09 Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success[27] Globalstar-2 F3 (6 satellites) Communications satellite 19 17 September 2012
16:28 Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success MetOp B Weather satellite 20 12 October 2012
18:15 Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Success[28] Galileo IOV-3/4 Navigation satellites 21 14 November 2012
11:42 Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success Meridian 6 Military communications satellite 22 2 December 2012
02:02 Soyuz ST-A
Fregat Kourou
ELS Success[29] Pleiades 1B Imaging Satellite 23 6 February 2013
16:04:24 Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success Globalstar-2 F4 (6 satellites) Communications satellite 24 19 April 2013
10:00:00 Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success Bion-M No.1
  • Aist 2
  • Beesat 2/3
  • Dove-2
  • OSSI-1
  • SOMP
Biological science
+ 5 piggyback satellites 25 26 April 2013
05:23:46 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43 Success[30] Kosmos 2485 (GLONASS-M 747) Navigation satellite 26 7 June 2013
18:37:59 Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43 Success[31] Kosmos 2486 (Persona No.2) Imaging reconnaissance satellite 27 25 June 2013
17:28:48 Soyuz-2.1b Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success[32] Resurs-P No.1 Earth observation satellite 28 25 June 2013
19:27:03 Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Success[33] O3b-1/2/3/4 Communications satellites 29 19 December 2013
09:12:19 Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Success[34] Gaia Space observatory 30 28 December 2013
12:30 Soyuz-2-1v
Volga Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success[35] Aist 1, SKRL-756 #1/2 Maiden flight of Soyuz-2-1v 31 23 March 2014
22:54:03 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43 Success[36] Kosmos 2494 (GLONASS-M 754) Navigation satellite 32 3 April 2014
21:02:26 Soyuz ST-A
Fregat-M Kourou
ELS Success[37] Sentinel-1A Earth observation 33 6 May 2014
13:49:35 Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43 Success[38] Kosmos 2495 (Kobalt-M) Film-return reconnaissance satellite 34 14 June 2014
17:16:48 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success[39] Kosmos 2500 (GLONASS-M 755) Navigation satellite 35 8 July 2014
15:58:28 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success[40] Meteor-M No.2
  • AISSat-2
  • DX-1
  • Relek (MKA-FKI (PN2))
  • SkySat 2
  • TechDemoSat-1
  • UKube-1
Weather satellite
+ 6 piggyback satellites 36 10 July 2014
18:55:56 Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Success[41] O3b-5/6/7/8 Communications satellites 37 18 July 2014
20:50:00 Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success Foton-M No.4 Microgravity and biology research 38 22 August 2014
12:27:11 Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Partial failure[42] Galileo FOC-1/2 Navigation satellites Fregat upper stage guidance problem left the satellites in an incorrect elliptical orbit. Traced to a flaw in the Fregat thermal design with a heat bridge from the coolant line to fuel line causing freezing of fuel line. 39 29 October 2014
07:09:43 Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success Progress M-25M ISS logistics 40 30 October 2014
01:42:52 Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success Meridian 7 Military communications satellite 41 30 November 2014
21:52:26 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success Kosmos 2501 (GLONASS-K 702K) Navigation satellite 42 18 December 2014
18:37:00 Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Success O3b-9/10/11/12 Communications satellites Although the mission successfully placed the O3b constellation into the correct orbit, the telemetry system ceased to send telemetry data to ground controllers moments before third Fregat burn. Mission control afterwards directly relied to the satellites to confirm their condition and their position.[43] 43 25 December 2014
03:01:13 Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success Kosmos 2502 (Lotos No.1) Reconnaissance satellite 44 26 December 2014
18:55:50 Soyuz-2.1b Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success Resurs-P No.2 Earth observation satellite 45 27 February 2015
11:01:35 Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success Kosmos 2503 (Bars-M No.1) Military reconnaissance satellite 46 27 March 2015
21:46:18 Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Success Galileo FOC-3/4 Navigation satellites 47 28 April 2015
07:09:50 Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6 Failure Progress M-27M ISS logistics Spacecraft lost communications and attitude control soon after separation after damaged by vibration issues during launch.[44] International Space Station docking attempt cancelled.[45] Mission declared a total loss.[46] 48 5 June 2015
15:23:54 Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success Kosmos 2505 (Kobalt-M) Film-return reconnaissance satellite 49 23 June 2015
16:44:00 Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success Kosmos 2506 (Persona No.3) Imaging reconnaissance satellite 50 11 September 2015
02:08:10 Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Success[47] Galileo FOC-5/6 Navigation satellites 51 17 November 2015
06:33:41 Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success Kosmos 2510
(EKS) Early warning satellite 52 5 December 2015
14:09:00 Soyuz-2-1v
Volga Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Partial failure[48] Kanopus-ST 1 (Kosmos 2511)
KYuA 1 (Kosmos 2512) Earth observation
Radar calibration Soyuz-2-1v booster performed properly, however Kanopus-ST 1 satellite failed to detach from the satellite carrier atop the Volga upper stage. The KYuA-1 radar calibration sphere was mounted in the side of the satellite carrier and was able to successfully deploy. 53 17 December 2015
11:51:56 Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Success[49] Galileo FOC-8/9 Navigation satellites 54 21 December 2015
08:44:39 Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success Progress MS-01 ISS logistics 55 7 February 2016
00:21:07 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success Kosmos 2514 (GLONASS-M 751) Navigation satellite 56 13 March 2016
18:56:00 Soyuz-2.1b Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success Resurs-P No.3 Earth observation 57 24 March 2016
09:42 Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success Kosmos 2515 (Bars-M No.2) Military reconnaissance satellite 58 31 March 2016
16:23:57 Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success Progress MS-02 ISS logistics 59 25 April 2016
21:02:13 Soyuz ST-A
Fregat-M Kourou
ELS Success[50] Sentinel-1B[51]
MICROSCOPE[52]
  • AAUSAT 4
  • e-st@r-II
  • OUFTI 1
Earth observation
Astrophysics research
Technology 60 28 April 2016
02:01:21 Soyuz-2.1a Vostochny
Site 1S Success[20] Mikhailo Lomonosov[53]
  • Aist-2D[54]
  • SamSat 218
Gamma-ray astronomy
Technology demonstrations 61 24 May 2016
08:48:43 Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Success[55] Galileo FOC-10/11 Navigation satellites 62 29 May 2016
08:44:37 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success[56] Kosmos 2516 (GLONASS-M 760) Navigation satellite Third stage shut down prematurely during the launch. Fregat upper stage detected the problem and compensated with an extended firing, delivering the satellite to the correct orbit.[57] 63 28 January 2017
01:03:34 Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Success[58] Hispasat 36W-1 a.k.a. Hispasat AG1
Small GEO Communications 64 18 May 2017
11:54:53 Soyuz ST-A
Fregat-M Kourou
ELS Success[59] SES-15[60] Communications 65 25 May 2017
06:33 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success[61] EKS-2 Missile early warning 66 14 June 2017
09:20 Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success Progress MS-06 ISS logistics 67 23 June 2017
18:04 Soyuz-2-1v
Volga Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success[62] Kosmos 2519 Military satellite. Claimed as 14F150 Napryazhenie geodetic satellite within the Nivelir-ZU project. 68 14 July 2017
06:36:49 Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M Baikonur
Site 31/6 Partial failure Kanopus-V-IK
Many cubesats Earth observation
Heliophysics At least 9 of the 72 cubesats were reported to have failed, possibly due to an issue with the Fregat upper stage.[63] Glavkosmos, the cubesat launch provider, has later confirmed second stage anomaly.[64] 69 22 September 2017
00:02:32 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success GLONASS-M 752 Navigation satellite 70 14 October 2017
08:46:53 Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success Progress MS-07 ISS logistics 71 28 November 2017
05:41:46 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Vostochny Site 1S[65] Failure[66] Meteor-M No.2-1
Ionosfera
Baumanets
Several cubesats Weather satellite
Ionospheric research The orbital insertion burn was conducted while upper stage was oriented in the wrong direction sending it back in to the atmosphere. Roscosmos investigation found 20 years earlier Baikonur co-ordinates had mistakenly been hardcoded in a Fregat subroutine, and the mistake only manifested itself for the first time due to launching from Vostochny. The Russian Government and independent experts however consider the conclusion as a way of escaping individual blame.[67] 72 2 December 2017
10:43:26 Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success[68] Kosmos 2524 (Lotos-S1 No.1) Signals intelligence 73 1 February 2018
02:07:18[69] Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M Vostochny Site 1S[65] Success[70][71] Kanopus-V N3, N4
S-Net 1, 2, 3, 4
Lemur-2 74, 75, 76, 77
D-Star One v.1.1[72] Earth observation
Technology demonstration
Communications 74 13 February 2018
08:13:33 Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success[73] Progress MS-08 ISS logistics 75 9 March 2018
17:10:06 Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Success O3b-13/14/15/16 Communications 76 28 March 2018
17:38:42 Soyuz-2-1v Plesetsk
Success[74] Kosmos 2525 (EMKA) Military satellite 77 16 June 2018
21:30 Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Success Kosmos 2527 (GLONASS-M 756) Navigation satellite 78 9 July 2018
21:51 Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6 Success[75] Progress MS-09 ISS logistics July 2018
Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Scheduled[66] Bars-M 3L Military reconnaissance satellite July 2018
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Scheduled[66] GLONASS-M 759 Navigation satellite 19 September 2018
00:46:57 Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Scheduled[66] MetOp C Weather satellite Autumn 2018
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Scheduled[66] OneWeb × 10 (flight 1) Communications Autumn 2018
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Scheduled[66] OneWeb × 10 (flight 2) Communications October 2018
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Scheduled[66] GLONASS-M 760 Navigation satellite 31 October 2018
00:53 Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6 Scheduled[66] Progress MS-10 ISS logistics 6 December 2018
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M Vostochny Site 1S Scheduled[66] Meteor-M No.2-2
Ionosfera 3/4 Weather satellite
Ionospheric research 26 December 2018
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M Vostochny Site 1S Scheduled[66] Kanopus-V N5, N6
Dove Flock-w × 12 Earth observation Q4, 2018
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Planned[66] GLONASS-K 15 Navigation satellite Q4, 2018
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Planned[66] Meridian 8 (18L) Military communications satellite Q4, 2018
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Planned[66] Neitron ? 6 February 2019
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6 Scheduled[76] Progress MS-11 ISS logistics Q1, 2019
Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Planned[66] EgyptSat A Earth observation satellite April 2019
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6 Planned[66] Progress MS-12 ISS logistics June 2019
Soyuz-2.1b Baikonur
Site 31/6 Planned[66] Progress M-UM ISS assembly (Uzlovoy Module) August 2019
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6 Planned[66] Progress MS-13 ISS logistics 29 August 2019
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 1/5 Planned[66] Soyuz MS uncrewed test ISS crew transport September 2019
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 1/5 Planned[66] Soyuz MS-14 ISS crew transport Q3, 2019
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Planned[66] GLONASS-K 24 Navigation satellite October 2019
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6 Planned[66] Progress MS-14 ISS logistics Q4, 2019
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Planned[66] Kondor FKA №1 Navigation satellite 2019 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Planned[66] GLONASS-K 16 Navigation satellite 2019 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Planned[66] GLONASS-K 17 Navigation satellite 2019 (TBD)
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT Kourou
ELS Planned[77] O3b-17/18/19/20 Communications Q1, 2020
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Planned[66] GLONASS-K 25 Navigation satellite 2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Planned[66] GLONASS-K2 213 Navigation satellite 2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Plesetsk
Site 43/4 Planned[66] GLONASS-K2 214 Navigation satellite 2021 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M Baikonur or Vostochny[78] Planned[66] Luna-Glob lander (Luna 25) Lunar exploration See also
  • Spaceflight portal
  • Soyuz programme
Notes
  1. ^ 200 km (110 nmi) circular LEO 51.8° inclination from Baikonur
  2. ^ 820 km (440 nmi) SSO (with Fregat from Kourou)
  3. ^ 1,500 m/s (4,900 ft/s) ΔV deficit GTO (with Fregat from Kourou)
References
  1. ^ a b c "SOYUZ-2 Launch Vehicle / Power Characteristics". JSC SRC Progress. Retrieved 2015-08-20. 
  2. ^ a b c "SOYUZ-ST Launch Vehicle / Power Characteristics". JSC SRC Progress. Retrieved 2015-08-20. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Soyuz from the Guiana Space Centre – User's manual" (PDF). Arianespace. March 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2015. 
  4. ^ "Конструкция разгонного блока "Фрегат"". NPO Lavochkin (in Russian). Retrieved 10 March 2016. 
  5. ^ "Volga upper stage". Russianspaceweb.com. Retrieved 10 March 2016. 
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  7. ^ Zak, Anatoly (30 September 2010). "Last launch of the Molniya-M on Sept 30th 2010". RussianSpaceWeb. 
  8. ^ Zak, Anatoly (1 June 2011). "Soyuz-2 to replace its predecessors". RussianSpaceWeb. 
  9. ^ "Alexander Kirilin: "We are working on three rocket"". Volzkhskaya Kommuna. 1 June 2011. 
  10. ^ "Ariane 6 and beyond". 21 May 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018. 
  11. ^ Stephen Clark (26 July 2008). "Soyuz 2-1b rocket launches classified military payload". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 27 August 2014. 
  12. ^ "Rus/Souyz-2 launch vehicle (in Russian)". 
  13. ^ a b c d Zak, Anatoly (23 August 2015). "Soyuz-2 launch vehicle (14A14)". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 2015-08-24. 
  14. ^ a b c В РКЦ «Прогресс» завершены испытания ракеты-носителя для первого запуска с «Восточного» [JSC SRC Progress completes testing on the launch vehicle for the first Vostochny launch] (in Russian). JSC SRC Progress. 20 August 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-20. 
  15. ^ a b c Обновлённые «Союзы» для Восточного [Updated Soyuz for Vostochny] (in Russian). 4 November 2014. Retrieved 2015-08-20. 
  16. ^ «Союз-2» приспособят к запуску с «Восточного» [Soyuz-2 to be adapted to Vostochny] (in Russian). lenta.ru. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 2015-08-21. 
  17. ^ a b Системы управления ракет-носителей Союз-2, Союз-СТ, Союз-2-1В [Control systems of launch vehicles Soyuz-2, Soyuz-ST, Soyuz 2-1V] (in Russian). N.A.Semikhatov NPO Automatika. Retrieved 2015-08-21. 
  18. ^ V. M. Antimirov; A. B. Umansky; L. N. Shalimov (2013). Бортовые цифровые вычислительные системы семейства «Малахит» для работы в экстремальных условиях [Onboard digital computer systems of the "Malachite" family for extreme conditions.]. Vestnik Samara State Aerospace University (in Russian). Vestnik Samara State Aerospace University (4 (42) UDC 629.7.05:004.3): 1. Retrieved 2015-08-21. 
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  20. ^ a b Zak, Anatoly. "Soyuz historic first mission from Vostochny". RussianSpaceWeb.com. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
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  22. ^ Zak, Anatoly. "The Meridian satellite (14F112)". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 3 May 2011. 
  23. ^ Soyuz flight VS01 Lifts Off From French Guiana.
  24. ^ Glonass-M satellite launched into orbit. Archived 11 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine.(in Russian)
  25. ^ Six defense satellites launched by Soyuz rocket
  26. ^ Russian satellite crashes into Siberia after launch
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  28. ^ Soyuz ST-B launches Galileo twins successfully to orbit.
  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  30. ^ Third Soyuz launch in a week bolsters Glonass system
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  33. ^ "Arianespace launch VS05 > Soyuz ST-B – O3b: Mission accomplished!" (Press release). Arianespace. 25 June 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2015. 
  34. ^ Soyuz ST-B successfully launches Gaia space observatory
  35. ^ http://sputniknews.com/russia/20131228/186021089.html
  36. ^ Fresh Glonass navigation satellite launched by Russia
  37. ^ Graham, William; Bergin, Chris (3 April 2014). "Arianespace Soyuz ST-A launches Sentinel-1A mission". Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  38. ^ Soyuz-2-1A launches Kobalt-M reconnaissance satellite
  39. ^ Fresh Glonass navigation satellite launched by Russia
  40. ^ Lift-off for British demo satellites
  41. ^ "Arianespace advances O3b Networks' revolutionary vision with another Soyuz launch success". Arianespace. 10 July 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2015. 
  42. ^ "Inquiry into Galileo launch anomaly to focus on Fregat". 
  43. ^ de Selding, Peter (15 January 2015). "Soyuz Glitches Shake EC's Confidence in Vehicle". SpaceNews.com. SpaceNews. Retrieved 6 December 2017. 
  44. ^ "РОСКОСМОС: "ПРОГРЕСС М-27М" – ОПРЕДЕЛЕНА ПРИЧИНА АВАРИИ (ROSCOSMOS: "Progress M-27M" – cause of accident determined)" (in Russian). Roscosmos. 1 June 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  45. ^ "Progress Cargo Vessel Docking With Space Station Canceled". Sputnik International. Sputnik. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  46. ^ "Russian spacecraft Progress M-27M 'out of control'". BBC News. British Broadcasting Company. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  47. ^ "Arianespace's latest Galileo mission a success: With Soyuz launch of two satellites, Arianespace has now deployed one-third of the constellation" (Press release). Arianespace. 11 September 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2015. 
  48. ^ "Russian Soyuz-2.1v launch a partial failure". 
  49. ^ Zak, Anatoly (17 December 2015). "Soyuz completes its eighth mission with Galileo satellites". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 2015-12-17. 
  50. ^ Clark, Stephen (25 April 2016). "Soyuz blasts off with environmental satellite, general relativity probe". Retrieved 2016-04-26. 
  51. ^ Blau, Patrick (25 April 2016). "Sentinel-1 Spacecraft Overview". Retrieved 2016-04-26. 
  52. ^ Blau, Patrick (25 April 2016). "MicroSCOPE". Retrieved 2016-04-26. 
  53. ^ Blau, Patrick (25 April 2016). "Lomonosov Satellite (MVL-300)". Retrieved 2016-05-07. 
  54. ^ Blau, Patrick (25 April 2016). "AIST-2D Satellite". Retrieved 2016-05-07. 
  55. ^ Zak, Anatoly (28 May 2016). "Soyuz completes its ninth Galileo mission". Retrieved 2016-05-30. 
  56. ^ Bargin, Chris (29 May 2016). "Russia deploys another GLONASS-M spacecraft via Soyuz 2-1B launch". Retrieved 2016-05-29. 
  57. ^ "Irregularity occurred as Soyuz upper stage was orbiting Glonass satellite". TASS. Retrieved 2016-05-30. 
  58. ^ Clark, Stephen (28 January 2017). "Soyuz rocket supplies sendoff for multi-national telecom payload". Retrieved 29 January 2017. 
  59. ^ "Flight VS17: With Soyuz, Arianespace successfully launches SES-15 – the first all-electric satellite for SES" (Press release). Arianespace. 18 May 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  60. ^ "Building on its 2016 successes, Arianespace looks to the future with confidence at the service of its customers" (Press release). Arianespace. 4 January 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  61. ^ "Soyuz rocket successfully delivers EKS-2 early-warning satellite to rare orbit". spaceflightinsider.com. 25 May 2016. 
  62. ^ "Soyuz-2-1v launches a secret satellite". russianspaceweb.com. Retrieved 12 July 2017. 
  63. ^ "Astro Digital announces first cubesats launched on Soyuz failed". Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  64. ^ "Glavcosmos confirmed launch anomaly". gazeta.ru. 12 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 
  65. ^ a b "Two launches from Russia's new Vostochny space center due this year – Roscosmos". TASS. 12 April 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2017. 
  66. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Pietrobon, Steven (18 June 2018). "Russian Launch Manifest". Retrieved 20 June 2018. 
  67. ^ http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Russian_space_agency_blames_satellite_loss_on_programming_error_999.html
  68. ^ Graham, William (2 December 2017). "Russia launches Lotos mission via Soyuz 2-1B rocket". www.nasaspaceflight.com. NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 4 December 2017. 
  69. ^ Clark, Stephen (1 February 2018). "Soyuz rocket fires into space with 11 satellites – Spaceflight Now". spaceflightnow.com. Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 1 February 2018. 
  70. ^ "РОСКОСМОС. КОСМИЧЕСКИЕ АППАРАТЫ «КАНОПУС-В» № 3 И № 4 ВЫВЕДЕНЫ НА РАСЧЕТНЫЕ ОРБИТЫ" [ROSKOSMOS. SPACECRAFTS "KANOPUS-B" No. 3 AND No. 4 ARE SEPARATED INTO INTENDED ORBIT] (in Russian). Roscosmos. February 1, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2018. 
  71. ^ "РОСКОСМОС. АМЕРИКАНСКИЕ И ГЕРМАНСКИЕ МАЛЫЕ КОСМИЧЕСКИЕ АППАРАТЫ ВЫВЕДЕНЫ НА ОРБИТУ ЗЕМЛИ" [ROSKOSMOS. AMERICAN AND GERMAN SMALL SPACECRAFTS ARE RELEASED INTO EARTH ORBIT] (in Russian). Roscosmos. February 1, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2018. 
  72. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Soyuz-2-1a Fregat-M". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 1 February 2018. 
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  74. ^ Graham, William (29 March 2018). "Spectacular Soyuz 2-1v launch deploys Kosmos 2525 – NASASpaceFlight.com". www.nasaspaceflight.com. NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 30 March 2018. 
  75. ^ Gebhardt, Chris (9 July 2018). "Progress MS-09 completes super fast 4-hour rendezvous with Space Station – NASASpaceFlight.com". www.nasaspaceflight.com. NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 5 August 2018. 
  76. ^ "International Space Station Calendar". Spaceflight 101. 29 July 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017. 
  77. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "O3b 13, ..., 20". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved March 14, 2018. 
  78. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Luna-Glob (Luna 25)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 3 August 2017. 
External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Soyuz (rocket).
  • Encyclopedia Astronautica article on Soyuz 2.1
  • Encyclopedia Astronautica article on Soyuz 2.1/Fregat
  • European Space Agency about Soyuz-ST (Russian name Soyuz-STK)
  • Soyuz User's Manual, from Starsem
  • Soyuz-2 launch vehicle, Russian Federal Space Agency
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R-7 rocketsMain articles
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See also
  • Korolyov Cross
  • Soyuz at the Guiana Space Centre
  • RD-107 (engine)
  • v
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Guiana Space CentreLaunch sites
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Rockets
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Related
  • Soyuz at the Guiana Space Centre
  • Kourou Station


Soyuz Owners' Workshop Manual: 1967 onwards (all models) - An insight into Russia's flagship spacecraft, from Moon missions to the International Space Station
Soyuz Owners' Workshop Manual: 1967 onwards (all models) - An insight into Russia's flagship spacecraft, from Moon missions to the International Space Station
The Soyuz spacecraft played a major role in Russia's plans for a manned landing on the Moon and several test models were flown at the height of the 'space race'. Originally designed for circumlunar flight, Soyuz has been the mainstay of Russia's space program.

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Good Smile Soyuz Rocket & Transport Train 1: 150 Scale Plastic Model Kit
Good Smile Soyuz Rocket & Transport Train 1: 150 Scale Plastic Model Kit
From Good Smile. The Soyuz rocket and spacecraft are currently the only manned vehicles capable of sending astronauts to the international space station (ISS), and the complete rocket together with its transportation train have now been converted into a plastic AUG179059 kit! both the rocket and train have been intricately shrunk down to 1/150th scale, making the Width of the wheels just 9mm in size. The AUG179059 can not only be displayed as the complete rocket, but also laid horizontally on the train during transport (wheels do not move). the cast makes use of eight different colors that preserve the look of the rocket as well as each of the processes that it goes though. The AUG179059 is made from molded PS (polystyrene), and is made to ensure that fans will have great fun putting it together and painting it. All the processes from the rollout to the point that it reaches the ISS: transportation to the launch site, lift-off preparations, the separation of the Multistage boosters and the deployment of the Soyuz spacecraft. Recreate the drama of a lift-off right in your very own collection with this complete rocket kit!

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$79.99



Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft (Springer Praxis Books)
Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft (Springer Praxis Books)
Rex Hall and Dave Shayler provide a unique history of the Soyuz spacecraft programme from conception, through development to its use, detailed in the only English language book available on this topic. Planned for publication in 2003, it will celebrate 40 years since the original concept of the Soyuz craft.

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$35.33
-$14.66(-29%)



Soyuz: The Final Flight
Soyuz: The Final Flight
FINALIST for BEST SECOND NOVEL in the 2018 NEXT GENERATION INDIE BOOK AWARDS.FINALIST for BEST SCIENCE FICTION NOVEL in the 2018 BOOK TALK RADIO CLUB AWARDS."By far, the best book I've read all year!" according to one reviewer."A wonder blend of space science and medicine" said another reviewer. When a disgruntled astronaut decides to get revenge, all hell breaks loose! By the time the final flight of the Russian space capsule Soyuz docks at the International Space Station, Derek Johnson -- one of its passengers and the oldest astronaut to fly in space -- is sick with a severe case of food poisoning that does not respond to antibiotics, and he soon dies. Recruited to assist NASA's medical team, Dr. Bob Kramer, a forensic toxicologist and expert witness, concludes that the cause of Johnson's death is a mutated form of Campylobacter jejuni bacteria that is not normally found in nature. In SOYUZ: The Final Flight -- a captivating, page-turning, science fiction thriller -- space exploration, mental illness, and forensic toxicology collide at the intersection of good and evil as Kramer unravels the source of a mysterious incident and suspicious deaths aboard the International Space Station.

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$12.50
-$11.49(-48%)



Skylab NASA Hat Apollo Soyuz Patch (Royal)
Skylab NASA Hat Apollo Soyuz Patch (Royal)
OSFM

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$25.00



MPC MPC792/06 Vostok Rocket
MPC MPC792/06 Vostok Rocket
MPC MPC792/06 Vostok Rocket

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$18.24
-$0.71(-4%)



Soyuz SU-023 Bomblet
Soyuz SU-023 Bomblet
The Soyuz SU-023 Bomblet, is a unique large diaphragm condenser microphone handmade in Russia by master machinists. The Bomblet capsule is modeled after the vintage 19A19 LOMO microphone. LOMO (Leningrad Optical Mechanical Association) was a French/Russian company originally founded in St. Petersburg in 1914 that produced advanced optical instruments, medical equipment, consumer still and movie cameras, projectors, and a vast range of audio equipment including microphones, preamps, compressors and mixing consoles.

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$1,199.00



LAMINATED POSTER Model of a Soyuz spacecraft docking with the Salyut-7 space station. The display is in front of one
LAMINATED POSTER Model of a Soyuz spacecraft docking with the Salyut-7 space station. The display is in front of one
Model of a Soyuz spacecraft docking with the Salyut-7 space station. The display is in front of one

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$15.99


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