Statue Of Liberty
Statue Of Liberty
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Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in

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Colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor For other uses, see Statue of Liberty (disambiguation).

  • Statue of Liberty
  • Liberty Enlightening the World
Location Liberty Island
Manhattan, New York City,
New York,[1] U.S.Coordinates 40°41′21″N 74°2′40″W / 40.68917°N 74.04444°W / 40.68917; -74.04444Coordinates: 40°41′21″N 74°2′40″W / 40.68917°N 74.04444°W / 40.68917; -74.04444Height
  • Height of copper statue (to torch): 151 feet 1 inch (46 meters)
  • From ground level to torch: 305 feet 1 inch (93 meters)
Dedicated October 28, 1886Restored 1938, 1984–1986, 2011–2012Sculptor Frédéric Auguste BartholdiVisitors 3.2 million (in 2009)[2]Governing body U.S. National Park ServiceWebsite Statue of Liberty National Monument UNESCO World Heritage SiteType CulturalCriteria i, viDesignated 1984 (8th session)Reference no. 307State Party United StatesRegion Europe and North America U.S. National MonumentDesignated October 15, 1924Designated by President Calvin Coolidge[3] U.S. National Register of Historic Places Official name: Statue of Liberty National Monument, Ellis Island and Liberty IslandDesignated October 15, 1966[4]Reference no. 66000058 New Jersey Register of Historic PlacesDesignated May 27, 1971Reference no. 1535[5] New York City LandmarkType IndividualDesignated September 14, 1976[6] Location of Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor in New York CityShow map of New York CityStatue of Liberty (New York)Show map of New YorkStatue of Liberty (the US)Show map of the US

The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States. The copper statue, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and built by Gustave Eiffel. The statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886.

The Statue of Liberty is a figure of a robed woman representing Libertas, a Roman liberty goddess. She holds a torch above her head with her right hand, and in her left hand carries a tabula ansata inscribed in Roman numerals with "JULY IV MDCCLXXVI" (July 4, 1776), the date of the U.S. Declaration of Independence. A broken chain lies at her feet as she walks forward. The statue became an icon of freedom and of the United States, and was a welcoming sight to immigrants arriving from abroad.

Bartholdi was inspired by a French law professor and politician, Édouard René de Laboulaye, who is said to have commented in 1865 that any monument raised to U.S. independence would properly be a joint project of the French and U.S. peoples. Because of the post-war instability in France, work on the statue did not commence until the early 1870s. In 1875, Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue and the U.S. provide the site and build the pedestal. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm before the statue was fully designed, and these pieces were exhibited for publicity at international expositions.

The torch-bearing arm was displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, and in Madison Square Park in Manhattan from 1876 to 1882. Fundraising proved difficult, especially for the Americans, and by 1885 work on the pedestal was threatened by lack of funds. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer, of the New York World, started a drive for donations to finish the project and attracted more than 120,000 contributors, most of whom gave less than a dollar. The statue was built in France, shipped overseas in crates, and assembled on the completed pedestal on what was then called Bedloe's Island. The statue's completion was marked by New York's first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland.

The statue was administered by the United States Lighthouse Board until 1901 and then by the Department of War; since 1933 it has been maintained by the National Park Service. Public access to the balcony around the torch has been barred for safety since 1916.

Contents
  • 1 Design and construction process
    • 1.1 Origin
    • 1.2 Design, style, and symbolism
    • 1.3 Announcement and early work
    • 1.4 Construction in France
      • 1.4.1 Design
      • 1.4.2 Fundraising
      • 1.4.3 Construction
    • 1.5 Dedication
  • 2 After dedication
    • 2.1 Lighthouse Board and War Department (1886–1933)
    • 2.2 Early National Park Service years (1933–1982)
    • 2.3 Renovation and rededication (1982–2000)
    • 2.4 Closures and reopenings (2001–present)
  • 3 Access and attributes
    • 3.1 Location and tourism
    • 3.2 Inscriptions, plaques, and dedications
  • 4 UNESCO World Heritage Site
    • 4.1 Physical characteristics
  • 5 Depictions
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
    • 7.1 Bibliography
  • 8 External links
Design and construction process Origin As well as the Roman Libertas, Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") also influenced the Statue of Liberty (3rd century disc found at Pessinus - British Museum).

According to the National Park Service, the idea for the Statue of Liberty was first proposed by Édouard René de Laboulaye, president of the French Anti-Slavery Society and a prominent and important political thinker of his time. The project is traced to a mid-1865 conversation between de Laboulaye, a staunch abolitionist, and Frédéric Bartholdi, a sculptor. In after-dinner conversation at his home near Versailles, Laboulaye, an ardent supporter of the Union in the American Civil War, is supposed to have said: "If a monument should rise in the United States, as a memorial to their independence, I should think it only natural if it were built by united effort—a common work of both our nations."[7] The National Park Service, in a 2000 report, however, deemed this a legend traced to an 1885 fundraising pamphlet, and that the statue was most likely conceived in 1870.[8] In another essay on their website, the Park Service suggested that Laboulaye was minded to honor the Union victory and its consequences, "With the abolition of slavery and the Union's victory in the Civil War in 1865, Laboulaye's wishes of freedom and democracy were turning into a reality in the United States. In order to honor these achievements, Laboulaye proposed that a gift be built for the United States on behalf of France. Laboulaye hoped that by calling attention to the recent achievements of the United States, the French people would be inspired to call for their own democracy in the face of a repressive monarchy."[9]

Bartholdi's design patent

According to sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, who later recounted the story, Laboulaye's comment was not intended as a proposal, but it inspired Bartholdi.[7] Given the repressive nature of the regime of Napoleon III, Bartholdi took no immediate action on the idea except to discuss it with Laboulaye. Bartholdi was in any event busy with other possible projects; in the late 1860s, he approached Isma'il Pasha, Khedive of Egypt, with a plan to build Progress or Egypt Carrying the Light to Asia,[10] a huge lighthouse in the form of an ancient Egyptian female fellah or peasant, robed and holding a torch aloft, at the northern entrance to the Suez Canal in Port Said. Sketches and models were made of the proposed work, though it was never erected. There was a classical precedent for the Suez proposal, the Colossus of Rhodes: an ancient bronze statue of the Greek god of the sun, Helios. This statue is believed to have been over 100 feet (30 m) high, and it similarly stood at a harbor entrance and carried a light to guide ships.[11]

The Statue of Liberty from behind, showing that she is walking forward

Any large project was further delayed by the Franco-Prussian War, in which Bartholdi served as a major of militia. In the war, Napoleon III was captured and deposed. Bartholdi's home province of Alsace was lost to the Prussians (Alsace-Lorraine), and a more liberal republic was installed in France.[7] As Bartholdi had been planning a trip to the United States, he and Laboulaye decided the time was right to discuss the idea with influential Americans.[12] In June 1871, Bartholdi crossed the Atlantic, with letters of introduction signed by Laboulaye.[13]

Arriving at New York Harbor, Bartholdi focused on Bedloe's Island (now named Liberty Island) as a site for the statue, struck by the fact that vessels arriving in New York had to sail past it. He was delighted to learn that the island was owned by the United States government—it had been ceded by the New York State Legislature in 1800 for harbor defense. It was thus, as he put it in a letter to Laboulaye: "land common to all the states."[14] As well as meeting many influential New Yorkers, Bartholdi visited President Ulysses S. Grant, who assured him that it would not be difficult to obtain the site for the statue.[15] Bartholdi crossed the United States twice by rail, and met many Americans who he thought would be sympathetic to the project.[13] But he remained concerned that popular opinion on both sides of the Atlantic was insufficiently supportive of the proposal, and he and Laboulaye decided to wait before mounting a public campaign.[16]

Bartholdi's Lion of Belfort

Bartholdi had made a first model of his concept in 1870.[17] The son of a friend of Bartholdi's, U.S. artist John LaFarge, later maintained that Bartholdi made the first sketches for the statue during his U.S. visit at La Farge's Rhode Island studio. Bartholdi continued to develop the concept following his return to France.[17] He also worked on a number of sculptures designed to bolster French patriotism after the defeat by the Prussians. One of these was the Lion of Belfort, a monumental sculpture carved in sandstone below the fortress of Belfort, which during the war had resisted a Prussian siege for over three months. The defiant lion, 73 feet (22 m) long and half that in height, displays an emotional quality characteristic of Romanticism, which Bartholdi would later bring to the Statue of Liberty.[18]

Design, style, and symbolism Detail from a fresco by Constantino Brumidi in the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., showing two early symbols of America: Columbia (left) and the Indian princess

Bartholdi and Laboulaye considered how best to express the idea of American liberty.[19] In early American history, two female figures were frequently used as cultural symbols of the nation.[20] One of these symbols, the personified Columbia, was seen as an embodiment of the United States in the manner that Britannia was identified with the United Kingdom and Marianne came to represent France. Columbia had supplanted the earlier figure of an Indian princess, which had come to be regarded as uncivilized and derogatory toward Americans.[20] The other significant female icon in American culture was a representation of Liberty, derived from Libertas, the goddess of freedom widely worshipped in ancient Rome, especially among emancipated slaves. A Liberty figure adorned most American coins of the time,[19] and representations of Liberty appeared in popular and civic art, including Thomas Crawford's Statue of Freedom (1863) atop the dome of the United States Capitol Building.[19]

Thomas Crawford's Statue of Freedom

Artists of the 18th and 19th centuries striving to evoke republican ideals commonly used representations of Libertas as an allegorical symbol.[19] A figure of Liberty was also depicted on the Great Seal of France.[19] However, Bartholdi and Laboulaye avoided an image of revolutionary liberty such as that depicted in Eugène Delacroix's famed Liberty Leading the People (1830). In this painting, which commemorates France's Revolution of 1830, a half-clothed Liberty leads an armed mob over the bodies of the fallen.[20] Laboulaye had no sympathy for revolution, and so Bartholdi's figure would be fully dressed in flowing robes.[20] Instead of the impression of violence in the Delacroix work, Bartholdi wished to give the statue a peaceful appearance and chose a torch, representing progress, for the figure to hold.[21]

Crawford's statue was designed in the early 1850s. It was originally to be crowned with a pileus, the cap given to emancipated slaves in ancient Rome. Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, a Southerner who would later serve as President of the Confederate States of America, was concerned that the pileus would be taken as an abolitionist symbol. He ordered that it be changed to a helmet.[22] Delacroix's figure wears a pileus,[20] and Bartholdi at first considered placing one on his figure as well. Instead, he used a diadem, or crown, to top its head.[23] In so doing, he avoided a reference to Marianne, who invariably wears a pileus.[24] The seven rays form a halo or aureole.[25] They evoke the sun, the seven seas, and the seven continents,[26] and represent another means, besides the torch, whereby Liberty enlightens the world.[21]

Bartholdi's early models were all similar in concept: a female figure in neoclassical style representing liberty, wearing a stola and pella (gown and cloak, common in depictions of Roman goddesses) and holding a torch aloft. According to popular accounts, the face was modeled after that of Charlotte Beysser Bartholdi, the sculptor's mother,[27] but Regis Huber, the curator of the Bartholdi Museum is on record as saying that this, as well as other similar speculations, have no basis in fact.[28] He designed the figure with a strong, uncomplicated silhouette, which would be set off well by its dramatic harbor placement and allow passengers on vessels entering New York Bay to experience a changing perspective on the statue as they proceeded toward Manhattan. He gave it bold classical contours and applied simplified modeling, reflecting the huge scale of the project and its solemn purpose.[21] Bartholdi wrote of his technique:

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The surfaces should be broad and simple, defined by a bold and clear design, accentuated in the important places. The enlargement of the details or their multiplicity is to be feared. By exaggerating the forms, in order to render them more clearly visible, or by enriching them with details, we would destroy the proportion of the work. Finally, the model, like the design, should have a summarized character, such as one would give to a rapid sketch. Only it is necessary that this character should be the product of volition and study, and that the artist, concentrating his knowledge, should find the form and the line in its greatest simplicity.[29]

Bartholdi made alterations in the design as the project evolved. Bartholdi considered having Liberty hold a broken chain, but decided this would be too divisive in the days after the Civil War. The erected statue does stride over a broken chain, half-hidden by her robes and difficult to see from the ground.[23] Bartholdi was initially uncertain of what to place in Liberty's left hand; he settled on a tabula ansata,[30] used to evoke the concept of law.[31] Though Bartholdi greatly admired the United States Constitution, he chose to inscribe "JULY IV MDCCLXXVI" on the tablet, thus associating the date of the country's Declaration of Independence with the concept of liberty.[30]

Bartholdi interested his friend and mentor, architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, in the project.[28] As chief engineer,[28] Viollet-le-Duc designed a brick pier within the statue, to which the skin would be anchored.[32] After consultations with the metalwork foundry Gaget, Gauthier & Co., Viollet-le-Duc chose the metal which would be used for the skin, copper sheets, and the method used to shape it, repoussé, in which the sheets were heated and then struck with wooden hammers.[28][33] An advantage of this choice was that the entire statue would be light for its volume, as the copper need be only 0.094 inches (2.4 mm) thick. Bartholdi had decided on a height of just over 151 feet (46 m) for the statue, double that of Italy's Sancarlone and the German statue of Arminius, both made with the same method.[34]

Announcement and early work

By 1875, France was enjoying improved political stability and a recovering postwar economy. Growing interest in the upcoming Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia led Laboulaye to decide it was time to seek public support.[35] In September 1875, he announced the project and the formation of the Franco-American Union as its fundraising arm. With the announcement, the statue was given a name, Liberty Enlightening the World.[36] The French would finance the statue; Americans would be expected to pay for the pedestal.[37] The announcement provoked a generally favorable reaction in France, though many Frenchmen resented the United States for not coming to their aid during the war with Prussia.[36] French monarchists opposed the statue, if for no other reason than it was proposed by the liberal Laboulaye, who had recently been elected a senator for life.[37] Laboulaye arranged events designed to appeal to the rich and powerful, including a special performance at the Paris Opera on April 25, 1876, that featured a new cantata by composer Charles Gounod. The piece was titled La Liberté éclairant le monde, the French version of the statue's announced name.[36]

Stereoscopic image of right arm and torch of the Statue of Liberty, 1876 Centennial Exposition

Despite its initial focus on the elites, the Union was successful in raising funds from across French society. Schoolchildren and ordinary citizens gave, as did 181 French municipalities. Laboulaye's political allies supported the call, as did descendants of the French contingent in the American Revolutionary War. Less idealistically, contributions came from those who hoped for American support in the French attempt to build the Panama Canal. The copper may have come from multiple sources and some of it is said to have come from a mine in Visnes, Norway,[38] though this has not been conclusively determined after testing samples.[39] According to Cara Sutherland in her book on the statue for the Museum of the City of New York, 200,000 pounds (91,000 kg) was needed to build the statue, and the French copper industrialist Eugène Secrétan donated 128,000 pounds (58,000 kg) of copper.[40]

Although plans for the statue had not been finalized, Bartholdi moved forward with fabrication of the right arm, bearing the torch, and the head. Work began at the Gaget, Gauthier & Co. workshop.[41] In May 1876, Bartholdi traveled to the United States as a member of a French delegation to the Centennial Exhibition,[42] and arranged for a huge painting of the statue to be shown in New York as part of the Centennial festivities.[43] The arm did not arrive in Philadelphia until August; because of its late arrival, it was not listed in the exhibition catalogue, and while some reports correctly identified the work, others called it the "Colossal Arm" or "Bartholdi Electric Light". The exhibition grounds contained a number of monumental artworks to compete for fairgoers' interest, including an outsized fountain designed by Bartholdi.[44] Nevertheless, the arm proved popular in the exhibition's waning days, and visitors would climb up to the balcony of the torch to view the fairgrounds.[45] After the exhibition closed, the arm was transported to New York, where it remained on display in Madison Square Park for several years before it was returned to France to join the rest of the statue.[45]

During his second trip to the United States, Bartholdi addressed a number of groups about the project, and urged the formation of American committees of the Franco-American Union.[46] Committees to raise money to pay for the foundation and pedestal were formed in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia.[47] The New York group eventually took on most of the responsibility for American fundraising and is often referred to as the "American Committee".[48] One of its members was 19-year-old Theodore Roosevelt, the future governor of New York and president of the United States.[46] On March 3, 1877, on his final full day in office, President Grant signed a joint resolution that authorized the President to accept the statue when it was presented by France and to select a site for it. President Rutherford B. Hayes, who took office the following day, selected the Bedloe's Island site that Bartholdi had proposed.[49]

Construction in France The statue's head on exhibit at the Paris World's Fair, 1878

On his return to Paris in 1877, Bartholdi concentrated on completing the head, which was exhibited at the 1878 Paris World's Fair. Fundraising continued, with models of the statue put on sale. Tickets to view the construction activity at the Gaget, Gauthier & Co. workshop were also offered.[50] The French government authorized a lottery; among the prizes were valuable silver plate and a terracotta model of the statue. By the end of 1879, about 250,000 francs had been raised.[51]

The head and arm had been built with assistance from Viollet-le-Duc, who fell ill in 1879. He soon died, leaving no indication of how he intended to transition from the copper skin to his proposed masonry pier.[52] The following year, Bartholdi was able to obtain the services of the innovative designer and builder Gustave Eiffel.[50] Eiffel and his structural engineer, Maurice Koechlin, decided to abandon the pier and instead build an iron truss tower. Eiffel opted not to use a completely rigid structure, which would force stresses to accumulate in the skin and lead eventually to cracking. A secondary skeleton was attached to the center pylon, then, to enable the statue to move slightly in the winds of New York Harbor and as the metal expanded on hot summer days, he loosely connected the support structure to the skin using flat iron bars[28] which culminated in a mesh of metal straps, known as "saddles", that were riveted to the skin, providing firm support. In a labor-intensive process, each saddle had to be crafted individually.[53][54] To prevent galvanic corrosion between the copper skin and the iron support structure, Eiffel insulated the skin with asbestos impregnated with shellac.[55]

Eiffel's design made the statue one of the earliest examples of curtain wall construction, in which the exterior of the structure is not load bearing, but is instead supported by an interior framework. He included two interior spiral staircases, to make it easier for visitors to reach the observation point in the crown.[56] Access to an observation platform surrounding the torch was also provided, but the narrowness of the arm allowed for only a single ladder, 40 feet (12 m) long.[57] As the pylon tower arose, Eiffel and Bartholdi coordinated their work carefully so that completed segments of skin would fit exactly on the support structure.[58] The components of the pylon tower were built in the Eiffel factory in the nearby Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret.[59]

The change in structural material from masonry to iron allowed Bartholdi to change his plans for the statue's assembly. He had originally expected to assemble the skin on-site as the masonry pier was built; instead he decided to build the statue in France and have it disassembled and transported to the United States for reassembly in place on Bedloe's Island.[60]

In a symbolic act, the first rivet placed into the skin, fixing a copper plate onto the statue's big toe, was driven by United States Ambassador to France Levi P. Morton.[61] The skin was not, however, crafted in exact sequence from low to high; work proceeded on a number of segments simultaneously in a manner often confusing to visitors.[62] Some work was performed by contractors—one of the fingers was made to Bartholdi's exacting specifications by a coppersmith in the southern French town of Montauban.[63] By 1882, the statue was complete up to the waist, an event Barthodi celebrated by inviting reporters to lunch on a platform built within the statue.[64] Laboulaye died in 1883. He was succeeded as chairman of the French committee by Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal. The completed statue was formally presented to Ambassador Morton at a ceremony in Paris on July 4, 1884, and de Lesseps announced that the French government had agreed to pay for its transport to New York.[65] The statue remained intact in Paris pending sufficient progress on the pedestal; by January 1885, this had occurred and the statue was disassembled and crated for its ocean voyage.[66]

Richard Morris Hunt's pedestal under construction in June 1885

The committees in the United States faced great difficulties in obtaining funds for the construction of the pedestal. The Panic of 1873 had led to an economic depression that persisted through much of the decade. The Liberty statue project was not the only such undertaking that had difficulty raising money: construction of the obelisk later known as the Washington Monument sometimes stalled for years; it would ultimately take over three-and-a-half decades to complete.[67] There was criticism both of Bartholdi's statue and of the fact that the gift required Americans to foot the bill for the pedestal. In the years following the Civil War, most Americans preferred realistic artworks depicting heroes and events from the nation's history, rather than allegorical works like the Liberty statue.[67] There was also a feeling that Americans should design American public works—the selection of Italian-born Constantino Brumidi to decorate the Capitol had provoked intense criticism, even though he was a naturalized U.S. citizen.[68] Harper's Weekly declared its wish that "M. Bartholdi and our French cousins had 'gone the whole figure' while they were about it, and given us statue and pedestal at once."[69] The New York Times stated that "no true patriot can countenance any such expenditures for bronze females in the present state of our finances."[70] Faced with these criticisms, the American committees took little action for several years.[70]

Design Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, June 1885, showing (clockwise from left) woodcuts of the completed statue in Paris, Bartholdi, and the statue's interior structure

The foundation of Bartholdi's statue was to be laid inside Fort Wood, a disused army base on Bedloe's Island constructed between 1807 and 1811. Since 1823, it had rarely been used, though during the Civil War, it had served as a recruiting station.[71] The fortifications of the structure were in the shape of an eleven-point star. The statue's foundation and pedestal were aligned so that it would face southeast, greeting ships entering the harbor from the Atlantic Ocean.[72] In 1881, the New York committee commissioned Richard Morris Hunt to design the pedestal. Within months, Hunt submitted a detailed plan, indicating that he expected construction to take about nine months.[73] He proposed a pedestal 114 feet (35 m) in height; faced with money problems, the committee reduced that to 89 feet (27 m).[74]

Hunt's pedestal design contains elements of classical architecture, including Doric portals, as well as some elements influenced by Aztec architecture.[28] The large mass is fragmented with architectural detail, in order to focus attention on the statue.[74] In form, it is a truncated pyramid, 62 feet (19 m) square at the base and 39.4 feet (12.0 m) at the top. The four sides are identical in appearance. Above the door on each side, there are ten disks upon which Bartholdi proposed to place the coats of arms of the states (between 1876 and 1889, there were 38 U.S. states), although this was not done. Above that, a balcony was placed on each side, framed by pillars. Bartholdi placed an observation platform near the top of the pedestal, above which the statue itself rises.[75] According to author Louis Auchincloss, the pedestal "craggily evokes the power of an ancient Europe over which rises the dominating figure of the Statue of Liberty".[74] The committee hired former army General Charles Pomeroy Stone to oversee the construction work.[76] Construction on the 15-foot-deep (4.6 m) foundation began in 1883, and the pedestal's cornerstone was laid in 1884.[73] In Hunt's original conception, the pedestal was to have been made of solid granite. Financial concerns again forced him to revise his plans; the final design called for poured concrete walls, up to 20 feet (6.1 m) thick, faced with granite blocks.[77][78] This Stony Creek granite came from the Beattie Quarry in Branford, Connecticut.[79] The concrete mass was the largest poured to that time.[78]

Norwegian immigrant civil engineer Joachim Goschen Giæver designed the structural framework for the Statue of Liberty. His work involved design computations, detailed fabrication and construction drawings, and oversight of construction. In completing his engineering for the statue's frame, Giæver worked from drawings and sketches produced by Gustave Eiffel.[80]

Fundraising Unpacking of the face of the Statue of Liberty, which was delivered on June 17, 1885

Fundraising for the statue had begun in 1882. The committee organized a large number of money-raising events.[81] As part of one such effort, an auction of art and manuscripts, poet Emma Lazarus was asked to donate an original work. She initially declined, stating she could not write a poem about a statue. At the time, she was also involved in aiding refugees to New York who had fled anti-Semitic pogroms in eastern Europe. These refugees were forced to live in conditions that the wealthy Lazarus had never experienced. She saw a way to express her empathy for these refugees in terms of the statue.[82] The resulting sonnet, "The New Colossus", including the iconic lines "Give me your tired, your poor/Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free", is uniquely identified with the Statue of Liberty and is inscribed on a plaque in the museum in its base.[83]

Even with these efforts, fundraising lagged. Grover Cleveland, the governor of New York, vetoed a bill to provide $50,000 for the statue project in 1884. An attempt the next year to have Congress provide $100,000, sufficient to complete the project, also failed. The New York committee, with only $3,000 in the bank, suspended work on the pedestal. With the project in jeopardy, groups from other American cities, including Boston and Philadelphia, offered to pay the full cost of erecting the statue in return for relocating it.[84]

Joseph Pulitzer, publisher of the New York World, a New York newspaper, announced a drive to raise $100,000—the equivalent of $2.3 million today.[85] Pulitzer pledged to print the name of every contributor, no matter how small the amount given.[86] The drive captured the imagination of New Yorkers, especially when Pulitzer began publishing the notes he received from contributors. "A young girl alone in the world" donated "60 cents, the result of self denial."[87] One donor gave "five cents as a poor office boy's mite toward the Pedestal Fund." A group of children sent a dollar as "the money we saved to go to the circus with."[88] Another dollar was given by a "lonely and very aged woman."[87] Residents of a home for alcoholics in New York's rival city of Brooklyn—the cities would not merge until 1898—donated $15; other drinkers helped out through donation boxes in bars and saloons.[89] A kindergarten class in Davenport, Iowa, mailed the World a gift of $1.35.[87] As the donations flooded in, the committee resumed work on the pedestal.[90]

Construction

On June 17, 1885, the French steamer Isère, arrived in New York with the crates holding the disassembled statue on board. New Yorkers displayed their new-found enthusiasm for the statue. Two hundred thousand people lined the docks and hundreds of boats put to sea to welcome the ship.[91][92] After five months of daily calls to donate to the statue fund, on August 11, 1885, the World announced that $102,000 had been raised from 120,000 donors, and that 80 percent of the total had been received in sums of less than one dollar.[93]

Even with the success of the fund drive, the pedestal was not completed until April 1886. Immediately thereafter, reassembly of the statue began. Eiffel's iron framework was anchored to steel I-beams within the concrete pedestal and assembled.[94] Once this was done, the sections of skin were carefully attached.[95] Due to the width of the pedestal, it was not possible to erect scaffolding, and workers dangled from ropes while installing the skin sections. Nevertheless, no one died during the construction.[96] Bartholdi had planned to put floodlights on the torch's balcony to illuminate it; a week before the dedication, the Army Corps of Engineers vetoed the proposal, fearing that ships' pilots passing the statue would be blinded. Instead, Bartholdi cut portholes in the torch—which was covered with gold leaf—and placed the lights inside them.[97] A power plant was installed on the island to light the torch and for other electrical needs.[98] After the skin was completed, renowned landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, co-designer of New York's Central Park and Brooklyn's Prospect Park, supervised a cleanup of Bedloe's Island in anticipation of the dedication.[99]

Dedication Unveiling of the Statue of Liberty Enlightening the World (1886) by Edward Moran. Oil on canvas. The J. Clarence Davies Collection, Museum of the City of New York.

A ceremony of dedication was held on the afternoon of October 28, 1886. President Grover Cleveland, the former New York governor, presided over the event.[100] On the morning of the dedication, a parade was held in New York City; estimates of the number of people who watched it ranged from several hundred thousand to a million. President Cleveland headed the procession, then stood in the reviewing stand to see bands and marchers from across America. General Stone was the grand marshal of the parade. The route began at Madison Square, once the venue for the arm, and proceeded to the Battery at the southern tip of Manhattan by way of Fifth Avenue and Broadway, with a slight detour so the parade could pass in front of the World building on Park Row. As the parade passed the New York Stock Exchange, traders threw ticker tape from the windows, beginning the New York tradition of the ticker-tape parade.[101]

A nautical parade began at 12:45 p.m., and President Cleveland embarked on a yacht that took him across the harbor to Bedloe's Island for the dedication.[102] De Lesseps made the first speech, on behalf of the French committee, followed by the chairman of the New York committee, Senator William M. Evarts. A French flag draped across the statue's face was to be lowered to unveil the statue at the close of Evarts's speech, but Bartholdi mistook a pause as the conclusion and let the flag fall prematurely. The ensuing cheers put an end to Evarts's address.[101] President Cleveland spoke next, stating that the statue's "stream of light shall pierce the darkness of ignorance and man's oppression until Liberty enlightens the world".[103] Bartholdi, observed near the dais, was called upon to speak, but he declined. Orator Chauncey M. Depew concluded the speechmaking with a lengthy address.[104]

No members of the general public were permitted on the island during the ceremonies, which were reserved entirely for dignitaries. The only females granted access were Bartholdi's wife and de Lesseps's granddaughter; officials stated that they feared women might be injured in the crush of people. The restriction offended area suffragists, who chartered a boat and got as close as they could to the island. The group's leaders made speeches applauding the embodiment of Liberty as a woman and advocating women's right to vote.[103] A scheduled fireworks display was postponed until November 1 because of poor weather.[105]

Shortly after the dedication, The Cleveland Gazette, an African American newspaper, suggested that the statue's torch not be lit until the United States became a free nation "in reality":

"Liberty enlightening the world," indeed! The expression makes us sick. This government is a howling farce. It can not or rather does not protect its citizens within its own borders. Shove the Bartholdi statue, torch and all, into the ocean until the "liberty" of this country is such as to make it possible for an inoffensive and industrious colored man to earn a respectable living for himself and family, without being ku-kluxed, perhaps murdered, his daughter and wife outraged, and his property destroyed. The idea of the "liberty" of this country "enlightening the world," or even Patagonia, is ridiculous in the extreme.[106]

After dedication Lighthouse Board and War Department (1886–1933) Statue of Liberty ca. 1900 Government poster using the Statue of Liberty to promote the sale of Liberty Bonds

When the torch was illuminated on the evening of the statue's dedication, it produced only a faint gleam, barely visible from Manhattan. The World characterized it as "more like a glowworm than a beacon."[98] Bartholdi suggested gilding the statue to increase its ability to reflect light, but this proved too expensive. The United States Lighthouse Board took over the Statue of Liberty in 1887 and pledged to install equipment to enhance the torch's effect; in spite of its efforts, the statue remained virtually invisible at night. When Bartholdi returned to the United States in 1893, he made additional suggestions, all of which proved ineffective. He did successfully lobby for improved lighting within the statue, allowing visitors to better appreciate Eiffel's design.[98] In 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt, once a member of the New York committee, ordered the statue's transfer to the War Department, as it had proved useless as a lighthouse.[107] A unit of the Army Signal Corps was stationed on Bedloe's Island until 1923, after which military police remained there while the island was under military jurisdiction.[108]

The statue rapidly became a landmark. Many immigrants who entered through New York saw it as a welcoming sight. Oral histories of immigrants record their feelings of exhilaration on first viewing the Statue of Liberty. One immigrant who arrived from Greece recalled:

I saw the Statue of Liberty. And I said to myself, "Lady, you're such a beautiful! [sic] You opened your arms and you get all the foreigners here. Give me a chance to prove that I am worth it, to do something, to be someone in America." And always that statue was on my mind.[109]

Originally, the statue was a dull copper color, but shortly after 1900 a green patina, also called verdigris, caused by the oxidation of the copper skin, began to spread. As early as 1902 it was mentioned in the press; by 1906 it had entirely covered the statue.[110] Believing that the patina was evidence of corrosion, Congress authorized US$62,800 (equivalent to $1,710,486 in 2017) for various repairs, and to paint the statue both inside and out.[111] There was considerable public protest against the proposed exterior painting.[112] The Army Corps of Engineers studied the patina for any ill effects to the statue and concluded that it protected the skin, "softened the outlines of the Statue and made it beautiful."[113] The statue was painted only on the inside. The Corps of Engineers also installed an elevator to take visitors from the base to the top of the pedestal.[113]

On July 30, 1916, during World War I, German saboteurs set off a disastrous explosion on the Black Tom peninsula in Jersey City, New Jersey, in what is now part of Liberty State Park, close to Bedloe's Island. Carloads of dynamite and other explosives that were being sent to Britain and France for their war efforts were detonated, and seven people were killed. The statue sustained minor damage, mostly to the torch-bearing right arm, and was closed for ten days. The cost to repair the statue and buildings on the island was about US$100,000 (equivalent to $2,248,930 in 2017). The narrow ascent to the torch was closed for public-safety reasons, and it has remained closed ever since.[104]

That same year, Ralph Pulitzer, who had succeeded his father Joseph as publisher of the World, began a drive to raise US$30,000 (equivalent to $674,679 in 2017) for an exterior lighting system to illuminate the statue at night. He claimed over 80,000 contributors, but failed to reach the goal. The difference was quietly made up by a gift from a wealthy donor—a fact that was not revealed until 1936. An underwater power cable brought electricity from the mainland and floodlights were placed along the walls of Fort Wood. Gutzon Borglum, who later sculpted Mount Rushmore, redesigned the torch, replacing much of the original copper with stained glass. On December 2, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson pressed the telegraph key that turned on the lights, successfully illuminating the statue.[114]

After the United States entered World War I in 1917, images of the statue were heavily used in both recruitment posters and the Liberty Bond drives that urged American citizens to support the war financially. This impressed upon the public the war's stated purpose—to secure liberty—and served as a reminder that embattled France had given the United States the statue.[115]

In 1924, President Calvin Coolidge used his authority under the Antiquities Act to declare the statue a National Monument.[107] The only successful suicide in the statue's history occurred five years later, when a man climbed out of one of the windows in the crown and jumped to his death, glancing off the statue's breast and landing on the base.[116]

Early National Park Service years (1933–1982) Bedloe's Island in 1927, showing the statue and army buildings. The eleven-pointed walls of Fort Wood, which still form the statue's base, are visible.

In 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt ordered the statue to be transferred to the National Park Service (NPS). In 1937, the NPS gained jurisdiction over the rest of Bedloe's Island.[107] With the Army's departure, the NPS began to transform the island into a park.[117] The Works Progress Administration (WPA) demolished most of the old buildings, regraded and reseeded the eastern end of the island, and built granite steps for a new public entrance to the statue from its rear. The WPA also carried out restoration work within the statue, temporarily removing the rays from the statue's halo so their rusted supports could be replaced. Rusted cast-iron steps in the pedestal were replaced with new ones made of reinforced concrete;[118] the upper parts of the stairways within the statue were replaced, as well. Copper sheathing was installed to prevent further damage from rainwater that had been seeping into the pedestal.[119] The statue was closed to the public from May until December 1938.[118]

During World War II, the statue remained open to visitors, although it was not illuminated at night due to wartime blackouts. It was lit briefly on December 31, 1943, and on D-Day, June 6, 1944, when its lights flashed "dot-dot-dot-dash", the Morse code for V, for victory. New, powerful lighting was installed in 1944–1945, and beginning on V-E Day, the statue was once again illuminated after sunset. The lighting was for only a few hours each evening, and it was not until 1957 that the statue was illuminated every night, all night.[120] In 1946, the interior of the statue within reach of visitors was coated with a special plastic so that graffiti could be washed away.[119]

In 1956, an Act of Congress officially renamed Bedloe's Island as Liberty Island, a change advocated by Bartholdi generations earlier. The act also mentioned the efforts to found an American Museum of Immigration on the island, which backers took as federal approval of the project, though the government was slow to grant funds for it.[121] Nearby Ellis Island was made part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument by proclamation of President Lyndon Johnson in 1965.[107] In 1972, the immigration museum, in the statue's base, was finally opened in a ceremony led by President Richard Nixon. The museum's backers never provided it with an endowment to secure its future and it closed in 1991 after the opening of an immigration museum on Ellis Island.[94]

September 26, 1972: President Richard Nixon visits the statue to open the American Museum of Immigration. The statue's raised right foot is visible, showing that it is depicted moving forward.

In 1970, Ivy Bottini led a demonstration at the statue where she and others from the National Organization for Women's New York chapter draped an enormous banner over a railing which read "WOMEN OF THE WORLD UNITE!"[122][123]

Beginning December 26, 1971, 15 anti-Vietnam War veterans occupied the statue, flying a US flag upside down from her crown. They left December 28 following a Federal Court order.[124] The statue was also several times taken over briefly by demonstrators publicizing causes such as Puerto Rican independence, opposition to abortion, and opposition to US intervention in Grenada. Demonstrations with the permission of the Park Service included a Gay Pride Parade rally and the annual Captive Baltic Nations rally.[125]

A powerful new lighting system was installed in advance of the American Bicentennial in 1976. The statue was the focal point for Operation Sail, a regatta of tall ships from all over the world that entered New York Harbor on July 4, 1976, and sailed around Liberty Island.[126] The day concluded with a spectacular display of fireworks near the statue.[127]

Renovation and rededication (1982–2000) July 4, 1986: First Lady Nancy Reagan (in red) reopens the statue to the public. Main article: Conservation-restoration of the Statue of Liberty See also: Liberty Weekend

The statue was examined in great detail by French and American engineers as part of the planning for its centennial in 1986.[128] In 1982, it was announced that the statue was in need of considerable restoration. Careful study had revealed that the right arm had been improperly attached to the main structure. It was swaying more and more when strong winds blew and there was a significant risk of structural failure. In addition, the head had been installed 2 feet (0.61 m) off center, and one of the rays was wearing a hole in the right arm when the statue moved in the wind. The armature structure was badly corroded, and about two percent of the exterior plates needed to be replaced.[129] Although problems with the armature had been recognized as early as 1936, when cast iron replacements for some of the bars had been installed, much of the corrosion had been hidden by layers of paint applied over the years.[130]

In May 1982, President Ronald Reagan announced the formation of the Statue of Liberty–Ellis Island Centennial Commission, led by Chrysler Corporation chair Lee Iacocca, to raise the funds needed to complete the work.[131] Through its fundraising arm, the Statue of Liberty–Ellis Island Foundation, Inc., the group raised more than $350 million in donations.[132] The Statue of Liberty was one of the earliest beneficiaries of a cause marketing campaign. A 1983 promotion advertised that for each purchase made with an American Express card, the company would contribute one cent to the renovation of the statue. The campaign generated contributions of $1.7 million to the restoration project.[133]

In 1984, the statue was closed to the public for the duration of the renovation. Workers erected the world's largest free-standing scaffold,[28] which obscured the statue from view. Liquid nitrogen was used to remove layers of paint that had been applied to the interior of the copper skin over decades, leaving two layers of coal tar, originally applied to plug leaks and prevent corrosion. Blasting with baking soda powder removed the tar without further damaging the copper.[134] The restorers' work was hampered by the asbestos-based substance that Bartholdi had used—ineffectively, as inspections showed—to prevent galvanic corrosion. Workers within the statue had to wear protective gear, dubbed "moon suits", with self-contained breathing circuits.[135] Larger holes in the copper skin were repaired, and new copper was added where necessary.[136] The replacement skin was taken from a copper rooftop at Bell Labs, which had a patina that closely resembled the statue's; in exchange, the laboratory was provided some of the old copper skin for testing.[137] The torch, found to have been leaking water since the 1916 alterations, was replaced with an exact replica of Bartholdi's unaltered torch.[138] Consideration was given to replacing the arm and shoulder; the National Park Service insisted that they be repaired instead.[139] The original torch was removed and replaced in 1986 with the current one, whose flame is covered in 24-karat gold.[31] The torch reflects the sun's rays in daytime and is lighted by floodlights at night.[31]

Liberty Enlightening the World

The entire puddled iron armature designed by Gustave Eiffel was replaced. Low-carbon corrosion-resistant stainless steel bars that now hold the staples next to the skin are made of Ferralium, an alloy that bends slightly and returns to its original shape as the statue moves.[140] To prevent the ray and arm making contact, the ray was realigned by several degrees.[141] The lighting was again replaced—night-time illumination subsequently came from metal-halide lamps that send beams of light to particular parts of the pedestal or statue, showing off various details.[142] Access to the pedestal, which had been through a nondescript entrance built in the 1960s, was renovated to create a wide opening framed by a set of monumental bronze doors with designs symbolic of the renovation.[143] A modern elevator was installed, allowing handicapped access to the observation area of the pedestal.[144] An emergency elevator was installed within the statue, reaching up to the level of the shoulder.[145]

July 3–6, 1986, was designated "Liberty Weekend", marking the centennial of the statue and its reopening. President Reagan presided over the rededication, with French President François Mitterrand in attendance. July 4 saw a reprise of Operation Sail,[146] and the statue was reopened to the public on July 5.[147] In Reagan's dedication speech, he stated, "We are the keepers of the flame of liberty; we hold it high for the world to see."[146]

Closures and reopenings (2001–present) The Statue of Liberty on September 11, 2001 as the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center burn in the background

Following the September 11 attacks, the statue and Liberty Island were immediately closed to the public. The island reopened at the end of 2001, while the pedestal and statue remained off-limits. The pedestal reopened in August 2004,[147] but the National Park Service announced that visitors could not safely be given access to the statue due to the difficulty of evacuation in an emergency. The Park Service adhered to that position through the remainder of the Bush administration.[148] New York Congressman Anthony Weiner made the statue's reopening a personal crusade.[149] On May 17, 2009, President Barack Obama's Secretary of the Interior, Ken Salazar, announced that as a "special gift" to America, the statue would be reopened to the public as of July 4, but that only a limited number of people would be permitted to ascend to the crown each day.[148]

The statue, including the pedestal and base, closed on October 29, 2011, for installation of new elevators and staircases and to bring other facilities, such as restrooms, up to code. The statue was reopened on October 28, 2012,[1][150][151] only to close again a day later due to Hurricane Sandy.[152] Although the storm did not harm the statue, it destroyed some of the infrastructure on both Liberty Island and Ellis Island, severely damaging the dock used by the ferries bearing visitors to the statue. On November 8, 2012, a Park Service spokesperson announced that both islands would remain closed for an indefinite period for repairs to be done.[153] Due to lack of electricity on Liberty Island, a generator was installed to power temporary floodlights to illuminate the statue at night. The superintendent of Statue of Liberty National Monument, David Luchsinger, whose home on the island was severely damaged, stated that it would be "optimistically ... months" before the island was reopened to the public.[154] The statue and Liberty Island reopened to the public on July 4, 2013.[155] Ellis Island remained closed for repairs for several more months but reopened in late October 2013.[156] For part of October 2013, Liberty Island was closed to the public due to the United States federal government shutdown of 2013, along with other federally funded museums, parks, monuments, construction projects and buildings.[157] The statue and Liberty Island were briefly closed on July 4, 2018, due to a protester against American immigration policy climbing on to the statue.[158]

The new staircase to the crown

On October 7, 2016, construction started on a new Statue of Liberty museum on Liberty Island. The new $70 million, 26,000-square-foot (2,400 m2) museum will be able to accommodate all of the island's visitors when it opens in 2019, as opposed to the current museum, which only 20% of the island's visitors can visit.[159]The museum, designed by FXFOWLE Architects, will integrate with the parkland around it.[160][161] Von Fürstenberg heads the fundraising for the museum, and the project had garnered more than $40 million in fundraising as of groundbreaking.[160]

Access and attributes Location and tourism Tourists aboard a Circle Line ferry arriving at Liberty Island, June 1973

The statue is situated in Upper New York Bay on Liberty Island south of Ellis Island, which together comprise the Statue of Liberty National Monument. Both islands were ceded by New York to the federal government in 1800.[162] As agreed in an 1834 compact between New York and New Jersey that set the state border at the bay's midpoint, the original islands remain New York territory despite their location on the New Jersey side of the state line. Liberty Island is one of the islands that are part of the borough of Manhattan in New York. Land created by reclamation added to the 2.3-acre (0.93 ha) original island at Ellis Island is New Jersey territory.[163]

No charge is made for entrance to the national monument, but there is a cost for the ferry service that all visitors must use, as private boats may not dock at the island. A concession was granted in 2007 to Statue Cruises to operate the transportation and ticketing facilities, replacing Circle Line, which had operated the service since 1953.[164] The ferries, which depart from Liberty State Park in Jersey City and Battery Park in Lower Manhattan, also stop at Ellis Island when it is open to the public, making a combined trip possible.[165] All ferry riders are subject to security screening, similar to airport procedures, prior to boarding.[166] Visitors intending to enter the statue's base and pedestal must obtain a complimentary museum/pedestal ticket along with their ferry ticket.[167] Those wishing to climb the staircase within the statue to the crown purchase a special ticket, which may be reserved up to a year in advance. A total of 240 people per day are permitted to ascend: ten per group, three groups per hour. Climbers may bring only medication and cameras—lockers are provided for other items—and must undergo a second security screening.[168]

Inscriptions, plaques, and dedications The Statue of Liberty stands on Liberty Island.

There are several plaques and dedicatory tablets on or near the Statue of Liberty.

  • A plaque on the copper just under the figure in front declares that it is a colossal statue representing Liberty, designed by Bartholdi and built by the Paris firm of Gaget, Gauthier et Cie (Cie is the French abbreviation analogous to Co.). [169]
  • A presentation tablet, also bearing Bartholdi's name, declares the statue is a gift from the people of the Republic of France that honors "the Alliance of the two Nations in achieving the Independence of the United States of America and attests their abiding friendship."[169]
  • A tablet placed by the New York committee commemorates the fundraising done to build the pedestal.[169]
  • The cornerstone bears a plaque placed by the Freemasons.[169]
  • In 1903, a bronze tablet that bears the text of Emma Lazarus's sonnet, "The New Colossus" (1883), was presented by friends of the poet. Until the 1986 renovation, it was mounted inside the pedestal; today it resides in the Statue of Liberty Museum, in the base.[169]
  • "The New Colossus" tablet is accompanied by a tablet given by the Emma Lazarus Commemorative Committee in 1977, celebrating the poet's life.[169]

A group of statues stands at the western end of the island, honoring those closely associated with the Statue of Liberty. Two Americans—Pulitzer and Lazarus—and three Frenchmen—Bartholdi, Eiffel, and Laboulaye—are depicted. They are the work of Maryland sculptor Phillip Ratner.[170]

UNESCO World Heritage Site

In 1984, the Statue of Liberty was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The UNESCO "Statement of Significance" describes the statue as a "masterpiece of the human spirit" that "endures as a highly potent symbol—inspiring contemplation, debate and protest—of ideals such as liberty, peace, human rights, abolition of slavery, democracy and opportunity."[171]

Physical characteristics As viewed from the ground on Liberty Island Feature[72] U.S. Metric Height of copper statue 151 ft 1 in 46 m Foundation of pedestal (ground level) to tip of torch 305 ft 1 in 93 m Heel to top of head 111 ft 1 in 34 m Height of hand 16 ft 5 in 5 m Index finger 8 ft 1 in 2.44 m Circumference at second joint 3 ft 6 in 1.07 m Head from chin to cranium 17 ft 3 in 5.26 m Head thickness from ear to ear 10 ft 0 in 3.05 m Distance across the eye 2 ft 6 in 0.76 m Length of nose 4 ft 6 in 1.48 m Right arm length 42 ft 0 in 12.8 m Right arm greatest thickness 12 ft 0 in 3.66 m Thickness of waist 35 ft 0 in 10.67 m Width of mouth 3 ft 0 in 0.91 m Tablet, length 23 ft 7 in 7.19 m Tablet, width 13 ft 7 in 4.14 m Tablet, thickness 2 ft 0 in 0.61 m Height of pedestal 89 ft 0 in 27.13 m Height of foundation 65 ft 0 in 19.81 m Weight of copper used in statue 60,000 pounds 27.22 tonnes Weight of steel used in statue 250,000 pounds 113.4 tonnes Total weight of statue 450,000 pounds 204.1 tonnes Thickness of copper sheeting 3/32 of an inch 2.4 mm Depictions See also: Replicas of the Statue of Liberty and Statue of Liberty in popular culture A replica of the Statue of Liberty forms part of the exterior decor at the New York-New York Hotel and Casino on the Las Vegas Strip

Hundreds of replicas of the Statue of Liberty are displayed worldwide.[172] A smaller version of the statue, one-fourth the height of the original, was given by the American community in Paris to that city. It now stands on the Île aux Cygnes, facing west toward her larger sister.[172] A replica 30 feet (9.1 m) tall stood atop the Liberty Warehouse on West 64th Street in Manhattan for many years;[172] it now resides at the Brooklyn Museum.[173] In a patriotic tribute, the Boy Scouts of America, as part of their Strengthen the Arm of Liberty campaign in 1949–1952, donated about two hundred replicas of the statue, made of stamped copper and 100 inches (2.5 m) in height, to states and municipalities across the United States.[174] Though not a true replica, the statue known as the Goddess of Democracy temporarily erected during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 was similarly inspired by French democratic traditions—the sculptors took care to avoid a direct imitation of the Statue of Liberty.[175] Among other recreations of New York City structures, a replica of the statue is part of the exterior of the New York-New York Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas.[176]

Head of Liberty, U.S. airmail stamp, 1971 issue Reverse side of a Presidential Dollar coin

As an American icon, the Statue of Liberty has been depicted on the country's coinage and stamps. It appeared on commemorative coins issued to mark its 1986 centennial, and on New York's 2001 entry in the state quarters series.[177] An image of the statue was chosen for the American Eagle platinum bullion coins in 1997, and it was placed on the reverse, or tails, side of the Presidential Dollar series of circulating coins.[26] Two images of the statue's torch appear on the current ten-dollar bill.[178] The statue's intended photographic depiction on a 2010 forever stamp proved instead to be of the replica at the Las Vegas casino.[179]

Depictions of the statue have been used by many regional institutions. Between 1986[180] and 2000,[181] New York State issued license plates with an outline of the statue.[180][181] The Women's National Basketball Association's New York Liberty use both the statue's name and its image in their logo, in which the torch's flame doubles as a basketball.[182] The New York Rangers of the National Hockey League depicted the statue's head on their third jersey, beginning in 1997.[183] The National Collegiate Athletic Association's 1996 Men's Basketball Final Four, played at New Jersey's Meadowlands Sports Complex, featured the statue in its logo.[184] The Libertarian Party of the United States uses the statue in its emblem.[185]

The statue is a frequent subject in popular culture. In music, it has been evoked to indicate support for American policies, as in Toby Keith's song "Courtesy of the Red, White and Blue (The Angry American)", and in opposition, appearing on the cover of the Dead Kennedys' album Bedtime for Democracy, which protested the Reagan administration.[186] In film, the torch is the setting for the climax of director Alfred Hitchcock's 1942 movie Saboteur.[187] The statue makes one of its most famous cinematic appearances in the 1968 picture Planet of the Apes, in which it is seen half-buried in sand.[186][188] It is knocked over in the science-fiction film Independence Day [189] and in Cloverfield the head is ripped off.[190] In Jack Finney's time-travel novel Time and Again, the right arm of the statue, on display in the early 1880s in Madison Square Park, plays a crucial role.[191] Robert Holdstock, consulting editor of The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, wondered in 1979:

Where would science fiction be without the Statue of Liberty? For decades it has towered or crumbled above the wastelands of deserted arth—giants have uprooted it, aliens have found it curious ... the symbol of Liberty, of optimism, has become a symbol of science fiction's pessimistic view of the future.[192]

See also Approximate heights of various notable statues:
1. Spring Temple Buddha 153 m (incl. 25 m pedestal and 20 m throne)
2. Statue of Liberty 93 m (incl. 47 m pedestal)
3. The Motherland Calls 91 m (excl. pedestal)
4. Christ the Redeemer 38 m (incl. 8 m pedestal)
5. Statue of David 5.17 m (excl. 2.5 m pedestal)
  • List of the tallest statues in the United States
  • Place des États-Unis, in Paris, France
  • The Statue of Liberty, 1985 Ken Burns documentary film
  • Statues and sculptures in New York City
  • List of statues by height
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  • Bell, James B.; Abrams, Richard L. (1984). In Search of Liberty: The Story of the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co. ISBN 978-0-385-19624-6. 
  • Harris, Jonathan (1985). A Statue for America: The First 100 Years of the Statue of Liberty. New York City: Four Winds Press (a division of Macmillan Publishing Company). ISBN 978-0-02-742730-1. 
  • Hayden, Richard Seth; Despont, Thierry W. (1986). Restoring the Statue of Liberty. New York City: McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN 978-0-07-027326-9. 
  • Khan, Yasmin Sabina (2010). Enlightening the World: The Creation of the Statue of Liberty. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4851-5. 
  • Moreno, Barry (2000). The Statue of Liberty Encyclopedia. New York City: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7385-3689-7. 
  • Sutherland, Cara A. (2003). The Statue of Liberty. New York City: Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 978-0-7607-3890-0. 
External links Wikiquote has quotations related to: Statue of Liberty Wikimedia Commons has media related to Statue of Liberty. Wikivoyage has a listing for Statue of Liberty.
  • Statue of Liberty National Monument
  • Statue of Liberty–Ellis Island Foundation
  • "A Giant's Task – Cleaning Statue of Liberty", Popular Mechanics (February 1932)
  • Views from the webcams affixed to the Statue of Liberty
  • Made in Paris The Statue of Liberty 1877–1885 – many historical photographs
  • Statue of Liberty at Structurae
  • Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) No. NY-138, "Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York, New York County, NY", 404 photos, 59 color transparencies, 41 measured drawings, 10 data pages, 33 photo caption pages
  • HAER No. NY-138-A, "Statue of Liberty, Administration Building", 6 photos, 6 measured drawings, 1 photo caption page
  • HAER No. NY-138-B, "Statue of Liberty, Concessions Building", 12 photos, 6 measured drawings, 1 photo caption page
  • v
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Statue of LibertyLiberty Enlightening the WorldCreators
  • Édouard René de Laboulaye, originator
  • Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, sculptor
  • Gustave Eiffel, builder
    • Eiffel company
  • Eugène Secrétan, donated copper
Location
  • Statue of Liberty National Monument
    • Liberty Island
  • Musée des Arts et Métiers, original statue
Former
locations
  • Right arm and torch
    • Centennial Exposition, 1876
    • Madison Square Park, 1876-1882
  • Head
    • Paris World's Fair, 1878
Replicas
  • Île aux Cygnes
  • Flame of Liberty
  • Strengthen the Arm of Liberty
    • Fayetteville, Arkansas
    • Pine Bluff, Arkansas
    • Overview Park, Kansas
Legacy
  • In popular culture
  • "The New Colossus" (1883 sonnet)
  • Working on the Statue of Liberty (1946 painting)
  • Miss Liberty (1949 musical)
  • The Statue of Liberty (1985 documentary)
  • Statue of Liberty play (American football)
  • Liberty Weekend, 1986
    • Liberty Fanfare
    • Medal of Liberty
  • Statue of Liberty Forever stamp
  • American Platinum Eagle coin
  • Presidential $1 Coin Program
Related
  • Conservation-restoration of the Statue of Liberty
  • Egypt Carrying the Light to Asia
  • Libertas
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National symbols of the United StatesSymbols
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  • Seal of the United States
  • Bald eagle
  • Uncle Sam
  • Columbia
  • General Grant (tree)
  • American's Creed
  • Pledge of Allegiance
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  • Oak
  • American bison
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Songs
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  • "Dixie"
  • "America the Beautiful"
  • "The Stars and Stripes Forever"
  • "Hail to the Chief"
  • "Hail, Columbia"
  • "My Country, 'Tis of Thee"
  • "God Bless America"
  • "Lift Every Voice and Sing"
  • "The Army Goes Rolling Along"
  • "Anchors Aweigh"
  • "Marines' Hymn"
  • "Semper Fidelis"
  • "The Air Force Song"
  • "Semper Paratus"
  • "National Emblem"
  • "The Washington Post March"
  • "Battle Hymn of the Republic"
  • "Yankee Doodle"
  • "You're a Grand Old Flag"
  • "When Johnny Comes Marching Home"
  • "This Land Is Your Land"
Mottos
  • In God We Trust
  • E Pluribus Unum
  • Novus ordo seclorum
  • Annuit cœptis
Landmarks
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  • Liberty Bell
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Other articles related to the Statue of Liberty
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Lighthouses of New YorkMain: List of lighthouses in the United States
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  • Aunt Phebe Rock
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  • Barcelona
  • Blackwell Island
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Protected areas of New YorkFederalNational Historic
Sites, Parks and Districts
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  • Erie Canalway
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    • affiliated
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    • affiliated
National Memorials
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National Monuments
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National Trails
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National Seashores
and Recreation Areas
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National Wildlife
Refuges
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National Forests
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Wilderness Areas
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State parks
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  • Taconic
  • Tallman Mountain
  • Taughannock Falls
  • Thompson's Lake
  • Two Rivers
  • Trail View
  • Valley Stream
  • Verona Beach
  • Waterson Point
  • Watkins Glen
  • Wellesley Island
  • Westcott Beach
  • Whetstone Gulf
  • Whirlpool
  • Wildwood
  • Wilson-Tuscarora
  • Wonder Lake
  • Woodlawn Beach
State historic sites
  • Bennington Battlefield
  • Caumsett
  • Clermont
  • Clinton House
  • Crailo
  • Crown Point
  • Darwin Martin House
  • Fort Montgomery
  • Fort Ontario
  • Ganondagan
  • Grant Cottage
  • Herkimer Home
  • Hyde Hall
  • John Brown Farm
  • John Burroughs Memorial (Woodchuck Lodge)
  • John Hay Homestead
  • Johnson Hall
  • Knox's Headquarters
  • Lorenzo
  • New Windsor Cantonment
  • Olana
  • Old Croton Aqueduct
  • Old Erie Canal
  • Old Fort Niagara
  • Oriskany Battlefield
  • Philipse Manor Hall
  • Plantings Fields Arboretum
  • Sackets Harbor Battlefield
  • Schoharie Crossing
  • Schuyler Mansion
  • Senate House
  • Sonnenberg Gardens & Mansion
  • Staatsburgh
  • Steuben Memorial
  • Stony Point Battlefield
  • Walt Whitman Birthplace
  • Washington's Headquarters
Preserves and sanctuariesPublic
preserves
  • Albany Pine Bush
  • Forest Preserve
    • Adirondack Park
      • Saint Regis Canoe Area
      • Santanoni Preserve
      • wilderness areas
    • Catskill Park
  • Hudson River Estuary
  • Long Island Pine Barrens
  • Reinstein Woods
  • Rome Sand Plains
  • Tahawus
  • Vischer Ferry
  • Welwyn
The Nature
Conservacy
  • Accabonac Harbor
  • Andy Warhol Visual Arts
  • Arthur W. Butler Memorial
  • Atlantic Double Dunes
  • Bear Swamp
  • Calverton Ponds
  • Chaumont Barrens
  • Clintonville Pine Barrens
  • Coon Mountain
  • Deer Lick
  • Denton
  • El Dorado Beach
  • Eugene and Agnes Meyer
  • Everton Falls
  • Freund
  • Gadway Sandstone Pavement Barrens
  • Hannacroix Ravine
  • Henry Morgenthau
  • Indian Brook Assemblage
  • Ironsides Island
  • Kenrose
  • Limestone Rise
  • Lisha Kill
  • Long Island Center for Conservation
  • Long Pond
  • Lordsland
  • Lower Poultney River and Saddles
  • Marrion Yarrow
  • Mashomack
  • Mianus River Gorge
  • Mildred E. Grierson Memorial
  • Moccasin Kill
  • Montauk Mountain
  • Moss Lake
  • Mount Holly
  • Nellie Hill
  • Neversink
  • O.D. von Engeln
  • Otter Creek
  • Pawling
  • Peconic Estuary Big Woods
  • Pine Neck
  • Roger Perry Memorial
  • Ruth Wales
  • Schunemunk Mountain
  • Shadmoor
  • Silver Lake Bog
  • Spring Pond Bog
  • Stewart
  • Lewis A. Swyer
  • Thompson Pond and Stissing Mountain
  • Uplands Farm
  • West Branch
  • Whitbeck Memorial Grove
Other
preserves
  • Angle Fly
  • Baxter
  • Bergen-Byron Swamp
  • Black Rock Forest
  • Brandreth Park
  • Calder Center
  • Louis C. Clark
  • Cornell Botanic Gardens
  • Ferncliff Forest
  • Heiberg Memorial Forest
  • James
  • Lime Hollow
  • Mohonk
  • Peabody
  • Plotter Kill
  • Sagamore Camp
  • Sam's Point
  • Teatown Lake
  • Turkey Mountain
  • Turner Brook
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • Wallkill Valley
  • Woodlawn
  • Zurich Bog
Other (lists)
  • National Historic Landmarks
  • National Natural Landmarks
  • Botanical gardens
  • Nature centers
  • New York City parks
    • POPS
    • WWI
  • New York state
    • forests
      • wild
    • historic sites
    • parks
    • wildlife management areas
  • Trails
    • rail trails
  • Category
  • NYS DEC
  • NYS OPRHP
  • v
  • t
  • e
Protected areas of New York CityFederalNational Historic Sites
  • Lower East Side Tenement Museum
  • Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace
National Monuments
and Memorials
  • African Burial Ground
  • Castle Clinton
  • Federal Hall
  • General Grant
  • Governors Island
  • Hamilton Grange
  • Statue of Liberty
  • Stonewall
Other Protected Areas
  • Gateway National Recreation Area
    • Floyd Bennett Field
    • Fort Tilden
    • Fort Wadsworth
    • Great Kills
    • Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge
    • Jacob Riis
    • Miller Field
StateState Parks
  • Bayswater Point
  • Clay Pit Ponds
  • East River
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms
  • Gantry Plaza
  • Riverbank
  • Roberto Clemente
City parks and preservesManhattan
  • 79th Street Boat Basin
  • Abingdon Square
  • Albert Capsouto
  • Asphalt Green
  • Battery
  • Bennett
  • British Garden at Hanover Square
  • Bowling Green
  • Bryant
  • Captain Patrick J. Brown Walk
  • Carl Schurz
  • Central Park
  • Chelsea
  • City Hall
  • Collect
  • Columbus
  • Corlears Hook
  • Dag Hammarskjold Plaza
  • Damrosch
  • Dante
  • DeSalvio Playground
  • DeWitt Clinton
  • Drumgoole Plaza
  • Duane
  • East River Greenway
    • East River Esplanade
    • East River Park
    • Stuyvesant Cove
  • Father Demo Square
  • Finn Square
  • Foley Square
  • Fort Tryon
  • Fort Washington
  • Gorman
  • Gramercy
  • Greenacre Park
  • Hamilton Fish
  • Hanover Square
  • Harlem River
  • Hell's Kitchen
  • Herald Square
  • High Line
  • Highbridge
  • Holcombe Rucker
  • Hudson
  • Hudson River
  • Imagination Playground at Burling Slip
  • Inwood Hill
  • Isham
  • J. Hood Wright
  • Jackie Robinson
  • Jackson Square
  • John Jay
  • Liberty
  • Louis Cuvillier
  • Madison Square
  • Manhattan Waterfront Greenway
  • Marcus Garvey
  • Mill Rock
  • Mitchell Square
  • Morningside
  • Murphy's Brother's Playground
  • Muscota Marsh
  • Paley
  • Peretz Square
  • Peter Cooper
  • Plaza Lafayette
  • Queen Elizabeth II September 11th Garden
  • Ralph Bunche
  • Randalls Island
  • Richard Tucker Square
  • Riverside
  • Robert Moses Playground
  • Roosevelt Triangle
  • Rucker
  • Sakura
  • Samuel N. Bennerson 2nd Playground
  • Sara Delano Roosevelt
  • Septuagesimo Uno
  • Seward
  • Sheridan Square
  • Sherman Square
  • St. John's
  • St. Nicholas
  • St. Vartan
  • Straus
  • Stuyvesant Square
  • Swindler Cove
  • Teardrop
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Thomas Paine
  • Tompkins Square
  • Tribeca
  • Union Square
  • Verdi Square
  • Vesuvio Playground
  • Wards Island
  • Washington Market
  • Washington Square
  • West Side Community Garden
  • Winston Churchill
  • Zuccotti
Brooklyn
  • American Veterans Memorial Pier
  • Amersfort
  • Asser Levy
  • Bath Beach
  • Betsy Head
  • Bensonhurst
  • Breukelen Ballfields
  • Brooklyn Botanic Garden
  • Brooklyn Bridge
  • Brooklyn Heights Promenade
  • Brooklyn–Queens Greenway
  • Brower
  • Bushwick
  • Byrne
  • Cadman Plaza
  • Canarsie
  • Carroll
  • Calvert Vaux
  • City Line
  • Coffey
  • Columbus
  • Commodore Barry
  • Coney Island Beach & Boardwalk
  • Coney Island Creek
  • Continental Army Plaza
  • Cooper
  • Domino
  • Dyker Beach
  • Floyd Bennett Field
  • Fort Greene
  • Four Sparrow Marsh
  • Frank M. Charles
  • Fresh Creek Nature Preserve
  • Friends Field
  • Fulton
  • Gravesend
  • Green Central Knoll
  • Herbert Von King
  • Highland
  • Irving Square
  • JJ Byrne
  • Jamaica Bay Park
  • John J. Carty
  • John Paul Jones
  • Kaiser
  • Kelly
  • Leif Ericson
  • Leon S. Kaiser Playground
  • Lieutenant Joseph Petrosino
  • Lincoln Terrace
  • Linden
  • Lindower
  • Linton
  • Manhattan Beach
  • Maria Hernandez
  • Marine
  • McCarren
  • McGolrick
  • McKinley
  • Mt. Prospect
  • Owl's Head
  • Paerdegat Basin
  • Paerdegat
  • Prospect
  • Red Hook
  • Robert E. Venable
  • Saratoga
  • Scarangella
  • Seaside
  • Seth Low
  • Shore
  • Spring Creek
  • Steeplechase
  • Sternberg
  • St. Johns
  • Sunset
  • Tompkins
  • Trinity
  • Van Voorhees
  • Walt Whitman
  • Wingate
  • WNYC Transmitter
  • Zion Triangle
The Bronx
  • Baretto Point
  • Bicentennial Veterans
  • Bronx Park
    • New York Botanical Garden
  • Castle Hill
  • City Island Wetlands
  • Claremont
  • Concrete Plant
  • Crotona
  • Devoe
  • Ewen
  • Ferry Point
  • Givans Creek Woods
  • Grant
  • Haffen
  • Harding
  • Harris
  • Henry Hudson
  • Hunts Point
  • Jerome
  • Joseph Rodman Drake
  • Joyce Kilmer
  • Julius Richman
  • Macombs Dam
  • Mill Pond
  • Mullaly
  • North and South Brother Islands
  • Pelham Bay
    • Orchard Beach
    • Rodman's Neck
  • Playground 52
  • Poe
  • Printer's Park
  • Pugsley Creek
  • Rainey
  • Raoul Wallenberg Forest
  • Richman
  • Riverdale
  • St. Mary's
  • Seton Falls
  • Seton
  • Soundview
  • Spuyten Duyvil Shorefront
  • St. James
  • St. Mary's
  • Starlight
  • Tremont
  • University Woods
  • Van Cortlandt
  • Vidalia
  • Vinmont Veteran
  • Washington's Walk
  • Williamsbridge Oval
Queens
  • Admiral
  • Alley
  • Alley Pond
  • Andrews Grove
  • Astoria
  • Baisley Pond
  • Bayside Fields
  • Bayswater
  • Beach Channel
  • Big Bush
  • Bowne
  • Brant Point Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Breininger
  • Broad Channel American Park
  • Broad Channel Park
  • Broad Channel Wetlands
  • Brooklyn–Queens Greenway
  • Brookville
  • Bulova
  • Captain Tilly
  • Crocheron
  • Cunningham
  • Det. Keith L. Williams
  • Det. William T. Gunn
  • Dr. Charles R. Drew
  • Dubos Point Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Doughboy
  • Douglaston
  • Elmhurst
  • Evergreen
  • Flushing Fields
  • Flushing Meadows-Corona
  • Forest
  • Fort Tilden
  • Fort Totten
  • Francis Lewis
  • Frank Golden
  • Frank Principe
  • Haggerty
  • Harvey
  • Highland
  • Hinton
  • Hoffman
  • Hook Creek
  • Hunter's Point
  • Idlewild
  • Jamaica Bay
  • John Golden
  • Juniper Valley
  • Kissena
  • Kohlreiter Square
  • Libra Triangle
  • Linnaeus
  • Little Bay
  • Louis Pasteur
  • Mafera
  • Macneil
  • Marconi
  • Marie Curie
  • Montbellier
  • O'Donohue
  • Overlook
  • Park of the Americas
  • Phil "Scooter" Rizzuto
  • Ofc. Edward Byrne
  • Powell's Cove
  • Queens County Farm Museum
  • Queensbridge
  • Rachel Carson
  • Railroad
  • Ralph Demarco
  • Rochdale
  • Rockaway Community
  • Rufus King
  • Seagirt Avenue Wetlands
  • Socrates Sculpture
  • Spring Creek
  • Springfield
  • St. Albans
  • Travers
  • Tudor
  • Udall's Park Preserve
  • Wayanda
Staten Island
  • Aesop
  • Allison Pond
  • Amundsen Circle
  • Annadale
  • Arbutus Woods
  • Arden Woods
  • Austen House
  • Barrett
  • Bayview Terrace
  • Blood Root Valley
  • Bloomingdale
  • Blue Heron Park Preserve
  • Blueberry
  • Bradys
  • Bunker Ponds
  • Buono Beach
  • Carlton
  • Clove Lakes
  • Clove's Tail
  • Conference House
  • Corporal Thompson
  • Crescent Beach
  • Deere
  • Eibs Pond
  • Faber
  • Fairview
  • Father Macris
  • Forest Grove
  • Fort Hill
  • Fort Wadsworth
  • FDR Boardwalk and Beach
  • Freshkills
  • Gaeta
  • Great Kills
  • Graniteville Quarry
  • Graniteville Swamp
  • Hero
  • High Rock
  • Hoffman Island
  • Huguenot Ponds
  • Hybrid Oak Woods
  • Ingram Woods
  • Isle of Meadows
  • Jones Woods
  • Joseph Manna
  • King Fisher
  • Kingdom Pond
  • Last Chance
  • LaTourette
  • Lemon Creek
  • Long Pond
  • Gen. MacArthur
  • Maple Woods
  • Mariners Marsh
  • Meredith Woods
  • Midland Beach
  • Midland Field
  • Miller Field
  • Mount Loretto Unique Area
  • New Dorp Beach
  • New York Chinese Scholar's Garden
  • Northerleigh Park
  • Ocean Breeze
  • Old Place Creek
  • Olmstead-Beil House
  • Prall's Island
  • Reed's Basket WIllow Swamp
  • Richmond Terrace Wetlands
  • Saw Mill Creek Marsh
  • Schmul
  • Seaside Wildlife Nature
  • Shooters Island
  • Siedenburg
  • Silver Lake
  • Snug Harbor Cultural Center & Botanical Garden
  • Sobel Court
  • South Beach Wetlands
  • St. George
  • Staten Island Greenbelt
  • Staten Island Industrial
  • Swinburne Island
  • Tappen
  • Tompkinsville
  • Tottenville Shore
  • Von Briesen
  • Walker
  • Wegener
  • Westerleigh
  • Westwood
  • William T. Davis Wildlife Refuge
  • Willowbrook
  • Wolfe's Pond
OtherNature centers
  • Alley Pond
  • Belvedere Castle
  • Blue Heron
  • Crotona
  • Dana Discovery Center
  • Forest
  • Fort Greene
  • Fort Totten
  • Greenbelt
  • High Rock
  • Inwood Hill
  • Orchard Beach
  • Prospect
  • Salt Marsh
  • Van Cortlandt
Zoos
  • Bronx
  • Central Park
  • Prospect
  • Queens
  • Staten Island
Botanical gardens
  • Brooklyn Botanic
  • Conservatory
  • New York Botanical
  • Queens Botanical
  • Staten Island Botanical
    • New York Chinese Scholar's
  • Wave Hill
Roosevelt Island
  • Lighthouse
  • Southpoint
Other lists
  • World War I-related parks
  • Vietnam War-related parks
  • Category
  • Department of Parks and Recreation
  • New York State
  • Commons
  • v
  • t
  • e
World Heritage Sites in the United StatesNortheast
  • Independence Hall
  • Statue of Liberty
Midwest
  • Cahokia
South
  • Everglades
  • Great Smoky Mountains
  • Mammoth Cave
  • Monticello and the University of Virginia
  • Poverty Point
  • San Antonio Missions
West
  • Carlsbad Caverns
  • Chaco Culture National Historical Park
  • Grand Canyon National Park
  • Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park
  • Kluane-Wrangell–St. Elias-Glacier Bay-Tatshenshini-Alsek1
  • Mesa Verde
  • Olympic National Park
  • Pueblo de Taos
  • Papahānaumokuākea
  • Redwood
  • Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park1
  • Yellowstone National Park
  • Yosemite National Park
Territories
  • La Fortaleza and San Juan National Historic Site
1 Shared with Canada
  • v
  • t
  • e
Popular visitor attractions in New York CityMore than 10 million
annual visitors
  • Times Square (50 M)
  • Central Park (40 M)
  • Grand Central Terminal (21.6 M)
  • Broadway (13.2 M)
  • South Street Seaport (12 M)
  • Rockefeller Center
1 to 10 million
annual visitors
  • High Line (7.6 M)
  • Metropolitan Museum of Art (6.3 M)
  • American Museum of Natural History (5.0 M)
  • National September 11 Memorial & Museum (5.0 M)
  • Empire State Building (3.5 M)
  • Museum of Modern Art (2.8 M)
  • Statue of Liberty (2.4 M)
  • One World Trade Center (2.3 M)
  • Bronx Zoo (1.8 M)
  • Ellis Island (1.7 M)
Note: Visitor numbers are estimates only.
See also: Tourism in New York City
  • v
  • t
  • e
U.S. National Register of Historic Places in New YorkTopics
  • Contributing property
  • Keeper of the Register
  • Historic district
  • History of the National Register of Historic Places
  • National Park Service
  • Property types


Lists
by county
  • Albany
  • Allegany
  • Bronx
  • Broome
  • Cattaraugus
  • Cayuga
  • Chautauqua
  • Chemung
  • Chenango
  • Clinton
  • Columbia
  • Cortland
  • Delaware
  • Dutchess
  • Erie
  • Essex
  • Franklin
  • Fulton
  • Genesee
  • Greene
  • Hamilton
  • Herkimer
  • Jefferson
  • Kings (Brooklyn)
  • Lewis
  • Livingston
  • Madison
  • Monroe
  • Montgomery
  • Nassau
  • New York (Manhattan)
  • Niagara
  • Oneida
  • Onondaga
  • Ontario
  • Orange
  • Orleans
  • Oswego
  • Otsego
  • Putnam
  • Queens
  • Rensselaer
  • Richmond (Staten Island)
  • Rockland
  • Saratoga
  • Schenectady
  • Schoharie
  • Schuyler
  • Seneca
  • St. Lawrence
  • Steuben
  • Suffolk
  • Sullivan
  • Tioga
  • Tompkins
  • Ulster
  • Warren
  • Washington
  • Wayne
  • Westchester
    • Northern
    • Southern
  • Wyoming
  • Yates
Lists
by city
  • Albany
  • Buffalo
  • New Rochelle
  • New York City
    • Bronx
    • Brooklyn
    • Queens
    • Staten Island
    • Manhattan
      • Below 14th St.
      • 14th–59th St.
      • 59th–110th St.
      • Above 110th St.
      • Minor islands
  • Niagara Falls
  • Peekskill
  • Poughkeepsie
  • Rhinebeck
  • Rochester
  • Syracuse
  • Yonkers
Other lists
  • Bridges and tunnels
  • National Historic Landmarks
  • Category:National Register of Historic Places in New York (state)
  • Portal:National Register of Historic Places
  • v
  • t
  • e
Museums in ManhattanFinancial District and Battery Park
(Below Chambers St)
  • Castle Clinton
  • China Institute
  • Federal Hall
  • Fraunces Tavern
  • George Gustav Heye Center
  • Mmuseumm
  • Museum of American Finance
  • Museum of Jewish Heritage
  • New York City Police Museum
  • Skyscraper Museum
  • South Street Seaport
Lower Manhattan
(Chambers-14th Sts)
  • Asian American Arts Centre
  • Drawing Center
  • Eldridge Street Synagogue
  • FusionArts Museum
  • International Center of Photography
  • Lower East Side Tenement Museum
  • Merchant's House Museum
  • Museum of Chinese in America
  • New Museum
  • New York City Fire Museum
  • The Theatre Museum
  • Ukrainian Museum
  • Whitney Museum of American Art
Chelsea, Flatiron, Gramercy
(14th-34th Sts)
  • Center for Jewish History
  • International Print Center New York
  • John J. Harvey
  • The Museum at FIT
  • Museum of Mathematics
  • Museum of Sex
  • Rubin Museum of Art
  • Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace
  • Tibet House
Midtown
(34th-59th Sts)
  • Girl Scout Museum and Archives
  • Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum
  • Japan Society
  • John M. Mossman Lock Museum
  • Madame Tussauds
  • Morgan Library & Museum
  • Museum of Arts and Design
  • Museum of Modern Art
  • New York Public Library Main Branch
  • New York Transit Museum
  • Paley Center for Media
  • Scandinavia House
  • United Nations Art Collection
Upper West Side
(59th-125th Sts west of 5th Av)
  • American Folk Art Museum
  • American Museum of Natural History
    • Rose Center for Earth and Space
  • Children's Museum of Manhattan
  • Museum of Biblical Art
  • New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
  • New-York Historical Society
  • Nicholas Roerich Museum
  • Rose Museum
Upper East Side and East Harlem
(59th-125th Sts along or east of 5th Av)
  • Asia Society
  • El Museo del Barrio
  • Frick Collection
  • Gracie Mansion
  • Grolier Club
  • Guggenheim Museum
  • Jewish Museum
  • Met Breuer
  • Metropolitan Museum of Art
  • Mount Vernon Hotel Museum
  • Museum of Motherhood
  • Museum of the City of New York
  • National Academy Museum and School
Upper Manhattan
(Above 125th St)
  • American Academy of Arts and Letters
  • The Cloisters
  • Dyckman House
  • Hamilton Grange National Memorial
  • Hispanic Society of America
  • Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center
  • Morris–Jumel Mansion
  • National Jazz Museum in Harlem
  • National Track and Field Hall of Fame
  • Neue Galerie New York
  • Yeshiva University Museum
  • Studio Museum in Harlem
Islands
  • Ellis Island
  • Statue of Liberty
Defunct
  • Chelsea Art Museum
  • Dahesh Museum of Art
  • Forbes Galleries
  • Museum of Comic and Cartoon Art
  • Museum of Primitive Art
  • See also: Museum Mile
  • v
  • t
  • e
Hudson River watershedTributaries
  • Batten Kill
  • Black Meadow Creek
  • Bowery Creek
  • Breakneck Brook
  • Canajoharie Creek
  • Caroga Creek
  • Casperkill
  • Catskill Creek
  • Cayadutta Creek
  • Cedar River
  • Claverack Creek
  • Clove Brook
  • Cobleskill Creek
  • Coeymans Creek
  • Coxsackie Creek
  • Cross River
  • Croton River
  • East Branch Croton River
  • East Branch Sacandaga River
  • East Canada Creek
  • Eightmile Creek
  • Esopus Creek
  • Fall Kill
  • Fishkill Creek
  • Fonteyn Kill
  • Fulmer Creek
  • Hannacrois Creek
  • Honnedaga Brook
  • Hoosic River
  • Jackson Creek
  • Jan De Bakkers Kill
  • Kaaterskill Creek
  • Kayaderosseras
  • Kinderhook Creek
  • Kisco River
  • Lake Creek
  • Little Shawangunk Kill
  • Maritje Kill
  • Miami River
  • Mill Creek
  • Mohawk River
  • Moodna Creek
  • Moordener Kill
  • Moyer Creek
  • Muddy Kill
  • Neepaulakating Creek
  • Normans Kill
  • Nowadaga Creek
  • Onesquethaw Creek
  • Oriskany Creek
  • Otsquago Creek
  • Otter Kill
  • Papakating Creek
  • Peekskill Hollow Creek
  • Pocantico River
  • Pochuck Creek
  • Poesten Kill
  • Potic Creek
  • Quassaick Creek
  • Roeliff Jansen Kill
  • Rondout Creek
  • Sacandaga River
  • Sauquoit Creek
  • Saw Kill
  • Saw Mill River
  • Sawyer Kill
  • Schoharie Creek
  • Schroon River
  • Shawangunk Kill
  • Sparkill Creek
  • Sprout Creek
  • Steele Creek
  • Stockport Creek
  • Stony Clove Creek
  • Taghkanic Creek
  • Tenmile Creek
  • Tin Brook
  • Titicus River
  • Verkeerder Kill
  • Vloman Kill
  • Wallkill River
  • Walloomsac River
  • Wappinger Creek
  • Wawayanda Creek
  • West Branch Papakating Creek
  • West Branch Sacandaga River
  • West Canada Creek
  • West Kill
  • Wynants Kill
Lakes
  • Alcove Reservoir
  • Ashokan Reservoir
  • Basic Creek Reservoir
  • Beacon Reservoir
  • Bog Brook Reservoir
  • Cedar Lake
  • Chadwick Lake
  • Chub Lake
  • Cross River Reservoir
  • Croton Falls Reservoir
  • Dyken Pond
  • East Branch Reservoir
  • East Caroga Lake
  • Fall Lake
  • Franklinton Vlaie
  • Garnet Lake
  • Glenmere Lake
  • Great Sacandaga Lake
  • Great Vlaie
  • Henderson Lake
  • Honnedaga Lake
  • Indian Lake
  • Lizard Pond
  • Lake Maratanza
  • Muscoot Reservoir
  • Lake Neepaulin
  • New Croton Reservoir
  • Notch Lake
  • Piseco Lake
  • Lake Pleasant
  • Queechy Lake
  • Rondout Reservoir
  • Sacandaga Lake
  • Saratoga Lake
  • Sturgeon Pool
  • Surprise Lake
  • Sylvan Lake
  • Lake Tear of the Clouds
  • Thompson Pond
  • Titicus Reservoir
  • Trout Lake
  • West Caroga Lake
  • Whaley Lake
  • Winnisook Lake
Towns
  • Albany
  • Alpine
  • Amsterdam
  • Bayonne
  • Beacon
  • Bedford
  • Beekman
  • Bennington
  • Bethlehem
  • Blooming Grove
  • Carmel
  • Catskill
  • Cliffside Park
  • Clifton Park
  • Cohoes
  • Colonie
  • Cortlandt
  • East Fishkill
  • East Greenbush
  • Edgewater
  • Englewood Cliffs
  • Fishkill
  • Fort Lee
  • Glenville
  • Gloversville
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Statue of Liberty Statue Sculpture from New York City Liberty Island Collection Souvenirs (8 Inches Tall)
Statue of Liberty Statue Sculpture from New York City Liberty Island Collection Souvenirs (8 Inches Tall)
Authentic Statue of Liberty replica statue from New York City's Liberty Island. This 8 inch tall hand crafted bronzed Statue of Liberty statue makes a great New York City souvenir, party favor or award.

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$8.12
-$4.63(-36%)



LEGO Architecture Statue of Liberty 21042 Building Kit (1685 Piece)
LEGO Architecture Statue of Liberty 21042 Building Kit (1685 Piece)
Celebrate a monumental blend of architecture and sculpture with this LEGO Architecture The Statue of Liberty set. America's iconic symbol of freedom stands more than 305 feet above Liberty Island in New York harbor, welcoming seafarers from around the globe. This impressive LEGO interpretation faithfully reproduces the monument's harmonious blend of sculpture and architecture with its intricately detailed shield-lined pedestal, brick detailing and columned balconies. The beautifully crafted Lady Liberty statue features a flowing robe, broken shackles, 7-ray crown, iconic tablet and an upraised arm bearing a golden torch. Finished with an authentic sand-green and beige color scheme, and a decorative nameplate, this model delivers a highly satisfying building experience to all with an interest in architecture, travel, history and design, and makes a truly symbolic centerpiece for the home or office.

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$119.95



City-Souvenirs 125th Anniversary Statue of Liberty (Liberty/Ellis Island Foundation), 14.5 Inches Tall
City-Souvenirs 125th Anniversary Statue of Liberty (Liberty/Ellis Island Foundation), 14.5 Inches Tall
14.5 Inch Marble/Polyester authentic replica. MADE IN USA! New York Wonder of the World and American icon. The Statue of Liberty, designed by sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, was given by the French government to the United States as a token of friendship between the two countries and dedicated by President Grover Cleveland on October 28, 1886. In the 1870s, Bartholdi began making small-scale replicas to help pay for the real one. By the time of official dedication, New York was flooded with cheap, illegal knock-offs, and even today most models are manufactured in China. This extraordinary piece is proudly crafted in a New York City workshop. The 14.5 inch tall scaled replica of the Statue of Liberty, approved by the Statue of Liberty/Ellis Island Foundation for the statue's 125th Anniversary, is meticulously sculpted and cast in bonded marble with a hand painted patina. In a process similar to casting bronze, a mold is created and cast with a cold mixture of marble dust and catalyzed resin which produces a dense, rock-hard material that is superior to natural marble for durability.

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$46.49
-$8.50(-15%)



10 Inch Statue of Liberty Statue, Green with Brown New York Base Statues
10 Inch Statue of Liberty Statue, Green with Brown New York Base Statues
Very nice Statue of Liberty replica with tall base and script writing. The torch is painted gold with a gold glitter coating. Total 10 1/2" high from base to top of torch. The base has 4 rubber pads. Thick molded plastic construction.

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$18.40
-$1.59(-8%)



(1 pc) New York City Party Supplies, 4" Statue of Liberty Statues Replica Gifts with Copper Tint; Statue of Liberty Souvenir Figurines from New York City Souvenirs
(1 pc) New York City Party Supplies, 4" Statue of Liberty Statues Replica Gifts with Copper Tint; Statue of Liberty Souvenir Figurines from New York City Souvenirs
4" Statue of Liberty Statues with copper tint. Great New York City souvenirs party favors, and cake toppers. Great for center pieces, card holders, event giveaways and gifts. Makes great decorations and stocking stuffers.

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$3.29
-$3.70(-53%)



The Story of the Statue of Liberty (Rise and Shine)
The Story of the Statue of Liberty (Rise and Shine)
"Written for the youngest audience...the text is very simple yet manages to convey all the major events in Liberty's creation....The full-color watercolors show amazing detail and are extremely rich."--Horn Book.

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$2.99
-$5.00(-63%)



Statue of Liberty Figurine - 10 1/2 inches tall, Statue of Liberty Souvenirs, NY Souvenirs
Statue of Liberty Figurine - 10 1/2 inches tall, Statue of Liberty Souvenirs, NY Souvenirs
These 10 1/2" tall executive quality Liberty Statues are beautiful. Wood base construction with satin finish. The base and Lady are meticulously detailed with a green felt bottom. The height listed is from the top of the torch to the bottom of the wood base. The brown base is constructed of wood. The white base is constructed of thick plastic. And the green lady is constructed of a plastic/hard rubber mixture.

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$19.99



Liberty Imports Statue of Liberty 3D Puzzle, 39 Pieces
Liberty Imports Statue of Liberty 3D Puzzle, 39 Pieces
Statue of Liberty 3D Puzzle This cool 3 dimensional Puzzle creates a 9" model of the Statue of Liberty. This kit has 39 pieces. It has authentic details and sturdy construction. No glue or scissors required, easy to assemble, & makes a great souvenir. It is over 9" Tall. The puzzle makes a beautiful desktop display of the statue and is a great learning project. The Statue of Liberty was given to the United States by the people of France as a symbol of the friendship that was established during the American Revolution. The Statue was deisgned by sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi and became a joint project with the American's responsible for the construction of the pedastal and the French responsible for construction of the actual Statue and assembling her on a base. Her exterior is covered in copper and the light green color patina, is the result of the copper's natural weathering. There are 154 steps from pedestal to the head. Lady Liberty, as the statue is also known, holds a table in her left hand that is inscribed with the date July IV MDCCLXXVI (July 4, 1776), the date of the United States Declaration of Independence. Her crown contains seven rays which represent the Seven Continents and Seven Seas. Lying at the feet of the Statue are the broken shackles of oppression and tyranny.

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$9.97



6 Inch Statue of Liberty Replica NYC Skyline American Flag Special Edition Statues
6 Inch Statue of Liberty Replica NYC Skyline American Flag Special Edition Statues
Very nice Statue of Liberty replica with 3-D wrap around base flag and 3-D wrap around image of the NY skyline. Total 6" high from base to top of torch. The base has 4 rubber pads. Thick molded plastic construction.

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$3.73
-$5.97(-62%)


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