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January 2019 Lincoln Memorial confrontation
place near the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., on January 18, 2019, that was captured on several videos. The interaction occurred in the late afternoon

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January 2019 Lincoln Memorial confrontationA still of a viral video of a Covington Catholic High School student, and Nathan Phillips, a Native American activistDateJanuary 18, 2019LocationLincoln Memorial stairsCoordinates38°53′21.4″N 77°3′0.5″W / 38.889278°N 77.050139°W / 38.889278; -77.050139Coordinates: 38°53′21.4″N 77°3′0.5″W / 38.889278°N 77.050139°W / 38.889278; -77.050139Participants
  • Students of the Covington Catholic High School attending a pro-life March for Life rally
  • Nathan Phillips and other Native American marchers attending the Indigenous Peoples March
  • Members of the Black Hebrew Israelites who were street preaching near the Lincoln Memorial

A widely publicized encounter took place near the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., on January 18, 2019, that was captured on several videos.[1][2][3][4] The interaction occurred in the late afternoon, after two rallies taking place that day at the National Mall had ended. The participants involved were Covington Catholic High School teenage students on an annual school trip to attend a pro-life March for Life rally who were assembling to meet buses to take them home; Native American marchers attending the Indigenous Peoples March; and five Black Hebrew Israelites, who taunted the students. One particular moment was captured in a screenshot published in numerous mass media outlets, showing one of the students, later identified as 16-year-old Nicholas Sandmann, staring at Native American activist Nathan Phillips, who had approached him, with what some reports characterized as a smirk on his face.

The short videos of the encounter that were uploaded to common social media platforms Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube received millions of views[5] and were widely shared on mass media. At first, the anger focused on the students and the school. The school and students were the subject of death threats.[6] As a "fuller picture emerged", "diverging views about what really had happened" polarized Americans.[7] The incident was described by The New York Times as an "explosive convergence of race, religion and ideological beliefs"[7] and a Vox editorial called it the "nation's biggest story".[1] The incident generated cycles of outrage that continued a week after the event.[6]

  • 1 The incident
    • 1.1 Black Hebrew Israelites
  • 2 Investigation of the incident
  • 3 Response
    • 3.1 Further coverage
    • 3.2 Following full video release
    • 3.3 Lawsuit
  • 4 Analysis of media coverage
  • 5 Notes
  • 6 References
The incident The stairs of the Lincoln Memorial, the site of the incident, pictured here in July 2004.

The incident, which The New York Times described as an "explosive political moment", took place in the late afternoon of January 18, 2019, on the Plaza of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. at the conclusion of a day of rallies for two groups, Indigenous Peoples March, and the March for Life.[6] The marches had represented entirely separate purposes: raising awareness of indigenous peoples issues[8] and raising awareness of pro-life / abortion issues respectively. For about ten minutes,[9] there was an overlap on the Plaza of a small group from the Indigenous Peoples March and a larger group of students from the all-male Covington Catholic High School in Park Hills, Kentucky, who were gathering at their appointed meeting place, at the steps of the Plaza to wait for their buses to return home. Before the students arrived, a group of five Black Hebrew Israelites, stood in a row "shouting scripture from red books" and taunting passers-by.[6][8][10][Notes 1][11] As the 15- and 16-year-old students began to arrive, the Hebrew Israelites began to taunt them directly,[7][12][13][7][14][15][16][17][18] and shouted racially combative insults and slurs at them.[7][14][15] As more Covington students arrived, and in response to these taunts, the students performed school spirit sports chants, including their version of a Māori haka.[12][19][Notes 2][Notes 3]

According to a January 23 New York Times article,[6] Indigenous Peoples March participants said they had interpreted the "loud chanting" and the size of the group, as well as their MAGA apparel, as "aggressive and disruptive to their demonstration"[6] which had just concluded. Nathan Phillips, a member of the Omaha tribe who had participated in the March, listened to the chants for what he said was about ten minutes. He said he thought that there was a confrontation between the students and the street preachers that he believed had reached a "boiling point". He later said that he had intended to defuse what he perceived as escalating tension between the students and the preachers.[20][21][Notes 4] According to CNN's Sara Sidner, two minutes after one of the students took off his shirt to lead the haka, the "drum beat of Phillips and another Native American drummer in the video". They sang the AIM Song, a Native American intertribal song.[12][20][22]

Phillips and a second Native American, both with ceremonial drums, walked towards the students grouped along the stairs. Sidner said that while some of the students danced to Phillips' drum beat and chanted along with him for awhile, they were not "enjoying each other's company".[12] Soon, Phillips, was "encircled" by about 30 students, "many of them white and wearing apparel bearing the slogan of President Trump", red baseball hats with the phrase "Make America Great Again" (MAGA).[7][23] Phillips continued to beat his ceremonial drum and sing for nearly two minutes as a boy wearing the red MAGA hat chose not to retreat[7] with what some viewed as a smirk on his face.[7][14][15][24] The student later explained that he smiled because he wanted Phillips to know "that I was not going to become angry, intimidated or be provoked into a larger confrontation."[14] Within minutes of this encounter, an adult chaperone called the students to their buses which had arrived. The students quickly departed the area without further incident.

Black Hebrew Israelites Main article: Black Hebrew Israelites

Earlier footage that was released did not include the presence of a group of five Black Hebrew Israelites on the Plaza near the Reflecting Pond. They stood in a row "shouting scripture from red books" and taunting passers-by.[6][8][10][11] According to CNN's Sara Sidner they were "taunting ... people of all colors, other black visitors, natives, and a Catholic priest" shortly after the end of the Indigenous Peoples March, and before the students arrived on the scene.[14][12][25] As the students began to arrive to wait for their bus, the Israelites began to shout directly at them.[7][12][13]

According to witnesses and video subsequently appearing on social media, the Hebrew Israelite men shouted racially combative insults and racist slurs at the high school students as well as Native Americans.[7][14][15] They called the students "a bunch of incest babies", future "school shooters", and "dirty ass little crackers", and said "you give faggots rights".[14][16][17][26] Many students reacted by saying things such as "whoa" and "easy".[26] The Hebrew Israelites also called a passing Black man who tried to disagree with them a "coon", told Indian activists that the word Indian means "savage", and said to a woman who had stopped to argue with them: "Where's your husband? Bring your husband. Let me speak to him."[16][18]

Investigation of the incident

An independent investigation commissioned by the Diocese of Covington found the high school students did nothing wrong.[27][28]


News media started covering the story on the evening of January 18, 2019, in response to the viral spread of initial videos posted to social media. Within days of their first coverage of the incident, many news media outlets had revisited their reports and revised the narrative, as more information became available. (January 21 was the annual commemoration of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s birthday). This included longer videos which contextualized the incident, in-depth analyses and statements from spokesmen for the participants directly involved.[29] The media were sharply criticized for basing their initial reporting on social media, particularly the user-generated short videos, that did not include the minutes before and after the incident.[29] These new sources, which included interviews with participants, revealed the chronology of events, showing how the students had become excited by the taunts of the Hebrew Israelites before Phillips came on the scene.[12]

Participants at the Indigenous Peoples March posted the first videos of the incident in the evening of Friday, January 18, 2019, following the events. These first videos, which were roughly a minute long, were of the c. 60 seconds when Phillips was drumming, closely encircled by a large group of excited students. They did not include the minutes before and after that contextualized the incident. As described by Vox, the short videos gave the impression "that the boys were harassing the Native American elder".[29] One of these was a one-minute clip posted by Guam resident Kaya Taitano, a student at the University of the District of Columbia, who was with the small group of other participants at the Memorial late afternoon when the incident took place. She filmed the moment that CNN later described as "a smiling young man in a red Make America Great Again hat standing directly in front of Phillips while other students could be seen laughing, jumping around and making fun of Phillips' chants. Taitano had uploaded it to Instagram at 7:33 p.m.[30][31] and her video was later reposted that day to Twitter via user "2020fight", under the title "This MAGA loser gleefully bothering a Native American protester at the Indigenous Peoples March", which had received over 2.5 million views by January 21.[30][32] The second video, posted to YouTube by KC Noland, reached two million viewers in two hours Saturday morning, January 19, and over four and a half million by January 24.[33][34][35][36]

The first social media video clips were short and focused on this moment, leading to initial harsh criticism of the high school students, who some described as mocking and harassing the elder. Some people affiliated with the March described the boys as appearing threatening due to their numbers, actions, and the "Make America Great Again" caps and clothing that some wore.[7] By January 20, longer videos had been uploaded. Phillips clarified that it was he who had approached the crowd of students, in what he said was an attempt to defuse what Phillips perceived to be a brewing conflict between the students and a third group of five men who identified as Hebrew Israelites who had been taunting the white students with racist and homophobic slurs.[37]

Strong reactions to the event prompted an immediate backlash against the school, the students, and their chaperones. The Post described the incident as a "tense encounter" that "prompted outrage".[5] One of the featured speakers at the Indigenous Peoples March, Ruth Buffalo, a North Dakota Representative and member of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation[38][39][40] said the students' disrespect of what was meant to have been a "celebration of all cultures" saddened her. She added, "The behaviour shown in that video is just a snapshot of what Indigenous people have faced and are continuing to face."[41] Buffalo suggested "some kind of meeting with the students to provide education on issues facing Native Americans."[41] House Representative Deb Haaland wrote, "The students' display of blatant hate, disrespect, and intolerance is a signal of how common decency has decayed under this administration. Heartbreaking."[33]

Over the next several days statements from a spokesperson for the March, an attorney for the Lakota People's Law Project, and from the student seen in the video standing face to face with Phillips, and other officials, offered different perspectives on the incident. In the wake of the widespread sharing of more detailed video clips, media analyses of the videos, and statements, public opinion became polarized, with some saying the students were completely absolved of all wrongdoing and others saying the students[clarification needed] were disrespectful of a Native American elder on a day that should have been a celebration of the first Indigenous Peoples March.[7]

Further coverage Still of a second video

Shortly after the event took place, the Covington Catholic communications director released a statement expressing regret that the event had happened.[34] In a joint statement on January 19, the Diocese of Covington and the Covington Catholic High School extended apologies to Phillips, condemned the students' behavior, and said that after they reviewed the situation they would "take appropriate action, up to and including expulsion."[42]

However, in a subsequent letter on 25 January 2019, the bishop of the Covington Diocese subsequently apologized to the student involved saying they "should not have allowed ourselves to be bullied and pressured into making a statement prematurely".[43]

According to The New York Times, death threats had been reported by some of the Covington students' families and the school was closed for a day due to threats of violence."[6]

On January 20, The New York Times described the encounter as an "explosive convergence of race, religion and ideological beliefs—against a national backdrop of political tension... became the latest touch point for racial and political tensions in America, with diverging views about what really had happened."[7] A Vox editorial called it the "nation's biggest story" and "American politics in microcosm" based on the competing interpretations, "identity-focused politics," and intractable back and forth between left-leaning and right-leaning media organizations "despite the inherent uncertainty in the footage itself."[1]

As the backlash intensified, the parents of the Covington High School junior Nicholas Sandmann, the one CNN described as "smiling young man in a red Make America Great Again hat," retained the services of Louisville-based RunSwitch Public Relations, a company that specializes in crisis management.[Notes 5] They released a January 21 statement on behalf of the young man, in which he said misinformation and "outright lies" were being spread about the incident.[44] According to him, the situation began when a group of African-American protesters directed insults at the students, and the students responded with school spirit chants. The student said that he was confused when Phillips and other Native Americans subsequently approached him and the other students, and that he tried to remain calm to avoid trouble. He said he "did not witness or hear any students chant 'build that wall' or anything hateful or racist at any time."[20][45][46]

Taitano said she also heard the students chant "build that wall" and "Trump 2020", but chants were not audible in videos reviewed by CNN.[15][20][45][47] The January 21 PR statement denied that the students chanted "Build the wall".[20][48][44][46][49] Phillips said that he had heard the students chanting "build that wall" which was one of the principle concerns of the Indigenous Peoples March.[38][50] In a brief interview on Twitter, he said "This is Indigenous Land you know, we're not supposed to have walls here. We never did for millenniums before anybody else came here we never had walls. We never had a prison. We always took care of our elders and took care of our children. We always provided for them, we taught them right from wrong. I wish I could see that energy in that young mass of young men down there. To put that energy into making this country really great — helping those that are hungry..."[47] Some others affiliated with the March described the group of boys surrounding Phillips as appearing threatening due to their numbers, actions, and "Make America Great Again" attire.[7]

Alison Lundergan Grimes, Secretary of State of Kentucky, described the scene as "horrific" and said the students' actions did not reflect Kentucky's values. She wrote, "I refuse to shame these children. Instead I turn to the adults that are teaching them and those that are silently letting others promote this behavior. This is not the Kentucky I know and love. We can do better and it starts with better leadership."[51]

The Washington Post described the Indigenous Peoples March as "meaningful", and an example of how Native Americans will not be silenced.[52] The article drew attention to Donald Trump's joking about the Wounded Knee Massacre to mock the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts, Elizabeth Warren.[53][54][Notes 6]

Vulture writer Erik Abriss, who tweeted that he wanted the Covington students and their parents to die, was fired from his second job at INE Entertainment.[55] Film producer Jack Morrissey, who had suggested the "MAGAkids go screaming, hats first, into the woodchipper," later apologized for his "fast, profoundly stupid tweet".[56]

CNN analyst Bakari Sellers tweeted, "He is a deplorable. Some can also be punched in the face."[57]

Wheeler Walker Jr., an alter-ego of comedian Ben Hoffman, tweeted "If you know this little shit, punch him in the nuts and send me the video of it and I'll send you all my albums on vinyl, autographed."[58]

In February 2019, a video filmed shortly earlier, allegedly showing Covington boys harassing a group of young women, was posted online.[59] However, it is unclear what was said between the students and the young women who made and posted the recording.

Following full video release

A longer hour-and-a-half-long video was made public on Sunday, January 20.[60] The longer video revealed more information about the incident, including the five Hebrew Israelites and their taunting of the students.[Notes 7] The New York Times January 22 compilation shows that the whole interaction only lasted ten minutes.[6]

In the wake of the publication of the longer video, CNN Business reporter Donie O'Sullivan described 2020fight's video as the one that "helped frame the news cycle" of the previous days, and characterized the video as a "deliberate attempt" to mislead and "manipulate the public conversation on Twitter"—a violation of Twitter rules.[61] According to Molly McKew, an information warfare researcher, the tweet had been boosted by a network of anonymous Twitter accounts to amplify the story.[61][30][32][Notes 8]

The newly-revealed information of the whole incident shown through the longer videos created confusion in the ongoing reporting: while some still believed the students were partially responsible for poor attitudes, others felt that the students had been maligned by the initial coverage, and that several other actors in the event were to blame for the net result.[29]

The organizers of the March for Life initially released a statement criticizing the students' "reprehensible" behavior. But the organizers rescinded the statement on January 20, saying: "It is clear from new footage and additional accounts that there is more to this story than the original video captured."[45][62]

Chase Iron Eyes, a spokesperson for the March and an attorney for the Lakota People's Law Project, who witnessed the incident, said that: "Conservative people are fearful now—with the election to ongress of our first two Native American women, Deb Haaland and Sharice Davids, and so many other powerful women... But yesterday the world saw, whether it was live media or social media, the fight ahead of us can be won—if we are united."[31][23] Another march organizer, Nathalie Farfan, said, "The good news is, that connection to the sacred may have resonated with some of the Catholic youths. What is not being shown on is that the same youth and a few others became emotional because of the power, resilience and love we inherently carry in our DNA. Our day on those steps ended with a round dance, while we chanted, 'We are still here.'"[23]

On January 21, The New York Times report from Covington said that the local community had focused its energy on "absolving the students of any wrongdoing" in the incident, having "began to see itself as facing a politically motivated siege".[63]

Kentucky Representative Thomas Massie wrote that after watching videos from four different cameras he believed the media had misrepresented the incident, and that: "In the context of everything that was going on (which the media hasn't shown) the parents and mentors of these boys should be proud, not ashamed, of their kids' behavior."[64]

The House Intelligence Committee on January 22 asked Twitter to provide information on the reason why the first video went viral.[65]

On January 22, shortly after tweeting it, Kathy Griffin deleted a Twitter message in which she accused Covington basketball players making a 3-pointer sign of "throwing up the new nazi sign".[66] The same day Jim Carrey tweeted an art work labeling the Covington students as 'baby snakes'.[67] In a January 22 tweet, President Trump said the Covington students "have become symbols of Fake News and how evil it can be."[68]

After several conflicting media interviews were given to Nathan Phillips, NBC's Savannah Guthrie interviewed Covington High School junior Nicholas Sandmann, airing on the Today Show on the morning of January 23. While Sandmann did not feel a need to apologize for his actions, he expressed respect for Phillips and a desire to talk to him. In hindsight, he wished that he had simply walked away.[69][70] In his interview with NBC, Phillips said that while "Sandmann owes many people an apology" as he continues to believe the "students were "mocking" Native Americans, and Sandmann "was the leader of that", he forgives those involved.[71] Phillips also acknowledged that both of them had received death threats since the incident.[71][Notes 9][72] Guthrie was criticized for giving Sandmann a national platform and for asking Sandmann if he should apologize to Phillips.[73]

On January 23, 2019 CNN's Kirsten Powers deleted her Twitter app after she was criticized and, in her own words, "harassed" on Twitter after stating a day prior that "watching all the videos (which I did) does not change the fundamental problem: the boys disrespecting an Indigenous elder."[74] The same day, White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders was 'slammed' for her statement that, referring to the Covington student, she had "never seen people so happy to destroy a kid's life".[75]

On January 24 Essence published an article by Michael Arceneaux, in which he wrote that if Sandmann would have been black, "he would have been harmed if not flat out killed".[76][77]


On January 25, in reaction to media coverage of their son, the family of one of the Catholic students announced they had hired prominent libel attorney L. Lin Wood, who had previously worked on prominent libel cases including JonBenét Ramsey's brother, Herman Cain, and the family of Richard Jewell (falsely accused of being the 1996 Olympic Park Bomber).[78]

Wood filed a US$250 million lawsuit on behalf of the Convington student against the Washington Post was filed;[79][80] the suit states that the Post "claim leadership" of the coverage from other sources that "attacked, vilified, and threatened" the student featured in the media coverage. The Post plans to fully defend itself in the suit. At issue is whether the students qualified as limited public figures at the time of the incident.[81]

Analysis of media coverage

The news media has been criticized for how it covered the incident, specifically for their initial reporting of the story based on various social media posts without fully investigating what occurred and subsequently fueling controversy and outrage over the incident.[82][29][83][84][85] Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell addressed the issue in US Senate on January 23, 2019: "When the rush for headlines takes precedence over the facts, mistakes are made and our rights as Americans are put at risk. This trend is particularly troubling when young people are involved."[86][87]

  1. ^ The March For Life also had a permit for a First Amendment demonstrations on the National Mall on that day. According to The Cut, CovCath sends an annual delegation of its students to attend the anti-abortion March For Life in Washington.
  2. ^ A haka is a type of traditional ceremonial dance or challenge in Māori culture. They have been adopted in popular culture, often in sports.
  3. ^ One of the Native Americans who was there for the March said that he felt "the students were mocking the dance."
  4. ^ According to CNN, in his early press interviews, Phillips accused the Covington students of hate and racism. According to The Detroit Free Press, Phillips said, "They were in the process of attacking these four black individuals . . . These young men were beastly and these old black individuals was their prey, and I stood in between them and so they needed their pounds of flesh and they were looking at me for that."
  5. ^ According to Grace Schnieder's January 21, 2019 article in the The Courier-Journal, RunSwitch Public Relations, Kentucky's largest public relations and public affairs company, which "specializes in crisis management", confirmed that the Sandmann family, the parents of Nick Sandmann, the one CNN described as "smiling young man in a red Make America Great Again hat." the young man in the first video had retained their services. RunSwitch partners Steve Bryant and Gary Gerdemann, are ensuring that the "recounting" of events of this "national media story", is accurate. Schnieder wrote that Scott Jennings, who is a "conservative political commentator and a columnist for the Courier Journal, is the third partner in RunSwitch."
  6. ^ Warren has often been criticized for her claim of Native American ancestry. See Beinart's article in The Atlantic.
  7. ^ The one-hour forty-six-minute YouTube video, published by Réactionnaire Médiatique on January 20, began with the five five Black Hebrew Israelites at the Memorial loudly preaching while a few people watched. Several Native Americans attempted to calmly engage with them in conversations. Students began to arrive in the background with a small group of them wearing MAGA hats. There was a vendor nearby and they had just purchased them. At 1:08 minutes the preacher turns to a larger group of students assembling on the stairs and begins to taunt them and then boo him. They begin their school sports chants at this time. By 1:09 dozens of students are jumping up and down roaring in excitement, while one young man pulls off his shirt to lead them in their haka. The black preacher taunts them again as the students formed a huddle in a group looking away from the preacher. At 1:11:53 the American Native drumming can be heard and one minute later Phillips and the second drummer walk slowly in front of the preacher. Phillips pauses in front of the students who are excitedly jumping up an down to the beat. The African American narrator can be heard saying that our elder has come to the rescue. At 1:13 Phillips has stopped walking but continues chanting and drumming. The stairs are full of students looking in his direction. Gradually the crowd filled in around Phillips in front of the African American narrator who says that it was "serious mockery" at a "Native rally with a Make America Great Again hat". The drumming goes quiet. The preacher continues to insult the students who remain at a distance. Their chaperone calls for the students to pack it up at 1:16 and they begin to leave.
  8. ^ The 2020fight Twitter account that reposted Taitano's original video @2020fight was at first considered to be suspicious. According to O'Sullivan's CNN article, Rob McDonagh from Storyful, a company under contract with CNN that monitors and verifies social media content, had reviewed @2020fight's account history, and found it suspicious: it has a "high follower count", a "highly polarized and yet inconsistent political messaging", an "unusually high rate of tweets", and used "someone else's image in the profile photo". At that time CNN reported this to Twitter as they had not been able to reach the account holder. She was later identified as a California school teacher. According to the NBC January 23 article, Twitter had briefly suspended the account based on CNN's report until the account owner's identity was verified. The account owner then deleted the account.
  9. ^ In the Fieldstadt January 24 interview, Phillips "clarified ...that he was a Marines reservist during the Vietnam War, but didn't serve in Vietnam. Some reports have said he served overseas in the war."
  1. ^ a b c Beauchamp, Zach (2019-01-23). "The real politics behind the Covington Catholic controversy, explained". Vox. Retrieved 24 January 2019. The Covington Catholic fight is American politics in microcosm.... Why is the Covington Catholic controversy still the nation’s biggest story? It started simply enough. A short viral video shot on Friday shows a group of white teens, some wearing "Make America Great Again" hats, standing around a smaller group of Native Americans including an elder from the Omaha tribe named Nathan Phillips. Yet despite the inherent uncertainty in the footage itself, both sides continue to dig in, accusing the other of willful blindness and bad faith. It’s been four days since the initial incident, which had nothing like the policy significance of the still-ongoing shutdown fight. Still, it’s the most divisive and talked-about issue in American public life right now. Why? The answer is that the Covington videos are kind of Rorschach test, showing each side seeing what it wants to in a way that’s more revealing about their own worldviews than the actual incident...Why is the Covington Catholic controversy still the nation’s biggest story? It started simply enough. A short viral video shot on Friday shows a group of white teens, some wearing "Make America Great Again" hats, standing around a smaller group of Native American demonstrator including an elder from the Omaha tribe named Nathan Phillips..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Grinberg, Emanuella (2019-01-23). "A new video shows a different side of the encounter between a Native American elder and teens in MAGA hats". CNN. Retrieved 24 January 2019. Kaya Taitano, who shot the viral video, said the teens were chanting "Build the wall" and "Trump 2020." Those chants were not audible in videos reviewed by CNN.
  3. ^ Robins-Early, Nick (January 22, 2019). "House Intelligence Committee Looking Into Tweet About Viral MAGA Hat Teen Video". Huffington Post. Retrieved January 28, 2019. The House Intelligence Committee has asked Twitter to provide more information about a viral video of jeering high school students in Make America Great Again hats surrounding a Native American man, a committee aide told HuffPost. The Twitter account @2020fight on Friday posted the minute-long video of Covington Catholic High School students and Omaha tribe elder Nathan Phillips, and was viewed over 2.5 million times in the days since.
  4. ^ "Rush to judgement: Media quick to slam teens in viral video confrontation with Native American". Fox News. 2019-01-21. Retrieved 24 January 2019. Rush to judgement: Media quick to slam teens in viral video confrontation with Native American
  5. ^ a b Olivo, Antonio; Wootson Jr, Cleve R.; Heim, Joe (January 19, 2019). "'It was getting ugly': Native American drummer on the MAGA-hat wearing teens who surrounded him". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Times, The New York (January 23, 2019). "Videos Show a Collision of 3 Groups That Spawned a Fiery Political Moment". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Mervosh, Sarah; Rueb, Emily S. (January 20, 2019). "Fuller Picture Emerges of Viral Video Between Native American Man and Catholic Students". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  8. ^ a b c Davis, Alli (January 20, 2019). "Omaha Tribe member Nathan Phillips in spotlight in face of taunting teens". Sandhills Express. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  9. ^ See New York Times article
  10. ^ a b Bengal, Rebecca (January 21, 2019). "The Power of Nathan Phillips's Song". Vogue. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  11. ^ a b Lockhart, P.R. (January 22, 2019). "The Black Hebrew Israelites and their connection to the Covington controversy, explained". Vox. Retrieved January 24, 2019. where one of their members was holding a faith-teaching ceremony to his other followers
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