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National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,281 North American institutions and conferences

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Not to be confused with NCCAA or NCCA (disambiguation). "NCAA" redirects here. For the Filipino organization, see National Collegiate Athletic Association (Philippines).

National Collegiate Athletic Association Abbreviation NCAAFounded March 31, 1906 (1906-03-31) (IAAUS)[1]
1910 (NCAA)Legal status AssociationHeadquarters Indianapolis, IndianaRegion served United States and Canada[2]Membership 1,281 schools/institutions, conferences, or other associationsPresident Mark EmmertMain organ Board of GovernorsWebsite NCAA official website
NCAA administrative website

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)[a] is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,281 North American institutions and conferences. It also organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, and helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana.

In its 2016–17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of which was generated by the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament.

In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, and Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Generally, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was briefly added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer officially used by the NCAA.[3] In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) and Football Championship Subdivision (FCS).

Controversially, the NCAA severely caps the benefits that collegiate athletes can receive from their schools. There is a consensus among economists that these caps for men’s basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools (through rent-seeking) at the expense of the athletes.[4]

  • 1 History
    • 1.1 Formation and early years
    • 1.2 1970s–present
  • 2 Headquarters
  • 3 Structure
    • 3.1 Presidents of the NCAA
    • 3.2 Division history
  • 4 Player eligibility
  • 5 NCAA sponsored sports
    • 5.1 Men's programs
    • 5.2 Women's programs
    • 5.3 Women's "emerging sports"
  • 6 Sports added and dropped
    • 6.1 Men's sports
    • 6.2 Women's sports
  • 7 Championships
    • 7.1 Trophies
    • 7.2 Football Bowl Subdivision
  • 8 Conferences
    • 8.1 Division I
      • 8.1.1 Division I FCS football-only conferences
      • 8.1.2 Division I hockey-only conferences
    • 8.2 Division II
    • 8.3 Division III
      • 8.3.1 Division III football-only conferences
      • 8.3.2 Other Division III single-sport conferences
  • 9 Media
  • 10 LGBT inclusion policy
  • 11 Rules violations
  • 12 Sponsors
  • 13 Finances
    • 13.1 NCAA expenditures
      • 13.1.1 Expenses by category
    • 13.2 Player compensation proposals
  • 14 Criticisms
  • 15 Individual awards
  • 16 Other collegiate athletic organizations
    • 16.1 In the United States
    • 16.2 Foreign intercollegiate/interuniversity equivalents
    • 16.3 International governing body
  • 17 See also
  • 18 Notes and references
  • 19 Further reading
  • 20 External links
History Formation and early years

Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of crew.[5] As rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and often had to be adapted for each contest.

The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport."[1] Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules; at a follow-on meeting on December 28, 1905 in New York, 62 higher-education institutions became charter members of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS).[1] The IAAUS was officially established on March 31, 1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910.[1]

For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. Gradually, more rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939.[6]

In the late 1940s, there were only two colleges in the country, Notre Dame and Pennsylvania, with a national TV contract, a considerable source of revenue. In 1951, the NCAA voted to prohibit any live TV broadcast of college football games during the season. No sooner had the NCAA voted to ban television than public outcry forced it to retreat. Instead, the NCAA voted to restrict the number of televised games for each team to stop the slide in gate attendance. University of Pennsylvania president Harold Stassen defied the monopoly and renewed its contract with ABC. Eventually Penn was forced to back down when the NCAA, refusing Penn's request that the U.S. Attorney General rule on the legality of the NCAA's restrictive plan,[7][8] threatened to expel the Quakers from the association. Notre Dame continued televising its games through 1953, working around the ban by filming its games, then broadcasting them the next evening.

A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses. Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, and member schools were increasingly concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance.[6]

The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers, previously a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, and a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952.[6]

Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, and legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games.[6]


As college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, and III.[9] Five years later in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA (renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and the Football Championship Subdivision in 2006) in football.[6]

Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW), with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States. The AIAW was in a vulnerable position that precipitated conflicts with the NCAA in the early 1980s. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, and most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA.[10] By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year later in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program.[6]

By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma. The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football television plan constituted price fixing, output restraints, boycott, and monopolizing, all of which were illegal under the Sherman Act. The NCAA argued that its pro-competitive and non-commercial justifications for the plan – protection of live gate, maintenance of competitive balance among NCAA member institutions, and the creation of a more attractive "product" to compete with other forms of entertainment – combined to make the plan reasonable. In September 1982, the district court found in favor of the plaintiffs, ruling that the plan violated antitrust laws. It enjoined the Association from enforcing the contract. The NCAA appealed all the way to the United States Supreme Court, but lost in 1984 in the 7–2 ruling NCAA v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma.[11] (If the television contracts the NCAA had with ABC, CBS, and ESPN had remained in effect for the 1984 season, they would have generated some $73.6 million for the Association and its members.)

In 1999, the NCAA was sued for discriminating against female athletes under Title IX for systematically giving men in graduate school more waivers than a woman to participate in college sports. In National Collegiate Athletic Association v. Smith, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the NCAA was not subject to that law, without reviewing the merits of the discrimination claim.[12]

Over the last two decades recruiting international athletes has become a growing trend among NCAA institutions. For example, most German athletes outside of Germany are based at US universities. For many European athletes, the American universities are the only option to pursue an academic and athletic career at the same time. Many of these students come to the US with high academic expectations and aspirations.[13]

In 2009, Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia, became the NCAA's first non-US member institution.[14][15]

In 2014, the NCAA set a record high of a $989 Million in net revenue. Being just shy of $1 Billion is among the highest of all large sports organizations.

Headquarters The NCAA's current National Office in Indianapolis

The modern era of the NCAA began in July 1955 when its executive director, Kansas City, Missouri native Walter Byers, moved the organization's headquarters from the LaSalle Hotel in Chicago (where its offices were shared by the headquarters of the Big Ten Conference) to the Fairmount Building at 101 West 11th Street in Downtown Kansas City. The move was intended to separate the NCAA from the direct influence of any individual conference and keep it centrally located.

The Fairmount was a block from Municipal Auditorium which had hosted Final Four games in 1940, 1941, and 1942. After Byers moved to Kansas City, the championships would be held in Municipal in 1953, 1954, 1955, 1957, 1961, and 1964.

The Fairmount office consisted of three rooms with no air conditioning. Byers' staff consisted of four people: an assistant, two secretaries, and a bookkeeper.[16]

In 1964, it moved three blocks away to offices in the Midland Theatre. In 1973, it moved to 6299 Nall at Shawnee Mission Parkway in suburban Mission, Kansas in a $1.2 million building on 3.4 acres (14,000 m2). In 1989, it moved 6 miles (9.7 km) farther south to 6201 College Boulevard in Overland Park, Kansas. The new building was on 11.35 acres (45,900 m2) and had 130,000 square feet (12,000 m2) of space.[17]

The NCAA was dissatisfied with its Johnson County, Kansas suburban location noting that its location on the south edges of the Kansas City suburbs was more than 40 minutes from Kansas City International Airport. They also noted that the suburban location was not drawing visitors to its new visitors' center.[18]

In 1997, it asked for bids for a new headquarters. Various cities competed for a new headquarters with the two finalists being Kansas City and Indianapolis. Kansas City proposed to relocate the NCAA back downtown near the Crown Center complex and would locate the visitors' center in Union Station. However Kansas City's main sports venue Kemper Arena was nearly 30 years old.[18] Indianapolis argued that it was in fact more central than Kansas City in that two-thirds of the members are east of the Mississippi River.[18] The 50,000-seat RCA Dome far eclipsed the 17,000-seat Kemper Arena. In 1999, the NCAA moved its 300-member staff to its new headquarters in the White River State Park in a four-story 140,000-square-foot (13,000 m2) facility on the west edge of downtown Indianapolis, Indiana. Adjacent to the headquarters is the 35,000-square-foot (3,300 m2) NCAA Hall of Champions.[19]


The NCAA's Board of Governors (formerly known as the Executive Committee) is the main body within the NCAA. This body elects the NCAA's President.[20]

The NCAA's legislative structure is broken down into cabinets and committees, consisting of various representatives of its member schools.[citation needed] These may be broken down further into sub-committees. The legislation is then passed on, which oversees all the cabinets and committees, and also includes representatives from the schools, such as athletic directors and faculty advisors. Management Council legislation goes on to the Board of Directors, which consists of school presidents, for final approval. The NCAA staff provides support, acting as guides, liaisons, researchers, and public and media relations.

The NCAA runs the officiating software company ArbiterSports, based in Sandy, Utah, a joint venture between two subsidiaries of the NCAA, Arbiter LLC and eOfficials LLC. The NCAA's stated objective for the venture is to help improve the fairness, quality, and consistency of officiating across amateur athletics.[21][22]

Presidents of the NCAA

The NCAA had no full-time administrator until 1951, when Walter Byers was appointed executive director.[1] In 1988, the title was changed to President.[23]

  • Walter Byers 1951–1988
  • Dick Schultz 1988–1993
  • Cedric Dempsey 1994–2002[23]
  • Myles Brand 2003–2009[23][24]
  • Jim Isch (interim) 2009–2010[25]
  • Mark Emmert 2011–present
Division history See also: List of NCAA Division I institutions, List of NCAA Division II institutions, and List of NCAA Division III institutions Years Division 1906–1956 None 1956–1972 University Division (Major College) College Division (Small College) 1973–present Division I Division II Division III 1978–2006 Division I-A (football only) Division I-AA (football only) Division I-AAA Division II Division III 2006–present Division I FBS (football only) Division I FCS (football only) Division I (non-football) Division II Division III Player eligibility

To participate in college athletics in their freshman year, the NCAA requires that students meet three criteria: having graduated from high school, be completing the minimum required academic courses, and having qualifying grade-point average (GPA) and SAT or ACT scores.[26]

The 16 academic credits are four courses in English, two courses in math, two classes in social science, two in natural or physical science, and one additional course in English, math, natural or physical science, or another academic course such as a foreign language.[27]

To meet the requirements for grade point average and SAT scores, the lowest possible GPA a student may be eligible with is a 1.70, as long as they have an SAT score of 1400. The lowest SAT scores a student may be eligible with is 700 as long as they have a GPA of 2.500.[26]

As of the 2017–18 school year, a high school student may sign a letter of intent to enter and play football for a college in either of two periods. The first, introduced in 2017–18, is a three-day period in mid-December, coinciding with the first three days of the previously existing signing period for junior college players.[28] The second period, which before 2017 was the only one allowed for signings of high school players, starts on the first Wednesday in February.[29] In August 2011, the NCAA announced plans to raise academic requirements for postseason competition, including its two most prominent competitions, football's now-defunct Bowl Championship Series (replaced in 2014 by the College Football Playoff) and the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament; the new requirement, which are based on an "Academic Progress Rate" (APR) that measures retention and graduation rates, and is calculated on a four-year, rolling basis.[30] The changes raise the rate from 900 to 930, which represents a 50% graduation rate.[30]

Students are generally allowed to compete athletically for four years. Athletes are allowed to sit out a year while still attending school but not lose a year of eligibility by redshirting.

NCAA sponsored sports

The NCAA currently awards 90 national championships yearly – 46 women's, 41 men's, and coed championships for fencing, rifle, and skiing. Sports sanctioned by the NCAA include the following: basketball, baseball (men), beach volleyball (women), softball (women), football (men), cross country, field hockey (women), bowling (women), golf, fencing (coeducational), lacrosse, soccer, gymnastics, rowing (women only), volleyball, ice hockey, water polo, rifle (coeducational), tennis, skiing (coeducational), track and field, swimming and diving, and wrestling (men). The newest sport to be officially sanctioned is beach volleyball, which held its first championship in the 2015–16 school year.

The Football Bowl Subdivision of Division I determines its own champion separately from the NCAA via the "College Football Playoff"; this is not an official NCAA championship (see below). The most recently added championship is a single all-divisions championship in women's beach volleyball, which was approved by leaders of all three divisions in late 2014 and early 2015. The first championship was held in spring 2016.[31] The NCAA had called the sport "sand volleyball" until June 23, 2015, when it announced that it would use the internationally recognized name of "beach volleyball".[32]

The NCAA awards championships in the following sports:

NCAA sports Division I (M) Division II (M) Division III (M) Sport Division I (W) Division II (W) Division III (W) 1947– 1968– 1976– Baseball 1939– 1957– 1975– Basketball 1982– 1982– 1982– Bowling 2004– 1938– 1958– 1973– Cross country 1981– 1981– 1981– 1941– Fencing 1941– Field hockey 1981– 1981– 1981– 1978– (FBS)
1978– (FCS) 1973– 1973– Football 1939– 1963– 1975– Golf 1982– 1996-99; 2000– 1996-99; 2000– 1938– 1968-84 Gymnastics 1982– 1982-86 1948– 1978-84; 1993-99 1984– Ice hockey 2001– 2002– 1971– 1974-79; 1980-81; 1993– 1974-79; 1980– Lacrosse 1982– 2001– 1985– 1980– Rifle 1980– Rowing 1997– 2002– 2002– 1954– Skiing 1954– 1954– 1972– 1974– Soccer 1982– 1988– 1986– Softball 1982– 1982– 1982– 1924– 1964– 1975– Swimming & Diving 1982– 1982– 1982– 1946– 1963– 1976– Tennis 1982– 1982– 1982– 1965– 1985– 1985– Track & field (indoor) 1983– 1985; 1987– 1985; 1987– 1921– 1963– 1974– Track & field (outdoor) 1982– 1982– 1982– 1970– 2012– Volleyball (indoor) 1981– 1981– 1981– Volleyball (beach) 2016– 1969– Water polo 2001– 1928– 1963– 1974– Wrestling
  • In addition to the sports above, the NCAA sanctioned a boxing championship from 1948 to 1960. The NCAA discontinued boxing following declines in the sport during the 1950s and following the death of a boxer at the 1960 NCAA tournament.

The number of teams (school programs) that compete in each sport in their respective division as of 2017 are as follows:[33]

Men's programs Sport Division I Division II Division III Baseball 295 270 385 Basketball 347 318 424 Cross Country 311 280 399 Fencing 21 2 12 Football 128 FBS
123 FCS N/A N/A Golf 297 233 299 Gymnastics 15 0 1 Ice Hockey 60 7 77 Lacrosse 70 67 234 Rifle 18 3 3 Skiing 11 6 16 Soccer 203 217 415 Swimming and Diving 133 75 223 Tennis 253 169 328 Track and Field (Indoor) 260 173 276 Track and Field (Outdoor) 281 215 311 Volleyball 21 25 82 Water Polo 21 7 15 Wrestling 76 61 101

Women's programs Sport Division I Division II Division III Basketball 345 319 439 Beach Volleyball 52 9 3 Bowling 34 30 12 Cross Country 344 307 420 Fencing 26 4 15 Field Hockey 79 33 164 Golf 263 192 212 Gymnastics 61 7 15 Ice Hockey 36 5 59 Lacrosse 111 107 280 Rifle 24 3 3 Rowing 89 16 41 Skiing 12 7 16 Soccer 329 268 438 Softball 291 296 414 Swimming and Diving 194 104 250 Tennis 315 226 372 Track and Field (Indoor) 325 195 283 Track and Field (Outdoor) 334 246 318 Volleyball 330 306 433 Water Polo 34 10 17

Women's "emerging sports" Main article: NCAA Emerging Sports for Women

In addition to the above sports, the NCAA recognizes "emerging sports" for women. These sports have scholarship limitations for each sport, but do not currently have officially sanctioned NCAA championships. A member institution may use these sports to meet the required level of sports sponsorship for its division. An "Emerging Sport" must gain championship status (minimum 40 varsity programs for team sports, except 28 for Division III) within 10 years, or show steady progress toward that goal to remain on the list.[34] Until then, it is under the auspices of the NCAA and its respective institutions. Emerging Sport status allows for competition to include club teams to satisfy the minimum number of competitions bylaw established by the NCAA.

The three sports currently designated as women's "emerging sports" are:

  • Rugby
  • Triathlon
  • Equestrian
Sports added and dropped

The popularity of each of these sports programs has changed over time. Between 1988–89 and 2010–11, NCAA schools had net additions of 510 men's teams and 2,703 women's teams.[35]

The following tables show the changes over time in the number of NCAA schools across all three divisions combined sponsoring each of the men's and women's team sports.

Men's sports

The men's sports with the biggest net gains during the 1988/89 to 2010/11 period were indoor track and field, lacrosse, and cross-country running (each with more than 100 net gains). The men's sports with the biggest losses were wrestling (–104 teams), tennis, and rifle; the men's team sport with the most net losses was water polo.[35] Other reports show that 355 college wrestling programs have been eliminated since 2000; 212 men's gymnastics programs have been eliminated since 1969 with only 17 programs remaining as of 2013.[36]

Men's Team Sports:
Number of Schools Sponsoring[37] No. Sport 1981–82 2011–12 Change Percent 1 Basketball 741 1,060 +259 +43% 2 Baseball 642 927 +285 +44% 3 Soccer 521 803 +282 +54% 4 Football 497 651 +154 +31% 5 Lacrosse 138 295 +157 +116% 6 Ice hockey 130 135 +5 +4% 7 Volleyball 63 98 +35 +56% 8 Water polo 49 43 –6 –12%

The following table lists the men's individual DI sports with at least 5,000 participating athletes. Sports are ranked by number of athletes.

Men's individual sports No. Sport Teams (2015)[38] Teams (1982)[38] Change Athletes[38] Season 1 Track (outdoor) 780 577 +203 28,177 Spring 2 Track (indoor) 681 422 +259 25,087 Winter 3 Cross country 989 650 +339 14,330 Fall 4 Swimming & diving 427 377 +50 9,715 Winter 5 Golf 831 590 +241 8,654 Spring 6 Tennis 765 690 +75 8,211 Spring 7 Wrestling 229 363 –134 7,049 Winter Women's sports

The women's sports with the biggest net gains during the 1988–89 to 2010–11 period were soccer (+599 teams), golf, and indoor track and field; no women's sports programs experienced double-digit net losses.[35]

Women's Team Sports:
Number of Schools Sponsoring Sport 1981–82 2011–12 Change Percent Basketball 705 1,084 +379 +54% Volleyball 603 1,047 +444 +74% Soccer 80 996 +916 +1245% Softball 348 976 +628 +180% Lacrosse 105 376 +271 +258% Field hockey 268 266 –2 –1% Ice hockey 17 86 +69 +406% Water polo — 64 +64 ——

Source: NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report • 2012-13[permanent dead link]

The following table lists the women's individual NCAA sports with at least 1,000 participating athletes. Sports are ranked by number of athletes.

Women's individual sports[39] No. Sport Teams (2015)[38] Teams (1982)[39] Change Athletes[38] Season 1 Track (outdoor) 861 427 +434 28,797 Spring 2 Track (indoor) 772 239 +533 26,620 Winter 3 Cross country 1,072 417 +655 16,150 Fall 4 Swimming & diving 548 348 +200 12,428 Winter 5 Tennis 930 610 +320 8,960 Spring 6 Golf 651 125 +526 5,221 Spring 7 Equestrian 47 41* +6* 1,496 8 Gymnastics 82 179 –97 1,492 Winter
  • Equestrian was not a women's varsity sport in 1982 and the NCAA report does not include the number of teams for that year. Equestrian is first listed in the NCAA report in 1988-89 with 41 teams, and so the number of teams for that season is listed in the table above.
Championships 2006 NCAA championship banners hang from the ceiling of the NCAA Hall of Champions in Indianapolis NCAA National Championship trophies, rings, and watches won by UCLA teams See also: Non-NCAA championships, AIAW Champions, Pre-NCAA intercollegiate championships, Intercollegiate sports team champions, List of NCAA schools with the most NCAA Division I championships, and List of NCAA schools with the most Division I national championships Trophies

For every NCAA sanctioned sport other than Division I FBS football, the NCAA awards trophies with gold, silver, and bronze plating for the first, second, and third place teams respectively.[citation needed] In the case of the NCAA basketball tournaments, both semifinalists who did not make the championship game receive bronze plated trophies for third place (prior to 1982 the teams played a "consolation" game to determine third place).[citation needed] Similar trophies are awarded to both semifinalists in the NCAA football tournaments (which are conducted in Division I FCS and both lower divisions), which have never had a third-place game. Winning teams maintain permanent possession of these trophies unless it is later found that they were won via serious rules violations.

Starting with the 2001–02 season, and again in the 2007–08 season, the trophies were changed.[citation needed] Starting in the 2006 basketball season, teams that make the Final Four in the Division I tournament receive bronze plated "regional championship" trophies upon winning their Regional Championship. The teams that make the National Championship game receive an additional trophy that is gold-plated for the winner and silver-plated for the runner-up. Starting in the mid-1990s, the National Champions in men's and women's basketball receive an elaborate trophy with a black marble base and crystal "neck" with a removable crystal basketball following the presentation of the standard NCAA Championship trophy.

As of May 23, 2018,[40] Stanford, UCLA, and Southern California (USC) have the most NCAA championships. Stanford has won 117 and UCLA 116 of their combined NCAA team championships in men's and women's sports, while USC is third with 105.

Football Bowl Subdivision Main articles: College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS and College Football Playoff

The NCAA has never sanctioned an official championship for its highest level of football, now known as Division I FBS. Instead, several outside bodies award their own titles. The NCAA does not hold a championship tournament or game for Division I FBS football. In the past, teams that placed first in any of a number of season-ending media polls, most notable the AP Poll of writers and the Coaches Poll, were said to have won the "national championship".

Starting in 2014, the College Football Playoff – a consortium of the conferences and independent schools that compete in Division I FBS and six bowl games – has arranged to place the top four teams (based on a thirteen-member committee that selects and seeds the teams) into two semifinal games, with the winners advancing to compete in the College Football Playoff National Championship, which is not officially sanctioned or recognized by the NCAA. The winner of the game receives a trophy; since the NCAA awards no national championship for Division I FBS football, this trophy does not denote NCAA as other NCAA college sports national championship trophies do.

Conferences See also: List of NCAA conferences and List of non-NCAA conferences

The NCAA is divided into three levels of conference, Division I, Division II, and Division III, organized in declining program size, as well as numerous sub-divisions.

Division I See also: NCAA Division I and List of Division I Athletic Directors
  • FBS conferences in football are denoted with an asterisk (*)
  • FCS conferences in football are denoted with two asterisks (**)
  • Conferences that do not sponsor football or basketball are in italics
  • America East Conference
  • American Athletic Conference (The American) *
  • Atlantic 10 Conference (A-10)
  • Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) *
  • Atlantic Sun Conference (ASUN)
  • Big 12 Conference (Big 12) *
  • Big East Conference
  • Big Sky Conference **
  • Big South Conference **
  • Big Ten Conference (Big Ten or B1G) *
  • Big West Conference
  • Coastal Collegiate Sports Association (CCSA)
  • Colonial Athletic Association (CAA) **
  • Conference USA (C-USA) *
  • Horizon League
  • Ivy League **
  • Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference (MAAC)
  • Mid-American Conference (MAC) *

  • Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference (MEAC) **
  • Missouri Valley Conference (MVC)
  • Mountain Pacific Sports Federation (MPSF)
  • Mountain West Conference (MW) *
  • Northeast Conference (NEC) **
  • Ohio Valley Conference (OVC) **
  • Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12) *
  • Patriot League **
  • Southeastern Conference (SEC) *
  • Southern Conference (SoCon) **
  • Southland Conference **
  • Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC) **
  • The Summit League (The Summit)
  • Sun Belt Conference (SBC) *
  • West Coast Conference (WCC)
  • Western Athletic Conference (WAC)
  • NCAA Division I Independents

Division I FCS football-only conferences
  • Missouri Valley Football Conference
  • Pioneer Football League
Map of National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Championship Division I-AA schools Division I hockey-only conferences
  • Atlantic Hockey
  • College Hockey America
  • ECAC Hockey
  • Hockey East
  • National Collegiate Hockey Conference (NCHC)
  • Western Collegiate Hockey Association (WCHA)
Division II See also: NCAA Division II
  • California Collegiate Athletic Association (CCAA)
  • Central Atlantic Collegiate Conference (CACC)
  • Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA)
  • Conference Carolinas (CC)
  • East Coast Conference (ECC)
  • Great American Conference (GAC)
  • Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (GLIAC)
  • Great Lakes Valley Conference (GLVC)
  • Great Midwest Athletic Conference (G-MAC)
  • Great Northwest Athletic Conference (GNAC)
  • Gulf South Conference (GSC)
  • Heartland Conference (Heartland)
  • Lone Star Conference (LSC)

  • Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletics Association (MIAA)
  • Mountain East Conference (MEC)
  • Northeast-10 Conference (NE-10)
  • Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference (NSIC)
  • Pacific West Conference (PacWest)
  • Peach Belt Conference (PBC)
  • Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference (PSAC)
  • Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference (RMAC)
  • South Atlantic Conference (SAC)
  • Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SIAC)
  • Sunshine State Conference (SSC)
  • NCAA Division II Independents

Division III See also: NCAA Division III
  • Allegheny Mountain Collegiate Conference (AMCC)
  • American Collegiate Athletic Association (ACAA)
  • American Southwest Conference (ASC)
  • Atlantic East Conference (AEC)
  • Capital Athletic Conference (CAC)
  • Centennial Conference (Centennial)
  • City University of New York Athletic Conference (CUNYAC)
  • College Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin (CCIW)
  • Colonial States Athletic Conference (CSAC)
  • Commonwealth Coast Conference (CCC)
  • Empire 8 (E8)
  • Great Northeast Athletic Conference (GNAC)
  • Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference (HCAC)
  • NCAA Division III Independents
  • Iowa Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (IIAC)
  • Landmark Conference (Landmark)
  • Liberty League (Liberty)
  • Little East Conference (LEC)
  • Massachusetts State Collegiate Athletic Conference (MASCAC)
  • Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association (MIAA)
  • Middle Atlantic Conferences (MAC) – An umbrella organization of the following three conferences:
    • MAC Commonwealth, sponsoring competition in 15 sports, but not football
    • MAC Freedom, sponsoring competition in the same set of 15 sports
    • Middle Atlantic Conference, sponsoring 12 sports, including football

  • Midwest Conference (Midwest or MWC)
  • Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (MIAC)
  • New England Collegiate Conference (NECC)
  • New England Small College Athletic Conference (NESCAC)
  • New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference (NEWMAC)
  • New Jersey Athletic Conference (NJAC)
  • North Atlantic Conference (NAC)
  • North Coast Athletic Conference (NCAC)
  • North Eastern Athletic Conference (NEAC)
  • Northern Athletics Collegiate Conference (NACC)
  • Northwest Conference (NWC)
  • Ohio Athletic Conference (OAC)
  • Old Dominion Athletic Conference (ODAC)
  • Presidents' Athletic Conference (PAC)
  • Skyline Conference (Skyline)
  • Southern Athletic Association (SAA)
  • Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SCIAC)
  • Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference (SCAC)
  • State University of New York Athletic Conference (SUNYAC)
  • St. Louis Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SLIAC)
  • University Athletic Association (UAA)
  • Upper Midwest Athletic Conference (UMAC)
  • USA South Athletic Conference (USA South)
  • Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (WIAC)
  • NCAA Division III Independents

Division III football-only conferences
  • Commonwealth Coast Football (CCC Football) – Started play as the New England Football Conference in 1965; taken over by the Commonwealth Coast Conference after the 2016 football season, though the football league remains a separate legal entity.
  • Eastern Collegiate Football Conference (ECFC)
Other Division III single-sport conferences
  • Continental Volleyball Conference (CVC) – men's volleyball
  • ECAC East – men's and women's ice hockey
  • ECAC Northeast – men's ice hockey
  • ECAC West – men's and women's ice hockey
  • Midwest Collegiate Volleyball League (MCVL) – men's volleyball
  • Midwest Lacrosse Conference (MLC) – men's lacrosse
  • Midwest Women's Lacrosse Conference (MWLC) – women's lacrosse
  • Northern Collegiate Hockey Association (NCHA) – men's and women's ice hockey
  • Ohio River Lacrosse Conference (ORLC) – men's and women's lacrosse
  • United Volleyball Conference (UVC) – men's volleyball

The NCAA has current media rights contracts with CBS Sports, CBS Sports Network, ESPN, ESPN Plus, and Turner Sports for coverage of its 88 championships. According to the official NCAA website,[41] ESPN and its associated networks have rights to 21 championships, CBS to 67, and Turner Sports to one. The following are the most prominent championships and rightsholders:

  • CBS: Men's basketball (NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament, with Turner Sports, and NCAA Division II Men's Basketball Tournament), track and field, ice hockey (women's division I)
  • ESPN: Women's basketball (all divisions), baseball, softball, ice hockey (men's Division I), football (all divisions including Div. I FCS), soccer (Division I for both sexes)
  • Turner Sports: NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament with CBS

WestwoodOne has exclusive radio rights to the men's and women's basketball Final Fours to the men's College World Series (baseball). DirecTV has an exclusive package expanding CBS' coverage of the men's basketball tournament.

From 1998 to 2013, Electronic Arts had a license to develop college sports video games with the NCAA's branding, which included its NCAA Football and NCAA Basketball (formerly NCAA March Madness) series. The NCAA's licensing was not required to produce the games, as rights to use teams are not licensed through the NCAA, but through entities such as individual schools and the Collegiate Licensing Company. EA only acquired the license so that it could officially incorporate the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament into its college basketball game series. The NCAA withdrew EA's license due to uncertainties surrounding a series of lawsuits, most notably O'Bannon v. NCAA, involving the use of player likenesses in college sports video games.[42][43]

LGBT inclusion policy

In 2010, the NCAA Executive Committee announced its support and commitment to diversity, inclusion, and gender equality among its student-athletes, coaches, and administrators. The statement included the NCAA’s commitment to ensuring that all students have equal opportunities to achieve their academic goals, and coaches and administrators have equal opportunities for career development in a climate of respect.[44] In 2012, the LGBTQ Subcommittee of the NCAA association-wide Committee on Women’s Athletics and the Minority Opportunities and Interests Committee commissioned Champions of Respect, a document that provides resources and advocacy that promotes inclusion and equality for LGBTQ student-athletes, coaches, administrators and all others associated with intercollegiate athletics. This resource uses guides from the Women's Sports Foundation It Takes a Team! project for addressing issues related to LGBTQ equality in intercollegiate athletics.[44] The document provides information on specific issues LGBTQ sportspeople face, similarities and differences of these issues on women’s and men’s teams, policy recommendations and best practices, and legal resources and court cases.[45]

The NCAA has kept these core values central to its decisions regarding the allocation of championship bids. In April 2016, the Board of Governors announced new requirements for host cities that includes protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity for all people involved in the event. This decision was prompted by several states passing laws that permit discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity in accordance with religious beliefs.[46]

The NCAA expressed concern over Indiana’s Religious Freedom Restoration Act that allows businesses to discriminate against people based on their sexual orientation. This bill was proposed just before Indianapolis was set to host the 2015 Men’s Basketball Final Four tournament.[47] The bill clashed with the NCAA core values of inclusion and equality, and forced the NCAA to consider moving events out of Indiana. Under pressure from across the nation and fearing the economic loss of being banned from hosting NCAA events, the governor of Indiana, Mike Pence, revised the bill so that businesses could not discriminate based on sexual orientation, race, religion, or disability. The NCAA accepted the revised bill and continues to host events in Indiana.[48] The bill was enacted into law on July 1, 2015.[49]

On September 12, 2016, the NCAA announced that it would pull all seven planned championship events out of North Carolina for the 2016–2017 academic year.[50] This decision was a response to the state passing the Public Facilities Privacy and Security Act (H.B. 2) on March 23, 2016. This law requires people to use public restrooms that correspond with their sex assigned at birth and stops cities from passing laws that protect against discrimination towards gay and transgender people.[51] The NCAA Board of Governors determined that this law would make ensuring an inclusive atmosphere in the host communities challenging, and relocating these championship events best reflects the association's commitment to maintaining an environment that is consistent with its core values.[50] North Carolina has lost the opportunity to host the 2018 Final Four Tournament which was scheduled to be in Charlotte, but is relocated to San Antonio. If H.B. 2 is not repealed, North Carolina could be barred from bidding for events from 2019 to 2022.[52]

Historically, the NCAA has used its authority in deciding on host cities to promote its core values. The Association also prohibits championship events in states that display the Confederate flag, and at member schools that have abusive or offensive nicknames or mascots based on Native American imagery. Board members wish to ensure that anyone associated with an NCAA championship event will be treated with fairness and respect.[46]

Rules violations See also: List of NCAA institutions on probation

Member schools pledge to follow the rules promulgated by the NCAA. Creation of a mechanism to enforce the NCAA's legislation occurred in 1952 after careful consideration by the membership.

Allegations of rules violations are referred to the NCAA's investigative staff. A preliminary investigation is initiated to determine if an official inquiry is warranted and to categorize any resultant violations as secondary or major. If several violations are found, the NCAA may determine that the school as a whole has exhibited a "lack of institutional control." The institution involved is notified promptly and may appear in its own behalf before the NCAA Committee on Infractions.

Findings of the Committee on Infractions and the resultant sanctions in major cases are reported to the institution. Sanctions will generally include having the institution placed on "probation" for a period of time, in addition to other penalties. The institution may appeal the findings or sanctions to an appeals committee. After considering written reports and oral presentations by representatives of the Committee on Infractions and the institution, the committee acts on the appeal. Action may include accepting the infractions committee's findings and penalty, altering either, or making its own findings and imposing an appropriate penalty.

In cases of particularly egregious misconduct, the NCAA has the power to ban a school from participating in a particular sport, a penalty is known as the "Death Penalty". Since 1985, any school that commits major violations during the probationary period can be banned from the sport involved for up to two years. However, when the NCAA opts not to issue a death penalty for a repeat violation, it must explain why it did not do so. This penalty has only been imposed three times in its modern form, most notably when Southern Methodist University's football team had its 1987 season canceled due to massive rules violations dating back more than a decade. SMU opted not to field a team in 1988 as well due to the aftershocks from the sanctions, and the program has never recovered; it has only four winning seasons and four bowl appearance since then (mostly under June Jones, the team's head coach from 2008 until his resignation during the 2014 season). The devastating effect the death penalty had on SMU has reportedly made the NCAA skittish about issuing another one. Since the SMU case, there are only three instances where the NCAA has seriously considered imposing it against a Division I school; it imposed it against Division II Morehouse College's men's soccer team in 2003 and Division III MacMurray College's men's tennis team in 2005. In addition to these cases, the most recent Division I school to be considered was Penn State. This was because of the Jerry Sandusky Incident that consequently almost landed Penn State on the hook for the death penalty. They received a $60 million fine, in addition to forfeited seasons and other sanctions as well. The NCAA later reversed itself by restoring all forfeited seasons and overturning the remaining sanctions.

Additionally, in particularly egregious cases of rules violations, coaches, athletic directors, and athletic support staff can be barred from working for any NCAA member school without permission from the NCAA. This procedure is known as a "show-cause penalty" (not to be confused with an order to show cause in the legal sense).[53] Theoretically, a school can hire someone with a "show cause" on their record during the time the show cause order is in effect only with permission from the NCAA Infractions Committee. The school assumes the risks and stigma of hiring such a person. It may then end up being sanctioned by the NCAA and the Infractions Committee for their choice, possibly losing athletic scholarships, revenue from schools who would not want to compete with that other school, and the ability for their games to be televised, along with restrictions on recruitment and practicing times. As a result, a show-cause order essentially has the effect of blackballing individuals from being hired for the duration of the order.


The NCAA has a two-tier sponsorship division. AT&T, Coca-Cola, and CapitalOne are NCAA Corporate Champions, all others are NCAA Corporate Partners.[54]

Company Category Since Buffalo Wild Wings Bar and restaurant 2015 AT&T Telecommunications 2001 Coca-Cola Non-alcoholic beverages 2002 Northwestern Mutual Insurance and financial services 2004 Enterprise Rent-A-Car Car rental 2005 Lowe's Home improvement 2005 CapitalOne Banking and credit cards 2008 Nabisco (Ritz and Oreo) Snack foods 2017 Hershey's (Reese's) Confections 2009 Google Cloud Computing 2017 UPS Package delivery and logistics 2009 Nissan (Infiniti) Car & parts 2010 Wendy's Fast-food restaurant 2016 Pizza Hut Restaurant 2016 Intel Computing 2017 General Motors (Buick) Car and parts 2013 Marriott Hotels and hospitality 2017 Finances

As a governing body for amateur sports the NCAA is classified as a tax-exempt not-for-profit organization.[55] As such, it is not required to pay most taxes on income that for-profit private and public corporations are subject to. The NCAA's business model of prohibiting salaries for collegial athletes has been challenged in court, but a 2015 case was struck down.[56] As of 2014 the NCAA reported that it had over $600 million in unrestricted net assets in its annual report.[57] During 2014 the NCAA also reported almost a billion dollars of revenue, contributing to a "budget surplus" - revenues in excess of disbursements for that year - of over $80 million.[57] Over $700 million of that revenue total was from licensing TV rights to its sporting events.[57] In addition, the NCAA also earns money through investment growth of its endowment fund. Established in 2004 with $45 million, the fund has grown to over $380 million in 2014.[58]

NCAA expenditures

According to the NCAA it receives most of its annual revenue from two sources: Division I Men's Basketball television and marketing rights, and championships ticket sales. According to the NCAA, "that money is distributed in more than a dozen ways – almost all of which directly support NCAA schools, conferences and nearly half a million student-athletes."[59]

In 2017 total NCAA revenues were in excess of $1.06 billion.[60] Division I basketball television and marketing rights generated $821.4 million, and "championships ticket sales" totaled $129.4 million. Other "smaller streams of revenue, such as membership dues" contributed an unspecified amount.[59]

Expenses by category

The NCAA provided a breakdown of how those revenues were in turn spent, organizing pay-outs and expenses into some 14 basic categories. By far the largest went to Sports Scholarship and Sponsorship Funds, funding for sports and student scholarships under the Division I Basketball Performance Fund, expenses incurred in producing Division I Championshps (including team food, travel, and lodging), the Student Assistance Fund, and Student Athlete Services. Together these top five recipients accounted for 65% of all NCAA expenditures. General and Administrative expenses for running the NCAA day-to-day operations totaled approximately 4% of monies paid out, and other association-wide expenses, including legal services, communications, and business insurance totaled 8%.[59]

The categories:

  • $210.8M Sport Sponsorship and Scholarship Funds
Distributed to Division I schools to help fund NCAA sports and provide scholarships for college athletes.
  • $160.5M Division I Basketball Performance Fund
Distributed to Division I conferences and independent schools based on their performance in the men’s basketball tournament over a six-year rolling period. The money is used to fund NCAA sports and provide scholarships for college athletes.
  • $96.7M Division I Championships
Provides college athletes the opportunity to compete for a championship and includes support for team travel, food and lodging.
  • $82.2M Student Assistance Fund
Distributed to Division I student-athletes for essential needs that arise during their time in college.
  • $71.8M Student-Athlete Services
Includes funding for catastrophic injury insurance, drug testing, student-athlete leadership programs, postgraduate scholarships and additional Association-wide championships support.
  • $50.3M Division I Equal Conference Fund
Distributed equally among Division I basketball-playing conferences that meet athletic and academic standards to play in the men's basketball tournament. The money is used to fund NCAA sports and provide scholarships for college athletes.
  • $46.7M Academic Enhancement Fund
Distributed to Division I schools to assist with academic programs and services.
  • $42.3M Division II Allocation
Funds championships, grants and other initiatives for Division II college athletes.
  • $39.6M Membership Support Services
Covers costs related to NCAA governance committees and the annual NCAA Convention.
  • $28.2M Division III Allocation
Funds championships, grants and other initiatives for Division III college athletes.
  • $9.5M Division I Conference Grants
Distributed to Division I conferences for programs that enhance officiating, compliance, minority opportunities and more.
  • $3.3M Educational Programs
Supports various educational services for members to help prepare student-athletes for life, including the Women Coaches Academy, the Emerging Leaders Seminars and the Pathway Program.
  • $74.3M Other Association-Wide Expenses
Includes support for Association-wide legal services, communications and business insurance.
  • $39.7M General and Administrative Expenses
Funds the day-to-day operations of the NCAA national office, including administrative and financial services, information technology and facilities management.

According to the NCAA, the 2017 fiscal year was the first in which its revenues topped $1.0 billion. The increase in revenue from 2016 came from hikes in television and marketing fees, plus greater monies generated from championship events and investment income.[60]

An ESPN critique of the organization's 2017 financials indicated some $560.3 million of the total $956 million paid out went back to its roughly 1,100 member institutions in 24 sports in all three divisions, as well as $200 million for a one-time payment the NCAA made to schools to fund additional programs.[61]

The Division I basketball tournament alone generated some $761 million, with another $60 million in 2016–17 marketing rights. With increases in rights fees it is estimated the basketball tournament will generate some $869 million for the 2018 championship.[61]

Player compensation proposals

The NCAA limits the amount of compensation that individual players can receive to scholarships equal to school tuition and related expenses. This rule has generated controversy, in light of the large amounts of revenues that schools earn from sports from TV contracts, ticket sales, and licensing and merchandise. Several commentators have discussed whether the NCAA limit on player compensation violates antitrust laws. There is a consensus among economists that the NCAA's compensation caps for men’s basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools (through rent-seeking) at the expense of the athletes.[4] Research shows that opposition to paying athletes is in part driven by racial resentment: whites oppose paying athletes, while blacks favor it, especially when the issue is framed in the context of race.[62][63]

Pro-rating payouts to Division I basketball players in proportion to the size of revenues its championship tournament generates relative to the NCAA's total annual revenues would be one possible approach, but will open the door to litigation by students and schools adversely affected by such a formula.

  • After losing the 1953 case The University of Denver v. Nemeth, where it was found that a student and athlete was owed workers' compensation, it has been argued[by whom?] that the NCAA created the term "student-athlete." Andrew Zimbalist, in his book Unpaid Professionals (1999), claims the term was invented to prevent similar future litigation losses.
  • In 2007, the case of White et al. v. NCAA was brought by former NCAA student-athletes Jason White, Brian Pollack, Jovan Harris, and Chris Craig as a class action lawsuit. They argued that the NCAA's current limits on a full scholarship or Grant in Aid was a violation of federal antitrust laws. Their reasoning was that in the absence of such a limit, NCAA member schools would be free to offer any financial aid packages they desired to recruit the student and athlete. The NCAA settled before a ruling by the court, by agreeing to set up the Former Student-Athlete Fund to "assist qualified candidates applying for receipt of career development expenses and/or reimbursement of educational expenses under the terms of the agreement with plaintiffs in a federal antitrust lawsuit."[64]
  • In 2013, Jay Bilas revealed that the NCAA was taking advantage of individual players through jersey sales in its store. Specifically, he typed the names of several top college football players, among them Tajh Boyd, Teddy Bridgewater, Jadeveon Clowney, Johnny Manziel, and AJ McCarron, into the search engine of the NCAA's official online store, and received the players' jerseys as primary search results.[65] The NCAA took down player jersey sales immediately following the incident.[66]
  • Former NCAA President Walter Byers, in his book Unsportsmanlike Conduct: Exploiting College Athletes, summarizes his criticisms of the NCAA's operation by stating that "Today the NCAA Presidents Commission is . . . firmly committed to the neo-plantation belief that the enormous proceeds from college games belong to the overseers (administrators) and supervisors (coaches). The plantation workers performing in the arena may only receive those benefits authorized by the overseers."
  • The National Collegiate Players Association (NCPA) is a group started by former UCLA football players with the purpose of organizing student-athletes. Their goal is to change NCAA rules they view as unjust. Two of the rules they focus on include raising the scholarship amount and holding schools responsible for their players' sports-related medical injuries.[67]
  • In March 2014, four players filed a class action antitrust lawsuit, alleging that the NCAA and its five dominant conferences are an "unlawful cartel". The suit charges that NCAA caps on the value of athletic scholarships have "illegally restricted the earning power of football and men's basketball players while making billions off their labor".[68] Tulane University Sports Law Program Director Gabe Feldman called the suit "an instantly credible threat to the NCAA."[69] On September 30, 2015, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled that limiting compensation to the cost of an athlete's attendance at a university was sufficient. It simultaneously ruled against a federal judge's proposal to pay student athletes $5,000 per year in deferred compensation.[56]
  • Northwestern University's Division One Football team was the first NCAA team to unionize in 2014.[70]
  • South Park, in the episode "Crack Baby Athletic Association" (s15e05), made oblique reference to the NCAA and compared its rules to slavery.[71]
Criticisms This article's Criticism or Controversy section may compromise the article's neutral point of view of the subject. Please integrate the section's contents into the article as a whole, or rewrite the material. (August 2011)

Numerous criticisms have been lodged against the NCAA. These include, but are not limited to:

  • In 1998, the NCAA settled a $2.5 million lawsuit filed by former UNLV basketball coach, Jerry Tarkanian. Tarkanian sued the NCAA after he was forced to resign from UNLV, where he had been head coach from 1975 to 1992. The suit claimed the agency singled him out, penalizing the university's basketball program three times in that span. Tarkanian said "They can never, ever, make up for all the pain and agony they caused me. All I can say is that for 25 years they beat the hell out of me". The NCAA said that it regretted the long battle and it now has more understanding of Tarkanian's position and that the case has changed the enforcement process for the better. In the 1970s a Nevada judge stated that the NCAA's evidence against Tarkanian was "total 100 percent hearsay without a scrap of documentation in substantiation. The evidence shows that every fundamental principle pertaining to the plaintiff's due process rights was violated".[72] Don Yaeger wrote "Public records suggest (Tarkanian's) case was the worst investigation ever conducted by the NCAA, rife with intimidation of athletes, bigotry ... slipshod work, creative note-taking and untruth by an investigator and vindictiveness by a disgruntled former coach".[73]
  • In 1977, prompted partly by the Tarkanian case, the US Congress initiated an investigation into the NCAA.[72] It, combined with Tarkanian's case, forced the NCAA's internal files into the public record.[74]
  • In 2013, the NCAA was criticized for denying Georgia offensive lineman Kolton Houston his eligibility for violating the drug policy. Houston tested positive for the anabolic steroid norandrolone that was given without his knowledge[by whom?] to recover from shoulder surgery during high school, but the banned substance remain trapped in the fatty tissues in his body. Despite a huge decline in the substance level to the point where Houston does not gain a significant advantage for using the drug and proof that he had not been reusing it, he remained ineligible. Houston would then undergo dangerous operational procedures to get under the threshold to regain his eligibility, which goes against the mission for the NCAA to help out students. The NCAA is being heavily criticized for maintaining their rigid standards and not making an exception for Houston.[75]
Individual awards
See also: Academic All-America, Best Female College Athlete ESPY Award,[76] Best Male College Athlete ESPY Award,[76] Senior CLASS Award, Honda Sports Award, College baseball awards, and Sports Illustrated 2009 all-decade honors (college basketball & football)
See footnote[77]

The NCAA presents a number of different individual awards, including:

  • NCAA Award of Valor (not given every year); selection is based on the heroic action occurring during the academic year.
  • NCAA Gerald R. Ford Award, honoring an individual who has provided significant leadership as an advocate for intercollegiate athletics.
  • NCAA Inspiration Award (not given every year); selection is based on inspirational action.
  • NCAA Sportsmanship Award, honoring student-athletes who have demonstrated one or more of the ideals of sportsmanship.
  • NCAA Theodore Roosevelt Award, the highest honor that the NCAA can confer on an individual.
  • NCAA Woman of the Year Award, honoring a senior student-athlete who has distinguished herself throughout her collegiate career in academics, athletics, service, and leadership.
  • Elite 90 Award, honoring the student-athlete with the highest cumulative GPA who has reached the competition at the finals site for each of the NCAA's 90 men's and women's championships (in Divisions I, II, and III, plus "National Collegiate" championships open to schools from more than one division).
  • Silver Anniversary Awards, honoring six distinguished former student-athletes on the 25th anniversary of their college graduation.
  • The Flying Wedge Award, one of the NCAA's highest honors exemplifying outstanding leadership and service to the NCAA.
  • Today's Top 10 Award, honoring ten outstanding senior student-athletes.
  • Walter Byers Scholarship, honoring the top male and female scholar-athletes.

In previous years, the NCAA has presented the following awards at its NCAA Honors event: Astronaut Salute, Business Leader Salute, Congressional Medal of Honor Salute, Governor Salute, Olympians Salute, Performing Arts Salute, Presidents Cabinet Salute, Prominent National Media Salute, Special Recognition Awards, U.S. House of Representatives Salute, and U.S. Senate Salute.[78]

Other collegiate athletic organizations

The NCAA is the dominant, but not the only, collegiate athletic organization in the United States. Several other such collegiate athletic organizations exist.

In the United States
  • National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA)
  • National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA)
  • National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA)
  • United States Collegiate Athletic Association (USCAA)
  • Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) – (defunct) disbanded in 1982, after the NCAA began sponsoring championships in women's sports
  • Northwest Athletic Conference (NWAC) – Community colleges in Washington and Oregon
Foreign intercollegiate/interuniversity equivalents
  • Liga Mahasiswa (LIMA)
  • British Universities & Colleges Sport
  • U Sports – governing body for Canadian university sport
  • Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association (CCAA)
  • National Collegiate Athletic Association (Philippines) (NCAA) and University Athletic Association of the Philippines (UAAP) for Philippines (among other leagues)
International governing body
  • International University Sports Federation (FISU) (Fédération Internationale du Sport Universitaire)
See also
  • Sports portal
  • University portal
  • College athletics in the United States
  • College rivalries
  • College club sports in the United States
  • NCAA Hall of Champions
  • Higher education in the United States
  • List of college athletic programs by U.S. state
  • List of college sports team nicknames
  • List of U.S. college mascots
  • NCAA Native American mascot decision
  • Homosexuality in modern sports
Notes and references
  1. ^ NCAA is usually pronounced "N C double A."
  1. ^ a b c d e "About the NCAA History". NCAA. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011. President Theodore Roosevelt summoned college athletics leaders to two White House conferences to encourage reforms. In early December 1905, Chancellor Henry M. MacCracken of New York University convened a meeting of 13 institutions to initiate changes in football playing rules. At a subsequent meeting December 28 in New York City, 62 colleges and universities became charter members of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS). The IAAUS officially was constituted March 31, 1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. 
  2. ^ "Simon Fraser University approved to join NCAA D II". October 7, 2009. Retrieved November 6, 2009. 
  3. ^ "NCAA History". NCAA. 2005. Archived from the original on March 21, 2008. 
  4. ^ a b "The NCAA". Retrieved 2018-04-03. 
  5. ^ Michael Whitmer (2015-06-06). "Harvard and Yale crews celebrate the 150th Boat Race". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2015-09-25. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f NCAA History between 1910 and 1980 Archived December 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ NCAA Refuses to Put TV Issue Up to U.S., The Pittsburgh Press, June 13, 1951, p 31.
  8. ^ Smith, R. A. (2001). Play-by-play: Radio, television, and big-time college sport.
  9. ^ "National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) | American organization". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  10. ^ Grundy, Pamela; Shackelford, Susan (2005). Shattering the Glass. The New Press. ISBN 1-56584-822-5. 
  12. ^ Ginsburg, Ruth Bader (February 23, 1999). "NATIONAL COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC ASSN. v. SMITH". Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. Retrieved July 13, 2013. 
  13. ^ Benjamin Bendrich: Studentischer Spitzensport zwischen Resignation, Mythos und Aufbruch: eine Studie zur dualen Karriere in Deutschland und den USA.Göttingen: Optimus, 2015. ISBN 3-86376-164-2
  14. ^ O'Toole, Thomas (September 1, 2009). "NCAA welcomes Simon Fraser, first Canadian member school". USA Today. Retrieved November 1, 2011. 
  15. ^ Lemire, Joe (August 5, 2009). "Canadian school's admittance to NCAA may change rules up north". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved November 1, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Growth of NCAA Apparent; But Optimism Stll Abounds" (PDF). NCAA News. June 15, 1973. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 16, 2014. Retrieved November 6, 2009. 
  17. ^ "NCAA will move in 1989 to Overland Park, Kansas - NCAA News - May 4, 1988" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 16, 2014. 
  18. ^ a b c "Final Four: Indianapolis competes with Dallas, Denver and Kansas City for the NCAA's new headquarters". Indiana Business Magazine. March 1, 1997. Retrieved November 6, 2009. 
  19. ^ "NCAA headquarters in Indianapolis to open July 26". NCAA. July 15, 1999. Archived from the original on April 11, 2014. 
  20. ^ "NCAA Elects Mark Emmert as New President", April 29, 2010.
  21. ^ "NCAA Invests in Largest Officiating Management Organizations in Amateur Sports". September 25, 2008. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved November 6, 2009. 
  22. ^ NCAA invests in officiating companies Archived June 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ a b c Lapointe, Joe (October 11, 2002). "The N.C.A.A. Selects Brand As Its Chief". The New York Times. Retrieved August 17, 2011. 
  24. ^ Wieberg, Steve (September 16, 2009). "NCAA president Myles Brand dies after battle with cancer". USA Today. Retrieved September 16, 2009. 
  25. ^ Senior VP Jim Isch named interim president Isch pledges to further Brand's focus Archived September 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., NCAA News, September 22, 2009
  26. ^ a b Hishinuma and Fremstad, 589–591[vague]
  27. ^ 2009–2010 Guide for the College-Bound Athletes
  28. ^ Rittenberg, Adam (May 8, 2017). "Collegiate Commissioners Association approves early signing period for football". Retrieved May 9, 2017. 
  29. ^ "Football recruiting now a 24/7/365 event". ESPN. October 22, 2010. Retrieved August 17, 2011. 
  30. ^ a b Elkin, Ali (August 17, 2011). "NCAA's stricter academic rules: What does it mean for your team?". This Just In (blog). CNN. Retrieved August 17, 2011. 
  31. ^ "NCAA DII, DIII membership approves Sand Volleyball as 90th championship" (Press release). National Collegiate Athletic Association. January 17, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015. 
  32. ^ "NCAA's newest championship will be called beach volleyball" (Press release). National Collegiate Athletic Association. June 30, 2015. Retrieved July 3, 2015. 
  33. ^ NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report, October 2017,
  34. ^ "Emerging Sports for Women". NCAA. Archived from the original on April 27, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2011. 
  35. ^ a b c NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report, October 2011,
  36. ^ Karen Owoc, Title IX and Its Effect on Men's Collegiate Athletics, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 16, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2012. 
  37. ^ NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report • 2012-13[permanent dead link]
  38. ^ a b c d e NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report, October 2014,[permanent dead link]
  39. ^ a b NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report, October 2014,
  40. ^ List of NCAA schools with the most NCAA Division I championships
  41. ^ NCAA Broadcast Information - Archived March 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  42. ^ "EA Sports Didn't Need the NCAA's Logo, and Maybe It Didn't Want It". Kotaku. Retrieved July 22, 2013. 
  43. ^ Goldfarb, Andrew (July 17, 2013). "NCAA Will Not Renew WA Sports Contract". IGN. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  44. ^ a b Griffin, Pat, and Hudson Taylor. “Champions of Respect: Inclusion of LGBT Student-Athletes and Staff in NCAA Programs,” April 2010.
  45. ^ Branch, John. “N.C.A.A. Advises on Sexual Orientation Issues.” The Quad: The New York Times College Sports Blog, March 4, 2013.
  46. ^ a b Hendrickson, Brian. “Board of Governors Approves Anti-Discrimination Process for Championships Bids.” Text. - The Official Site of the NCAA, April 27, 2016.
  47. ^ Reports, Tribune wire. “NCAA Weighs Response to Indiana’s Religious Freedom Law.”, March 26, 2015.
  48. ^ Lowery, Wesley. “Gov. Pence Signs Revised Indiana Religious Freedom Bill into Law.” Washington Post, April 2, 2015.
  49. ^ "Indiana Gov. Pence defends religious objections law: 'This bill is not about discrimination'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
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Further reading
  • Carter, W. Burlette (2006). "The Age of Innocence: The First 25 Years of the NCAA, 1906-1931" (PDF). Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology. 8 (2): 211–91. 
  • Carter, W. Burlette (2000). "Student Athlete Welfare in a Restructured NCAA" (PDF). Virginia Journal of Sports and the Law. 8 (1): 1–103. 
  • Carter, W. Burlette (2002). "Sounding the Death Knell for In Loco Parentis" (PDF). Indiana Law Review. 35 (3): 851–923. 
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