Howard University
Howard University

Howard University
Howard University (HU or simply Howard) is a federally chartered, private, coeducational, nonsectarian, historically black university (HBCU) in Washington

View Wikipedia Article

Howard University Former names Howard Normal and Theological School for the Education of Teachers and PreachersMotto Veritas et UtilitasMotto in English "Truth and Service"Type Private, HBCUEstablished March 2, 1867 (1867-03-02)Academic affiliations TMCF
CUWMAEndowment $685.8 million (2016)[1]President Wayne A.I. FrederickProvost Anthony WutohStudents 10,300[2]Location Washington, D.C., U.S.
38°55′20″N 77°01′10″W / 38.92222°N 77.01944°W / 38.92222; -77.01944Coordinates: 38°55′20″N 77°01′10″W / 38.92222°N 77.01944°W / 38.92222; -77.01944Campus Urban; 300 acres (1.2 km2)Newspaper The HilltopColors Blue, White and Red[3]
              Nickname Bison & Lady BisonSporting affiliations NCAA Division I – MEACWebsite

Howard University (HU or simply Howard) is a federally chartered, private, coeducational, nonsectarian, historically black university (HBCU) in Washington, D.C. It is categorized by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with higher research activity and is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.

From its outset Howard has been nonsectarian and open to people of all sexes and races. Howard offers more than 120 areas leading to undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees.

Howard is classified as a Tier 1 national university and ranks second among HBCUs by U.S. News & World Report.[4] Howard is the only HBCU ranked in the top 75 on the Bloomberg Businessweek college rankings.[5] The Princeton Review ranked the school of business first in opportunities for minority students and in the top five for most competitive students.[5] The National Law Journal ranked the law school among the top 25 in the nation for placing graduates at the most successful law firms.[6] Howard has produced four Rhodes Scholars between 1986 and 2017.[7] Between 1998 and 2009, Howard University produced a Marshall Scholar, two Truman Scholars, twenty-two Fulbright Scholars and ten Pickering Fellows.[8][9] In 2011, the Huffington Post named Howard the second best-dressed college in the nation.[10] Howard is the most comprehensive HBCU in the nation and produces the most black doctorate recipients of any university.[11][12]

Contents History Main Hall (right) and Miner Hall in 1868.

Shortly after the end of the American Civil War, members of The First Congregational Society of Washington considered establishing a theological seminary for the education of African-American clergymen. Within a few weeks, the project expanded to include a provision for establishing a university. Within two years, the University consisted of the Colleges of Liberal Arts and Medicine. The new institution was named for General Oliver Otis Howard, a Civil War hero, who was both the founder of the University and, at the time, Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau. Howard later served as President of the University from 1869–74.[13]

U.S. Congress chartered Howard on March 2, 1867, and much of its early funding came from endowment, private benefaction, and tuition. (In the 20th and 21st centuries an annual congressional appropriation, administered by the U.S. Department of Education, funds Howard University and Howard University Hospital.[14])

Many improvements were made on campus. Howard Hall was renovated and made a dormitory for women. J. Stanley Durkee, Howard's last white president, was appointed in 1918.[15]

The Great Depression years of the 1930s brought hardship to campus. Despite appeals from Eleanor Roosevelt, Howard saw its budget cut below Hoover administration levels during the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt.[16]

Howard University has played an important role in American history and the Civil Rights Movement on a number of occasions. Alain Locke, Chair of the Department of Philosophy and first African American Rhodes Scholar, authored The New Negro, which helped to usher in the Harlem Renaissance.[17] Ralph Bunche, the first Nobel Peace Prize winner of African descent, served as chair of the Department of Political Science.[18] Beginning in 1942, Howard University students pioneered the "stool-sitting" technique,[further explanation needed] which was to play a prominent role in the later Civil Rights Movement. By January 1943, students had begun to organize regular sit-ins and pickets at cigar stores and cafeterias around Washington, D.C. which refused to serve them because of their race. These protests continued until the fall of 1944.[19] Stokely Carmichael, also known as Kwame Toure, a student in the Department of Philosophy and the Howard University School of Divinity, coined the term "Black Power" and worked in Lowndes County, Alabama as a voting rights activist.[20] Historian Rayford Logan served as chair of the Department of History.[21] E. Franklin Frazier served as chair of the Department of Sociology.[22] Sterling Allen Brown served as chair of the Department of English.

Presidents of Howard University 1867 Charles B. Boynton 1867–1869 Byron Sunderland 1869–1874 Oliver Otis Howard 1875–1876 Edward P. Smith 1877–1889 William W. Patton 1890–1903 Jeremiah Rankin 1903–1906 John Gordon 1906–1912 Wilbur P. Thirkield 1912–1918 Stephen M. Newman 1918–1926 J. Stanley Durkee 1926–1960 Mordecai Wyatt Johnson 1960–1969 James Nabrit Jr. 1969–1989 James E. Cheek 1990–1994 Franklyn Jenifer 1995–2008 H. Patrick Swygert 2008–2013 Sidney A. Ribeau 2013–present Wayne A.I. Frederick

The first sitting president to speak at Howard was Calvin Coolidge in 1924. His graduation speech was entitled, "The Progress of a People," and highlighted the accomplishments to date of the blacks in America since the Civil War. His concluding thought was, "We can not go out from this place and occasion without refreshment of faith and renewal of confidence that in every exigency our Negro fellow citizens will render the best and fullest measure of service whereof they are capable."[23]

The Lower Quadrangle behind Founders Library; also known as "The Valley."

In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered a speech to the graduating class at Howard, where he outlined his plans for civil rights legislation and endorsed aggressive affirmative action to combat the effects of years of segregation of blacks from the nation's economic opportunities.[24] At the time, the Voting Rights bill was still pending in the House of Representatives.[25]

In 1975 the historic Freedman's Hospital closed after 112 years of use as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital. Howard University Hospital opened that same year and continues to be used as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital with service to the surrounding community.

Recent history

In 1989, Howard gained national attention when students rose up in protest against the appointment of then-Republican National Committee Chairman Lee Atwater as a new member of the university's board of trustees. Student activists disrupted Howard's 122nd anniversary celebrations, and eventually occupied the university's Administration building.[26] Within days, both Atwater and Howard's President, James E. Cheek, resigned.

In April 2007, the head of the faculty senate called for the ouster of Howard University President H. Patrick Swygert, saying that the school was in a state of crisis and it was time to end "an intolerable condition of incompetence and dysfunction at the highest level."[27] This came on the heels of several criticisms of Howard University and its management. The following month, Swygert announced that he would retire in June 2008.[28] The university announced in May 2008 that Sidney Ribeau of Bowling Green State University would succeed Swygert as president.[29] Ribeau appointed a Presidential Commission on Academic Renewal to conduct a year-long self-evaluation that resulted in reducing or closing 20 out of 171 academic programs.[30] For example, they proposed closing the undergraduate philosophy major and African studies major.[30]

Six years later, in 2013, university insiders again alleged that the university was in crisis. In April, the vice chairwoman of the university's board of trustees wrote a letter to her colleagues harshly criticizing the university's president and calling for a vote of no confidence; her letter was subsequently obtained by the media where it drew national headline.[31][32] Two months later, the university's Council of Deans alleged that "fiscal mismanagement is doing irreparable harm," blaming the university's senior vice president for administration, chief financial officer and treasurer and asking for his dismissal.[33] In October, the faculty voted no confidence in the university's board of trustees executive committee, two weeks after university president Sidney A. Ribeau announced that he would retire at the end of the year.[34] On October 1, the Board of Trustees named Wayne A.I. Frederick Interim President.[35] In July 2014 Howard's Board of Trustees named Frederick as the school's 17th president.[36]

In 2018, nearly 1,000 students held a sit-in demanding injunction over the administration's use of funding. After the student protest ended, faculty voted "no confidence" in the university president, chief operating officer, provost, and board of trustees.[37]

Campus WHUT-TV station in Washington, D.C.

The 256-acre (1.04 km2; 0.400 sq mi) campus often referred to as "The Mecca" is located in northwest Washington.[38] Major improvements, additions, and changes occurred at the school in the aftermath of World War I. New buildings were built under the direction of architect Albert Cassell.[39] Howard's buildings and plant have a value of $567.6 million.[38]

Howard University has several historic landmarks on campus, such as Andrew Rankin Memorial Chapel, Fredrick Douglass Memorial Hall, and the Founders Founders Library.

Andrew Rankin Memorial Chapel

The Howard University Gallery of Art was established in 1928 by the university's board of trustees. Since its inception, the gallery's permanent collection has grown to over 4,000 works of art and continues to serve as an academic resource for the Howard community.[40]

Howard University has nine residence halls in which students can live: Drew Hall (male freshmen), College Hall North (female freshmen), Tubman Quadrangle (female freshmen), Cook Hall (male undergraduates), Bethune Annex (co-ed, undergraduates), Plaza Towers West (co-ed, for juniors and seniors only), Slowe Hall (co-ed), College Hall South (co-ed), and Plaza Towers East (co-ed, undergraduate honors program students, graduate students).

Howard University Hospital, opened in 1975 on the eastern end of campus, was built on the site of Griffith Stadium, in use from the 1890s to 1965 as home of the first, second and third incarnations of the MLB Senators, as well as the NFL's Washington Redskins, several college football teams (including Georgetown, GWU and Maryland) and part-time home of the Homestead Grays of the Negro National League.

WHUR-FM (Howard University Radio) The Interdisciplinary Research Building

Howard University is home to WHUR-FM 96.3, also known as Howard University Radio. Howard is also home to WHUT-TV, which is a television station located on campus beside WHUR-FM.

The Interdisciplinary Research Building (IRB) opened in 2016 is Howard's most prominent research building. The multi-story, 81,670 square foot, state-of-the-art research facility was completed for $70 million. The IRB was designed to cultivate more collaborative and innovative research on campus.[41]


The university is led by a Board of Trustees that includes a faculty trustee from the undergraduate colleges, a faculty trustee from the graduate and professional colleges serving 3-year terms, two student trustees, each serving 1-year terms, and three alumni-elected trustees, each serving 3-year terms.[38]

Academics Schools and colleges Honors programs

Howard offers three selective honors programs for its most high-achieving undergraduate students: the College of Arts & Sciences Honors Program, the Executive Leadership Honors Program in the School of Business, and the Annenberg Honors Program in the School of Communications.[42]

Howard University West

In 2017, Google Inc. announced it established a residency program named "Howard University West" on its campus in Mountain View, California, to help increase black representation in the tech industry. Beginning in fall 2018, the program will be expanded from a three-month summer program to a full academic year program. Rising juniors majoring in computer science participating in the program will learn from senior Google engineers, practice the latest coding techniques, and experience tech culture in Mountain View for course credit towards their undergraduate degrees.[43][44]

Research Main article: Moorland-Spingarn Research Center

"The Moorland-Spingarn Research Center (MSRC) is recognized as one of the world's largest and most comprehensive repositories for the documentation of the history and culture of people of African descent in Africa, the Americas, and other parts of the world. The MSRC collects, preserves, and makes available for research a wide range of resources chronicling black experiences."[45]

NASA University Research Center (BCCSO)

The Beltsville Center for Climate System Observation (BCCSO) is a NASA University Research Center located at the Beltsville, Maryland campus of Howard University. BCCSO consists of a multidisciplinary group of Howard faculty in partnership with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Division, other academic institutions, and government. This group is led by three Principal Investigators, Everette Joseph, also the director of BCCSO, Demetrius Venable and Belay Demoz. BCCSO trains science and academic leaders to understand atmospheric processes through atmospheric observing systems and analytical methods.[46][47]


Howard University is home to The Hilltop, the award-winning (Princeton Review) student newspaper. Founded in 1924 by Zora Neale Hurston, The Hilltop enjoys a long legacy at the university, providing students with the ability to learn the newspaper industry.

Howard University is the publisher of The Journal of Negro Education, which began publication in 1932. The Howard University Bison Yearbook is created, edited and published during the school year to provide students a year-in-review. Howard University also publishes the Capstone, the official e-newsletter for the university; and the Howard Magazine, the official magazine for the university, which is published three times a year.

Howard University Libraries Founders Library is an iconic building on the Howard University campus that has been declared a National Historic Landmark.

Howard University Libraries (HUL) is the library system of Howard University and is composed by eight branches and centers:

Student life Athletics Main article: Howard Bison and Lady Bison Greene Stadium. (Howard's School of Business can be seen in the top-right portion of this image). Students The Caribbean Students Association Tree at Howard University.

The U.S. students come from the following regions: New England 2%, Mid-West 8%. South 22%, Mid-Atlantic 55%, and West 12%.[38] Nearly 4% of the student body are international students. Howard University is 86.1% African-American/Black.[53]

Howard is one of the top five largest HBCUs in the nation with nearly 10,000 students.[54] The student to faculty ratio is 7:1.[55]

Howard produced four Rhodes Scholars between 1986 and 2017.[7] Between 1998 and 2009, Howard University produced a Marshall Scholar, two Truman Scholars, twenty-two Fulbright Scholars and ten Pickering Fellows.[8][9]

There are over 200 student organizations and special interest groups established on campus.[56]

Howard is classified as a selective admissions institution.[57] The incoming freshman class of fall 2018 had 20,946 applicants and 6,616 (31%) were accepted into Howard.[58]

As of 2006[update], Howard's six-year graduation rate was 67.5%.[59] In 2009, 1,270 of the 1,476 full-time freshmen enrolled were found to have financial need (86%). Of these, Howard could meet the full financial aid needs of 316 freshmen.[60] Howard's average undergraduate student's indebtedness at graduation is $16,798.[60]


Howard faculty include: member of Congress from Maryland Roscoe Bartlett, blood shipment pioneer Charles Drew,[61] Emmy-winning actor Al Freeman Jr.,[62] suffragist Elizabeth Piper Ensley,[63] civil rights lawyer Charles Hamilton Houston, media entrepreneur Cathy Hughes, marine biologist Ernest Everett Just, professor of surgery LaSalle D. Leffall Jr., political consultant Ron Walters, novelist and diplomat E. R. Braithwaite,[64] filmmaker Haile Gerima, and psychiatrist Francis Cress Welsing.

Greek letter organizations The Zeta Phi Beta Monument located in the lower quadrangle (The Valley) at Howard University.

Howard University is the founding site of the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) and five of the nine NPHC organizations. The most prestigious chapters (Alpha Chapters) of Alpha Kappa Alpha (1908), Omega Psi Phi (1911), Delta Sigma Theta (1913), Phi Beta Sigma (1914), and Zeta Phi Beta (1920) were established on Howard's campus.[65] However, the Beta Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha was the first to appear in 1907.[66] Also in 1920, the Xi Chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi appeared on campus, followed by the Alpha Phi Chapter of Sigma Gamma Rho in 1939, and the Alpha Tau Chapter of Iota Phi Theta in 1983.

The Alpha Kappa Alpha Tree on Howard's main yard. "Symbiosis" by Richard Hunt was a gift to the university by former school trustee Hobart Taylor.[67]

Other notable Greek letter organizations registered at Howard include Phi Beta Kappa, Tau Beta Pi, Delta Sigma Pi, Phi Sigma Pi, Alpha Phi Omega, Alpha Nu Omega, Alpha Kappa Psi, Phi Sigma Rho, Gamma Iota Sigma, Phi Mu Alpha, Sigma Alpha Iota, Gamma Sigma Sigma, Kappa Kappa Psi, Tau Beta Sigma and Phi Alpha Delta.

Howard Homecoming

Howard Homecoming week is the most highly publicized and richest cultural tradition of the institution. Over 100,000 of alumni, students, special guests, and visitors are in attendance to patronize the many events and attractions affiliated with the festive week on and near campus. While the specific calendar of events changes from year to year, many of the traditional homecoming events include the Homecoming Football Game and Tailgate, Pep Rally, Coronation Ball, Greek Step-Show (Howard Greeks only), and Fashion Show. After a two-year hiatus, the Yardfest also returned in 2016 as one of the cherished traditions.[68][69][70]

Howard's first official homecoming was held in 1924 and it takes place every fall semester with a new theme developed by the homecoming committee.[71][72]


Springfest is an annual tradition that was created by the Undergraduate Student Association (UGSA) to celebrate the arrival of spring. Springfest is similar to Howard's homecoming week in the fall but on a smaller scale and more emphasis on the student body. Springfest events traditionally include the Fashion Show, Greek Step-Show (Howard Greeks only), Vendor Fair, Poetry Showcase, Beauty Conference, Charity Basketball Game, and a major community service event. The schedule of events changes slightly each year.[73][74]

Bison Ball

The Bison Ball and Excellence Awards is an annual black tie gala hosted by the Howard University Student Association (HUSA). A select number of students, faculty, organizations, and administrators from the Howard community are honored for their exceptional accomplishments. This event takes place near the end of every spring semester.[75][76]

Resfest Howard University Towers East is one of the graduate student dormitories located on-campus.

Resfest week is a Howard tradition that involves students living in freshmen residence halls on campus competing in several organized competitions for awards and bragging rights; arguably the most coveted award is winning the Resfest Step-Show which normally consists of elaborate themes and productions. This event takes place near the end of every spring semester on campus.[77]

The Harriet Tubman Quadrangle-- "The Quad"-- consists of five halls housing approximately 640 freshman females only. The resident halls are Wheatley, Baldwin, Frazier, Truth and Crandall Halls. Notable alumni Main article: List of Howard University people In popular culture See also References
  1. ^ As of June 30, 2016. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2015 to FY 2016" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 15, 2017. Retrieved March 23, 2017. 
  2. ^ "HU's Enrollment Fluctuation". 
  3. ^ Howard University Identity Guidelines (PDF). May 22, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2016. 
  4. ^ "Howard University | Best College | US News". Retrieved April 2, 2016. 
  5. ^ a b "Howard University School of Business Ranks Among Top Schools | Howard University". October 28, 2015. Retrieved April 2, 2016. 
  6. ^ "School of Law Ranked Among Top 50 Law Schools". Archived from the original on April 13, 2016. Retrieved April 2, 2016. 
  7. ^ a b "Newsroom". 
  8. ^ a b Three Howard Seniors Awarded Fulbright Scholarships Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., Howard University. April 8, 2009. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
  9. ^ a b "Competitive Scholarships". Howard University. 2010. Retrieved July 23, 2014. 
  10. ^ "Best dressed colleges of 2011". June 15, 2011. Retrieved April 2, 2016. 
  11. ^ "TECH-Levers: HBCUs Produce the Most Black Alums Who Receive Doctorates in Science and Engineering". Retrieved April 2, 2016. 
  12. ^ "History | Howard University". Retrieved April 2, 2016. 
  13. ^ "Brief History of Howard University". Retrieved October 19, 2009. 
  14. ^ "U.S. Department of Education funding of Howard University". 
  15. ^ "Woodson at the Library of Congress". 
  16. ^ Clifford L. Muse, "Howard University and The Federal Government During The Presidential Administrations of Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1928-1945." Journal of Negro History 76.1/4 (1991): 1-20. in JSTOR
  17. ^ "Biography of Alan Locke". 
  18. ^ "Biography of Ralph Johnson Bunche". 
  19. ^ Murray, Pauli (November 1944). "A Blueprint for First Class Citizenship". The Crisis.  reprinted in Carson, Clayborne; Garrow, David J.; Kovach, Bill (2003). Reporting Civil Rights: American journalism, 1941–1963. Library of America. pp. 62–67. Retrieved September 13, 2011. 
  20. ^ "Biography of Kwame Ture". 
  21. ^ "Logan, Rayford W. (1897-1982)". Retrieved February 11, 2017. 
  22. ^ "Information on Edward Franklin Frazier". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. 
  23. ^ "Calvin Coolidge: Address at Howard University: "The Progress of a People"". Retrieved November 27, 2017. 
  24. ^ "University of Texas speeches archive". Archived from the original on September 19, 2007. 
  25. ^ Johnson, Lyndon B. "To Fulfill These Rights". What So Proudly We Hail. Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013. 
  26. ^ Stanley, Alessandra; Jacob V. Lamar (March 20, 1989). "Saying No to Lee Atwater". Time Warner. 
  27. ^ Susan Kinzie and Keith L. Alexander (March 10, 2007). "Ouster Sought of Howard President". Washington Post. Retrieved February 13, 2010. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  28. ^ "Howard University". Washington Post. May 21, 2007. Retrieved February 13, 2010. 
  29. ^ Strauss, Valerie (May 8, 2008). "Bowling Green President Named to Top Position". Washington Post. Retrieved February 13, 2010. 
  30. ^ a b de Vise, Daniel (December 14, 2010). "Howard prepares for test of its future". Washington Post. p. B1. 
  31. ^ Jack Stripling (June 7, 2013). "In Ominous Letter, a Trustee Blasts Howard U.'s President and Board Chair". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved July 2, 2013. 
  32. ^ Nick Anderson (June 7, 2013). "Howard trustee says university in 'trouble'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 20, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2013. 
  33. ^ Nick Anderson (July 1, 2013). "Howard academic deans allege 'fiscal mismanagement'". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 2, 2013. 
  34. ^ Nick Anderson (October 16, 2013). "Howard faculty group votes no confidence in key Board of Trustees committee". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 18, 2013. 
  35. ^ "Howard University Press Release". Howard University. October 1, 2013. Archived from the original on November 15, 2013. Retrieved November 15, 2013. 
  36. ^ Emma Brown and Wesley Robinson (July 22, 2014). "Wayne A.I. Frederick named 17th president of Howard University". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 23, 2013. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  37. ^ Larimer, Sarah (April 12, 2018). "No confidence: Howard faculty members say in vote they have lost faith in school's leaders". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 27, 2018. 
  38. ^ a b c d "Howard Facts 2009 (PDF)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2009. 
  39. ^ Clifford L. Muse, Jr. (1991). "Howard University and The Federal Government During The Presidential Administrations of Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1928–1945". The Journal of Negro History. Association for the Study of African-American Life and History, Inc. 76 (1/4): 1–20. JSTOR 2717406. 
  40. ^ "Howard's Gallery of Art Among Top 50 in the United States - Howard University". Retrieved June 29, 2016. 
  41. ^ "Howard University opens $70 million laboratory building, with hopes for more to come". Retrieved June 29, 2016. 
  42. ^ "Undergraduate Programs of Excellence". Howard University. 2015. Archived from the original on June 29, 2016. Retrieved July 2, 2016. 
  43. ^ "Google opens Howard University West to train black coders". Retrieved December 31, 2017. 
  44. ^ "Newsroom". Retrieved February 4, 2018. 
  45. ^ "Howard History". Archived from the original on November 6, 2007. 
  46. ^ "About". Howard University Beltsville Center for Climate System Observation. Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2011. 
  47. ^ "Beltsville Center for Climate System Observation (BCCSO)". Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved August 10, 2011. 
  48. ^ "Howard University's Founders Library named a national treasure". 
  49. ^ Cornish, Stephanie (March 2, 2016). "Howard University Library Named National Treasure - Afro". 
  50. ^ Willis, Kiersten (April 1, 2016). "Howard University Library Named National Treasure, to Be Modernized with New Technology". 
  51. ^ Matthews, Lopez. "LibGuides V2: Welcome to the Howard University Libraries: Contact Us". Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2018. 
  52. ^ Matthews, Lopez. "LibGuides V2: Welcome to the Howard University Libraries: Contact Us". Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2018. 
  53. ^ "Howard University Demographics". 
  54. ^
  55. ^
  56. ^ "Home | Howard University". Retrieved April 2, 2016. 
  57. ^ "Howard University". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved February 11, 2017. 
  58. ^
  59. ^ "Howard University 2009 Performance Plan". US Dept. of Education. February 14, 2008. Retrieved January 19, 2010. 
  60. ^ a b "College Search – Howard University". College Board. Retrieved January 19, 2010. 
  61. ^ Starr, Douglas P. (2000). Blood: An Epic History of Medicine and Commerce. New York: Quill. pp. 111–117. ISBN 978-0-7515-3000-1. 
  62. ^ "Acting Legend Al Freeman Jr. Remembered at Howard University - Howard University News Room". March 16, 2000. Archived from the original on November 19, 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2015. 
  63. ^ "Denver cemetery's data "very valuable" to state". The Denver Post. December 23, 2005. Retrieved October 24, 2015. 
  64. ^ "E. R. Braithwaite, Author of 'To Sir, With Love,' Dies at 104". The New York Times. December 13, 2016. 
  65. ^ "Campus Tours". 
  66. ^ Wesley, Charles H. (1981). The History of Alpha Phi Alpha, A Development in College Life (14th ed.). Chicago, IL: Foundation. p. 43. ASIN: B000ESQ14W. 
  67. ^ "Howard University Libraries". 
  68. ^ "Howard's homecoming: a brand and a business". Retrieved June 29, 2016. 
  69. ^ "Howard University Homecoming Event Lineup". Archived from the original on September 26, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2017. 
  70. ^ "Hollywood Goes to Howard University Homecoming". November 3, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2016. 
  71. ^ "Howard Homecoming 2011: The People, History, And Events". Retrieved May 20, 2017. [permanent dead link]
  72. ^ "Howard Homecoming Committee Introduces 2016 Theme: BLUEPRINT". Retrieved May 20, 2017. 
  73. ^ "The Hilltop, March 23, 2017, Volume 101, Issue 23". Retrieved December 31, 2017. 
  74. ^ "Rapper Fabolous Hosts Howard University High End Fashion Show "No Limits" For Springfest - The Rapfest Presents". April 3, 2017. Retrieved December 31, 2017. 
  75. ^ "Upcoming Events - Bison Ball & Excellence 2016 Awards - WHUT Howard University Television". Archived from the original on June 5, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016. 
  76. ^ "Bison Ball + Excellence Awards - The Concrete Rose". Archived from the original on June 1, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016. 
  77. ^ "Campus Virtual Tour: Residence Life at Howard University". Retrieved April 2, 2016. 
  78. ^ "Mali's new prime minister via Microsoft and Nasa". The Telegraph. London. April 17, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  79. ^ "Taraji P. Henson". IMDb. Retrieved January 18, 2016. 
  80. ^ "Binge-Watching 'A Different World': 17 Things You Totally Forgot About This Guilt-Free 'Cosby Show' Spin-Off". Retrieved February 4, 2018. 
External links Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Howard University. Howard UniversityAcademicsColleges Research People AthleticsSports Facilities People Broadcasting Campus Student life Links to related articlesColleges and universities in the District of ColumbiaResearch universities Master’s colleges and universities Specialized colleges Former institutions Historically black colleges and universitiesPublic
institutions Private
institutions Defunct
institutions Thurgood Marshall College Fund Mid-Eastern Athletic ConferenceFull members Associate members Washington Theological ConsortiumMembers Associate Members Affiliate Members

Custom Search
Howard University
Howard University Hospital
Howard University Medical School
Howard University Bookstore
Howard University Athletics
Howard University Pa Program
Howard University Jobs
Howard University Financial Aid
Howard University Law School
Howard University Admissions

Howard University
Howard University Hospital
Howard University Medical School
Howard University Bookstore
Howard University Athletics
Howard University Pa Program
Howard University Jobs
Howard University Financial Aid
Howard University Law School
Howard University Admissions

Howard University

Project of very low consumption, radiation and bitrate softphones, with the support of the spatial audio, of the frequency shifts and of the ultrasonic communications
Multifunction Audio Filter with Remote Control
More Information
Free the Animation VR

Play to reveal 3D images and 3D models
More Information

WhmSoft Moblog
Copyright (C) 2006-2019 WhmSoft
All Rights Reserved