How do people make sense of each other? How do people make sense of themselves? Social cognition attempts to explain the most fundamental of questions. It looks at why other people are not simply ‘objects’ to be perceived and how the social world provides dramatic and complex perspectives on the Self and Others. The subtitle of this book ‘From Brains to Culture’ reflects the journey that Social Cognition has been on since it first emerged as a dynamic and forward-looking field of research within social psychology. Structured in four clear parts, Social Cognition: From Brains to Culture begins with a clear outline of the basic concepts before moving into more topical sections: understanding individual selves and others, followed by making sense of society. The authors finish by looking beyond cognition to affect and behaviour. Challenging and rigorous, yet strikingly accessible, this book is essential reading for all students of social psychology from undergraduate to post-graduate and beyond.
An insightful examination of why we compare ourselves to those above and below us. The United States was founded on the principle of equal opportunity for all, and this ethos continues to inform the nation's collective identity. In reality, however, absolute equality is elusive. The gap between rich and poor has widened in recent decades, and the United States has the highest level of economic inequality of any developed country. Social class and other differences in status reverberate throughout American life, and prejudice based on another's perceived status persists among individuals and groups. In Envy Up, Scorn Down, noted social psychologist Susan Fiske examines the psychological underpinnings of interpersonal and intergroup comparisons, exploring why we compare ourselves to those both above and below us and analyzing the social consequences of such comparisons in day-to-day life. What motivates individuals, groups, and cultures to envy the status of some and scorn the status of others? Who experiences envy and scorn most? Envy Up, Scorn Down marshals a wealth of recent psychological studies as well as findings based on years of Fiske's own research to address such questions. She shows that both envy and scorn have distinctive biological, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics. And though we are all "wired" for comparison, some individuals are more vulnerable to these motives than others. Dominant personalities, for example, express envy toward high-status groups such as the wealthy and well-educated, and insecurity can lead others to scorn those perceived to have lower status, such as women, minorities, or the disabled. Fiske shows that one's race or ethnicity, gender, and education all correlate with perceived status. Regardless of whether one is accorded higher or lower status, however, all groups rank their members, and all societies rank the various groups within them. We rate each group as either friend or foe, able or unable, and accordingly assign them the traits of warmth or competence. The majority of groups in the United States are ranked either warm or competent but not both, with extreme exceptions: the homeless or the very poor are considered neither warm nor competent. Societies across the globe view older people as warm but incompetent. Conversely, the very rich are generally considered cold but highly competent. Envy Up, Scorn Down explores the nuances of status hierarchies and their consequences and shows that such prejudice in its most virulent form dehumanizes and can lead to devastating outcomes―from the scornful neglect of the homeless to the envious anger historically directed at Tutsis in Rwanda or Jews in Europe. Individuals, groups, and even cultures will always make comparisons between and among themselves. Envy Up, Scorn Down is an accessible and insightful examination of drives we all share and the prejudice that can accompany comparison. The book deftly shows that understanding envy and scorn―and seeking to mitigate their effects―can prove invaluable to our lives, our relationships, and our society.
Social Beings: Core Motives in Social Psychology, 3rdEdition provides psychologists with a cutting-edge approach onevolutionary and cross-cultural psychology. The book addressesresearch on three different levels: brain function andcognition, individual and situations, and groups and cultures. Thesecond edition has been updated to present contemporary research insocial psychology. It also discusses increasingly important issuesin the field including emotion science and the impact ofneuroscience on social and personality psychology. The ThirdEdition retains the previous editions’ features and adds themost up-to-date literature.
The Human Brand: How We Relate to People, Products, and Companies
Why we choose companies and brands in the same way that we unconsciously perceive, judge, and behave toward one another People everywhere describe their relationships with brands in a deeply personal way—we hate our banks, love our smartphones, and think the cable company is out to get us. What's actually going on in our brains when we make these judgments? Through original research, customer loyalty expert Chris Malone and top social psychologist Susan Fiske discovered that our perceptions arise from spontaneous judgments on warmth and competence, the same two factors that also determine our impressions of people. We see companies and brands the same way we automatically perceive, judge, and behave toward one another. As a result, to achieve sustained success, companies must forge genuine relationships with customers. And as customers, we have a right to expect relational accountability from the companies and brands we support. Applies the social psychology concepts of "warmth" (what intentions others have toward us) and "competence" (how capable they are of carrying out those intentions) to the way we perceive and relate to companies and brands Features in-depth analyses of companies such as Hershey's, Domino's, Lululemon, Zappos, Amazon, Chobani, Sprint, and more Draws from original research, evaluating over 45 companies over the course of 10 separate studies The Human Brand is essential reading for understanding how and why we make the choices we do, as well as what it takes for companies and brands to earn and keep our loyalty in the digital age.
Electronic Inspection Copy available to instructors here ′Since its very first edition, Social Cognition has been the undisputed bible of the field, and this new edition is the best one yet. Insightful, authoritative, and beautifully written by two of the field′s most eminent researchers, it is an indispensable guide for students and scientists alike. The book that came first remains first.′ -Daniel Gilbert, Harvard University, UK ′This latest edition of the best overview of social cognition research somehow succeeds in lifting the bar higher still for its competitors. It is authoritative yet readable, and has depth as well as breadth -- an irresistible invitation to the field!′ - Miles Hewstone, University of Oxford, UK In Social Cognition: From Brains to Culture 2nd Edition, Fiske and Taylor carefully integrate the many new threads of social cognition research that have emerged in the intervening years since the previous edition, including developments within social neuroscience, cultural psychology and some areas of applied psychology, and continue to tell a powerful and comprehensive story about what social cognition is and why it′s a significant phenomenon in society today. Every updated chapter now includes more figures and tables, glossary entries, and further readings. A supplemental test bank including some full-text journal articles corresponding to chapters in the book is available online at: www.sagepub.co.uk/fiskeandtaylor. This textbook will be indispensable to students of social cognition and social psychology worldwide, at undergraduate or graduate level. Visit the Companion Website at www.sagepub.co.uk/fiskeandtaylor
The foremost reference resource for academics, researchers, and graduate students in psychology looking for the most current, well-researched, and thorough information in the field of social psychologyEstablished for over 50 years; no other reference in the field can claim the stature or thoroughness of content as this classic resourceRepresents the full field from neuron to nationThis fifth edition brings on board mostly new authors as befits a vigorous, cutting-edge scienceFeatures chapters on social neuroscience, mind perception, morality, and social stratification, among other new topics4 Volumeshttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/book/10.1002/9780470561119
The classic Handbook of Social Psychology has been the standard professional reference for the field of social psychology for many years. Now available in a new edition, Volume 2 of this internationally acclaimed work brings readers up to date with new chapters on social neuroscience, mind perception, morality, and social stratification. The editors have structured Volume 2 in a way that highlights the many levels of analysis used by contemporary psychologists. All academics, graduate students, and professional social psychologists will want to own a copy of this landmark work.
First published in 1935, The Handbook of Social Psychology was the first major reference work to cover the field of social psychology. The field has since evolved and expanded tremendously, and in each subsequent edition, The Handbook of Social Psychology is still the foremost reference that academics, researchers, and graduate students in psychology turn to for the most current, well-researched, and thorough information covering the field of social psychology. This volume of the Fifth Edition covers the science of social psychology and the social being.
Facing Social Class: How Societal Rank Influences Interaction
Many Americans, holding fast to the American Dream and the promise of equal opportunity, claim that social class doesn't matter. Yet the ways we talk and dress, our interactions with authority figures, the degree of trust we place in strangers, our religious beliefs, our achievements, our senses of morality and of ourselves―all are marked by social class, a powerful factor affecting every domain of life. In Facing Social Class, social psychologists Susan Fiske and Hazel Rose Markus, and a team of sociologists, anthropologists, linguists, and legal scholars, examine the many ways we communicate our class position to others and how social class shapes our daily, face-to-face interactions―from casual exchanges to interactions at school, work, and home. Facing Social Class exposes the contradiction between the American ideal of equal opportunity and the harsh reality of growing inequality, and it shows how this tension is reflected in cultural ideas and values, institutional practices, everyday social interactions, and psychological tendencies. Contributor Joan Williams examines cultural differences between middle- and working-class people and shows how the cultural gap between social class groups can influence everything from voting practices and political beliefs to work habits, home life, and social behaviors. In a similar vein, Annette Lareau and Jessica McCrory Calarco analyze the cultural advantages or disadvantages exhibited by different classes in institutional settings, such as those between parents and teachers. They find that middle-class parents are better able to advocate effectively for their children in school than are working-class parents, who are less likely to challenge a teacher's authority. Michael Kraus, Michelle Rheinschmidt, and Paul Piff explore the subtle ways we signal class status in social situations. Conversational style and how close one person stands to another, for example, can influence the balance of power in a business interaction. Diana Sanchez and Julie Garcia even demonstrate that markers of low socioeconomic status such as incarceration or unemployment can influence whether individuals are categorized as white or black―a finding that underscores how race and class may work in tandem to shape advantage or disadvantage in social interactions. The United States has one of the highest levels of income inequality and one of the lowest levels of social mobility among industrialized nations, yet many Americans continue to buy into the myth that theirs is a classless society. Facing Social Class faces the reality of how social class operates in our daily lives, why it is so pervasive, and what can be done to alleviate its effects.
Social Cognition (Social Psychology: A Modular Course (Paperback))
Social cognition is a key area of social psychology, which focuses on cognitive processes that are involved when individuals make sense of, and navigate in their social world. For instance, individuals need to understand what they perceive, they learn and recall information from memory, they form judgments and decisions, they communicate with others, and they regulate their behavior. While all of these topics are also key to other fields of psychological research, it’s the social world―which is dynamic, complex, and often ambiguous―that creates particular demands. This accessible book introduces the basic themes within social cognition and asks questions such as: How do individuals think and feel about themselves and others? How do they make sense of their social environment? How do they interact with others in their social world? The book is organized along an idealized sequence of social information processing that starts at perceiving and encoding, and moves on to learning, judging, and communicating. It covers not only processes internal to the individual, but also facets of the environment that constrain cognitive processing. Throughout the book, student learning is fostered with examples, additional materials, and discussion questions. With its subdivision in ten chapters, the book is suitable both for self-study and as companion material for those teaching a semester-long course. This is the ideal comprehensive introduction to this thriving and captivating field of research for students of psychology.
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