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Clothing
Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) is a collective term for items worn on the body. Clothing can be made of textiles, animal skin, or

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"Outfit" redirects here. For other uses, see Outfit (disambiguation). Clothing in history, showing (from top) Egyptians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Franks, and 13th through 15th century Europeans.

Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) is a collective term for items worn on the body. Clothing can be made of textiles, animal skin, or other thin sheets of materials put together. The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human beings and is a feature of all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depend on body type, social, and geographic considerations. Some clothing can be gender-specific.

Physically, clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking. It protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters, thorns and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions, and they can provide a hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing also provides protection from ultraviolet radiation.

Wearing clothes is also a social norm, and being deprived of clothing in front of others may be embarrassing, or not wearing clothes in public such that genitals, breasts or buttocks are visible could be seen as indecent exposure.

Contents
  • 1 Origin of clothing
  • 2 Functions
  • 3 Scholarship
  • 4 Cultural aspects
    • 4.1 Gender differentiation
    • 4.2 Social status
    • 4.3 Religion
  • 5 Origin and history
    • 5.1 First recorded use
    • 5.2 Making clothing
  • 6 Contemporary clothing
    • 6.1 Western dress code
    • 6.2 Spread of western styles
    • 6.3 Ethnic and cultural heritage
    • 6.4 Sport and activity
    • 6.5 Fashion
    • 6.6 Future trends
  • 7 Political issues
    • 7.1 Working conditions in the garments industry
    • 7.2 Fur
  • 8 Life cycle
    • 8.1 Clothing maintenance
    • 8.2 Laundry, ironing, storage
    • 8.3 Non-iron
    • 8.4 Mending
    • 8.5 Recycling
  • 9 See also
  • 10 References
  • 11 Further reading
  • 12 External links
Origin of clothing See also: Evolution of hair and History of clothing and textiles

There is no easy way to determine when clothing was first developed, but some information has been inferred by studying lice which estimates the introduction of clothing at roughly 42,000–72,000 years ago.[1][2][3][4]

Functions A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. @media all and (max-width:720px){.mw-parser-output .tmulti>.thumbinner{width:100%!important;max-width:none!important}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{float:none!important;max-width:none!important;width:100%!important;text-align:center}}Four types of women's clothing which end above the knees: (clockwise from top) minidress, miniskirt, shorts and romper.

The most obvious function of clothing is to improve the comfort of the wearer, by protecting the wearer from the elements. In hot climates, clothing provides protection from sunburn or wind damage, while in cold climates its thermal insulation properties are generally more important. The shelter usually reduces the functional need for clothing. For example, coats, hats, gloves, and other superficial layers are normally removed when entering a warm home, particularly if one is residing or sleeping there. Similarly, clothing has seasonal and regional aspects, so that thinner materials and fewer layers of clothing are generally worn in warmer seasons and regions than in colder ones.

Clothing performs a range of social and cultural functions, such as individual, occupational and gender differentiation, and social status.[5] In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, religion, gender, and social status. Clothing may also function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style.

Clothing can and has in history been made from a very wide variety of materials. Materials have ranged from leather and furs to woven materials, to elaborate and exotic natural and synthetic fabrics. Not all body coverings are regarded as clothing. Articles carried rather than worn (such as purses), worn on a single part of the body and easily removed (scarves), worn purely for adornment (jewelry), or those that serve a function other than protection (eyeglasses), are normally considered accessories rather than clothing, except for shoes.

Clothing protects against many things that might injure the uncovered human body. Clothes protect people from the elements, including rain, snow, wind, and other weather, as well as from the sun. However, clothing that is too sheer, thin, small, tight, etc., offers less protection. Clothes also reduce risk during activities such as work or sport. Some clothing protects from specific environmental hazards, such as insects, noxious chemicals, weather, weapons, and contact with abrasive substances. Conversely, clothing may protect the environment from the clothing wearer, as with doctors wearing medical scrubs.

Humans have shown extreme invention in devising clothing solutions to environmental hazards. Examples include: space suits, air conditioned clothing, armor, diving suits, swimsuits, bee-keeper gear, motorcycle leathers, high-visibility clothing, and other pieces of protective clothing. Meanwhile, the distinction between clothing and protective equipment is not always clear-cut, since clothes designed to be fashionable often have protective value and clothes designed for function often consider fashion in their design. Wearing clothes also has social implications. They cover parts of the body that social norms require to be covered, act as a form of adornment, and serve other social purposes. Someone who lacks the means to procure reasonable clothing due to poverty or affordability is sometimes said to be scruffy, ragged, or shabby.[6]

Scholarship

Although dissertations on clothing and its function appear from the 19th century as colonising countries dealt with new environments,[7] concerted scientific research into psycho-social, physiological and other functions of clothing (e.g. protective, cartage) occurred in the first half of the 20th century, with publications such as J. C. Flügel's Psychology of Clothes in 1930,[5] and Newburgh's seminal Physiology of Heat Regulation and The Science of Clothing in 1949.[8] By 1968, the field of environmental physiology had advanced and expanded significantly, but the science of clothing in relation to environmental physiology had changed little.[9] While considerable research has since occurred and the knowledge-base has grown significantly, the main concepts remain unchanged, and indeed Newburgh's book is still cited by contemporary authors, including those attempting to develop thermoregulatory models of clothing development.[10]

Cultural aspects Gender differentiation Former 3rd Duke of Fife wearing a traditional Scottish kilt (1984) Advisor to US President and businesswoman Ivanka Trump (right) along with Japanese PM Shinzō Abe wearing Western-style business suits as per their gender, 2017

In most cultures, gender differentiation of clothing is considered appropriate. The differences are in styles, colors, and fabrics.

In Western societies, skirts, dresses and high-heeled shoes are usually seen as women's clothing, while neckties are usually seen as men's clothing. Trousers were once seen as exclusively male clothing, but can nowadays be worn by both genders. Male clothes are often more practical (that is, they can function well under a wide variety of situations), but a wider range of clothing styles are available for females. Males are typically allowed to bare their chests in a greater variety of public places. It is generally more or less acceptable for a woman to wear clothing perceived as masculine, while the opposite is seen as unusual.

In some cultures, sumptuary laws regulate what men and women are required to wear. Islam requires women to wear more modest forms of attire, usually hijab. What qualifies as "modest" varies in different Muslim societies. However, women are usually required to cover more of their bodies than men are. Articles of clothing Muslim women wear for modesty range from the head-scarf to the burqa.

Men may sometimes choose to wear men's skirts such as togas or kilts, especially on ceremonial occasions. Such garments were (in previous times) often worn as normal daily clothing by men.

Clothing designed to be worn by either sex is called unisex clothing. Unisex clothes, such as T-shirts, tends to be cut straighter to fit a wider variety of bodies. The majority of unisex clothing styles have started out as menswear, but some articles, like the fedora, were originally worn by women.

Social status A Barong Tagalog made for a wedding ceremony. Alim Khan's bemedaled robe sends a social message about his wealth, status, and power.

In some societies, clothing may be used to indicate rank or status. In ancient Rome, for example, only senators could wear garments dyed with Tyrian purple. In traditional Hawaiian society, only high-ranking chiefs could wear feather cloaks and palaoa, or carved whale teeth. In China, before establishment of the republic, only the emperor could wear yellow. History provides many examples of elaborate sumptuary laws that regulated what people could wear. In societies without such laws, which includes most modern societies, social status is instead signaled by the purchase of rare or luxury items that are limited by cost to those with wealth or status. In addition, peer pressure influences clothing choice.

Religion See also: Category:Religious vesture Nicolas Trigault, in Ming-style Confucian hanfu, by Rubens. Muslim men traditionally wear white robes and a cap during prayers

Religious clothing might be considered a special case of occupational clothing. Sometimes it is worn only during the performance of religious ceremonies. However, it may also be worn every day as a marker for special religious status.

For example, Jains and Muslim men wear unstitched cloth pieces when performing religious ceremonies. The unstitched cloth signifies unified and complete devotion to the task at hand, with no digression.[citation needed] Sikhs wear a turban as it is a part of their religion.

The cleanliness of religious dresses in Eastern religions like Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism, Islam and Jainism is of paramount importance since it indicates purity.

Clothing figures prominently in the Bible where it appears in numerous contexts, the more prominent ones being: the story of Adam and Eve who made coverings for themselves out of fig leaves, Joseph's cloak, Judah and Tamar, Mordecai and Esther. Furthermore, the priests officiating in the Temple had very specific garments, the lack of which made one liable to death.

The Quran says about husbands and wives, regarding clothing: "...They are clothing/covering (Libaas) for you; and you for them" (chapter 2:187).

Jewish ritual also requires rending of one's upper garment as a sign of mourning. This practice is found in the Bible when Jacob hears of the apparent death of his son Joseph.[11]

Origin and history Main article: History of clothing See also: History of Western fashion and Category:History of clothing First recorded use

According to archaeologists and anthropologists, the earliest clothing likely consisted of fur, leather, leaves, or grass that were draped, wrapped, or tied around the body. Knowledge of such clothing remains inferential, since clothing materials deteriorate quickly compared to stone, bone, shell and metal artifacts. Archeologists have identified very early sewing needles of bone and ivory from about 30,000 BC, found near Kostenki, Russia in 1988.[12] Dyed flax fibers that could have been used in clothing have been found in a prehistoric cave in the Republic of Georgia that date back to 36,000 BP.[13][14]

Scientists are still debating when people started wearing clothes. Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser and Mark Stoneking, anthropologists at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, have conducted a genetic analysis of human body lice that suggests clothing originated quite recently, around 170,000 years ago. Body lice is an indicator of clothes-wearing, since most humans have sparse body hair, and lice thus require human clothing to survive. Their research suggests the invention of clothing may have coincided with the northward migration of modern Homo sapiens away from the warm climate of Africa, thought to have begun between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago. However, a second group of researchers using similar genetic methods estimate that clothing originated around 540,000 years ago [15] For now, the date of the origin of clothing remains unresolved.

Making clothing See also: Garment industry, knitting, and weaving

Some human cultures, such as the various people of the Arctic Circle, traditionally make their clothing entirely of prepared and decorated furs and skins. Other cultures supplemented or replaced leather and skins with cloth: woven, knitted, or twined from various animal and vegetable fibers including wool, linen, cotton, silk, hemp, and ramie.

Although modern consumers may take the production of clothing for granted, making fabric by hand is a tedious and labor-intensive process involving fiber making, spinning, and weaving. The textile industry was the first to be mechanized – with the powered loom – during the Industrial Revolution.

Different cultures have evolved various ways of creating clothes out of cloth. One approach simply involves draping the cloth. Many people wore, and still wear, garments consisting of rectangles of cloth wrapped to fit – for example, the dhoti for men and the sari for women in the Indian subcontinent, the Scottish kilt or the Javanese sarong. The clothes may simply be tied up, as is the case of the first two garments; or pins or belts hold the garments in place, as in the case of the latter two. The precious cloth remains uncut, and people of various sizes or the same person at different sizes can wear the garment.

Another approach involves measuring, cutting, and sewing the cloth by hand or with a sewing machine. Clothing can be cut from a sewing pattern and adjusted by a tailor to a person's measurements. An adjustable sewing mannequin or dress form is used to create form fitting clothing. Fabrics are expensive and efforts are made to use every bit of the cloth rectangle in constructing the clothing. The tailor may cut triangular pieces from one corner of the cloth, and then add them elsewhere as gussets. Traditional European patterns for men's shirts and women's chemises take this approach. These remnants can also be reused to make patchwork hats, vests, and skirts.

Modern European fashion treats cloth much less conservatively, typically cutting in such a way as to leave various odd-shaped cloth remnants. Industrial sewing operations sell these as waste; home sewers may turn them into quilts.

In the thousands of years that humans have spent constructing clothing, they have created an astonishing array of styles, many of which have been reconstructed from surviving garments, photos, paintings, mosaics, etc., as well as from written descriptions. Costume history serves as a source of inspiration to current fashion designers, as well as a topic of professional interest to costumers constructing for plays, films, television, and historical reenactment.

Contemporary clothing The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Part of a series onWestern dress codes
and corresponding attiresQueen Elizabeth II and Prince Phillip at formal opening of the Parliament of Canada (1957) Formal (full dress)
  •      Dress coat ("white tie")
  • Ball gown
  • Frock coat
  • Full dress uniform
  • Morning dress
Semi-formal (half dress)
  •      Tuxedo ("black tie")
  • Evening gown
  • Mess dress uniform
  • Black lounge suit
Informal (undress, "dress clothes")
  • Cocktail dress
  • Lounge suit
  • Service dress uniform
  • Pantsuit
Casual
  • Business casual
    • Casual Friday
  • Smart casual
Supplementary
  • Ceremonial dress
    • Court
    • diplomatic
    • academic, etc.
  • Religious clothing
    • cassock, habit, etc.
  • Folk costume
  • Distinctions
    • Orders
    • medals, etc.

Legend:
= Day (before 6 p.m.)
= Evening (after 6 p.m.)
          = Bow tie colour

Fashion portal
Contents/Culture and the arts portal
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Western dress code Main article: Western dress code

The Western dress code has changed over the past 500+ years. The mechanization of the textile industry made many varieties of cloth widely available at affordable prices. Styles have changed, and the availability of synthetic fabrics has changed the definition of "stylish". In the latter half of the 20th century, blue jeans became very popular, and are now worn to events that normally demand formal attire. Activewear has also become a large and growing market.

Jeans in the Western dress code are worn by both men and women. There are several unique styles of jeans found which include: high rise jeans, mid rise jeans, low rise jeans, bootcut jeans, straight jeans, cropped jeans, skinny jeans, cuffed jeans, boyfriend jeans, and capri jeans.

The licensing of designer names was pioneered by designers like Pierre Cardin in the 1960s and has been a common practice within the fashion industry from about the 1970s. Among the more popular include Marc Jacobs and Gucci, named for Marc Jacobs and Guccio Gucci respectively.

Spread of western styles University students in casual clothes in USA.

By the early years of the 21st century, western clothing styles had, to some extent, become international styles. This process began hundreds of years earlier, during the periods of European colonialism. The process of cultural dissemination has perpetuated over the centuries as Western media corporations have penetrated markets throughout the world, spreading Western culture and styles. Fast fashion clothing has also become a global phenomenon. These garments are less expensive, mass-produced Western clothing. Donated used clothing from Western countries are also delivered to people in poor countries by charity organizations.

Ethnic and cultural heritage

People may wear ethnic or national dress on special occasions or in certain roles or occupations. For example, most Korean men and women have adopted Western-style dress for daily wear, but still wear traditional hanboks on special occasions, like weddings and cultural holidays. Items of Western dress may also appear worn or accessorized in distinctive, non-Western ways. A Tongan man may combine a used T-shirt with a Tongan wrapped skirt, or tupenu.

Sport and activity Main articles: Activewear and Sportswear (fashion)

Most sports and physical activities are practiced wearing special clothing, for practical, comfort or safety reasons. Common sportswear garments include shorts, T-shirts, tennis shirts, leotards, tracksuits, and trainers. Specialized garments include wet suits (for swimming, diving or surfing), salopettes (for skiing) and leotards (for gymnastics). Also, spandex materials are often used as base layers to soak up sweat. Spandex is also preferable for active sports that require form fitting garments, such as volleyball, wrestling, track & field, dance, gymnastics and swimming.

Fashion shows are often the source of the latest trends in clothing fashions. Photo of a model in a modern gown reflecting the current fashion trend at a Haute couture fashion show. Fashion Main articles: Fashion and 2010s in fashion

Paris set the fashion trends for Europe and North America 1900-1940.[16] In the 1920s the goal was all about getting loose. Women wore dresses all day, everyday. Day dresses had a drop waist, which was a sash or belt around the low waist or hip and a skirt that hung anywhere from the ankle on up to the knee, never above. Daywear had sleeves(long to mid-bicep) and a skirt that was straight, pleaded, hank hem, or tired. Jewelry was less conspicuous.[17] Hair was often bobbed, giving a boyish look.[18]

In the 21st century a diverse range of styles exist in fashion, varying by geography, exposure to modern media, economic conditions, and ranging from expensive haute couture to traditional garb, to thrift store grunge. Fashion shows are events for designers to show off new and often extravagant designs.

Future trends Main article: Fashion forecastingThis section contains content that is written like an advertisement. Please help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external links, and by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of view. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The world of clothing is always changing, as new cultural influences meet technological innovations. Researchers in scientific labs have been developing prototypes for fabrics that can serve functional purposes well beyond their traditional roles, for example, clothes that can automatically adjust their temperature, repel bullets, project images, and generate electricity. Some practical advances already available to consumers are bullet-resistant garments made with kevlar and stain-resistant fabrics that are coated with chemical mixtures that reduce the absorption of liquids. New blends of Spandex cotton blends allow for form fitting and stretching of closer fitting mass produced patterns. New mesh materials allow for better breathe-ability in shoes. New insulation fibers and batting make lighter raiment that provide warmth in cold or wet weather, and recent advances in coatings for fabrics or down also repel water.

Political issues Working conditions in the garments industry Further information: Garment industry This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2008) Garments factory in Bangladesh Safety garb for women workers in Los Angeles, c. 1943, was designed to prevent occupational accidents among female war workers.

Though mechanization transformed most aspects of human industry by the mid-20th century, garment workers have continued to labor under challenging conditions that demand repetitive manual labor. Mass-produced clothing is often made in what are considered by some to be sweatshops, typified by long work hours, lack of benefits, and lack of worker representation. While most examples of such conditions are found in developing countries, clothes made in industrialized nations may also be manufactured similarly.[citation needed]

Coalitions of NGOs, designers (including Katharine Hamnett, American Apparel, Veja, Quiksilver, eVocal, and Edun) and campaign groups like the Clean Clothes Campaign (CCC) and the Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights as well as textile and clothing trade unions have sought to improve these conditions as much as possible by sponsoring awareness-raising events, which draw the attention of both the media and the general public to the workers.

Outsourcing production to low wage countries like Bangladesh, China, India and Sri Lanka became possible when the Multi Fibre Agreement (MFA) was abolished. The MFA, which placed quotas on textiles imports, was deemed a protectionist measure.[citation needed] Although many countries recognize treaties like the International Labour Organization, which attempt to set standards for worker safety and rights, many countries have made exceptions to certain parts of the treaties or failed to thoroughly enforce them. India for example has not ratified sections 87 and 92 of the treaty.[citation needed]

Despite the strong reactions that "sweatshops" evoked among critics of globalization, the production of textiles has functioned as a consistent industry for developing nations providing work and wages, whether construed as exploitative or not, to many thousands of people.

Fur Main article: Fur clothing

The use of animal fur in clothing dates to prehistoric times. It is currently associated in developed countries with expensive, designer clothing, although fur is still used by indigenous people in arctic zones and higher elevations for its warmth and protection. Once uncontroversial, it has recently been the focus of campaigns on the grounds that campaigners consider it cruel and unnecessary. PETA, along with other animal rights and animal liberation groups have called attention to fur farming and other practices they consider cruel.

Life cycle Clothing maintenance

Clothing suffers assault both from within and without. The human body sheds skin cells and body oils, and exudes sweat, urine, and feces. From the outside, sun damage, moisture, abrasion, and dirt assault garments. Fleas and lice can hide in seams. Worn clothing, if not cleaned and refurbished, itches, becomes outworn, and loses functionality (as when buttons fall off, seams come undone, fabrics thin or tear, and zippers fail).

Often, people wear an item of clothing until it falls apart. Some materials present problems. Cleaning leather is difficult, and bark cloth (tapa) cannot be washed without dissolving it. Owners may patch tears and rips, and brush off surface dirt, but materials like these inevitably age.

However, most clothing consists of cloth, and most cloth can be laundered and mended (patching, darning, but compare felt).

Laundry, ironing, storage

Humans have developed many specialized methods for laundering, ranging from early methods of pounding clothes against rocks in running streams, to the latest in electronic washing machines and dry cleaning (dissolving dirt in solvents other than water). Hot water washing (boiling), chemical cleaning and ironing are all traditional methods of sterilizing fabrics for hygiene purposes.

Many kinds of clothing are designed to be ironed before they are worn to remove wrinkles. Most modern formal and semi-formal clothing is in this category (for example, dress shirts and suits). Ironed clothes are believed to look clean, fresh, and neat. Much contemporary casual clothing is made of knit materials that do not readily wrinkle, and do not require ironing. Some clothing is permanent press, having been treated with a coating (such as polytetrafluoroethylene) that suppresses wrinkles and creates a smooth appearance without ironing.

Once clothes have been laundered and possibly ironed, they are usually hung on clothes hangers or folded, to keep them fresh until they are worn. Clothes are folded to allow them to be stored compactly, to prevent creasing, to preserve creases or to present them in a more pleasing manner, for instance when they are put on sale in stores.

Non-iron Main article: Permanent press

A resin used for making non-wrinkle shirts releases formaldehyde, which could cause contact dermatitis for some people; no disclosure requirements exist, and in 2008 the U.S. Government Accountability Office tested formaldehyde in clothing and found that generally the highest levels were in non-wrinkle shirts and pants.[19] In 1999, a study of the effect of washing on the formaldehyde levels found that after 6 months after washing, 7 of 27 shirts had levels in excess of 75 ppm, which is a safe limit for direct skin exposure.[20]

Mending See also: Darning

When the raw material – cloth – was worth more than labor, it made sense to expend labor in saving it. In past times, mending was an art. A meticulous tailor or seamstress could mend rips with thread raveled from hems and seam edges so skillfully that the tear was practically invisible. Today clothing is considered a consumable item. Mass-manufactured clothing is less expensive than the labor required to repair it. Many people buy a new piece of clothing rather than spend time mending. The thrifty still replace zippers and buttons and sew up ripped hems.

Recycling

Used, unwearable clothing can be repurposed for quilts, rags, rugs, bandages, and many other household uses. It can also be recycled into paper. In Western societies, used clothing is often thrown out or donated to charity (such as through a clothing bin). It is also sold to consignment shops, dress agencies, flea markets, and in online auctions. Used clothing is also often collected on an industrial scale to be sorted and shipped for re-use in poorer countries. Globally, used clothes are worth $4 billion[21] with the US as the leading exporter at $575 million.[22]

There are many concerns about the life cycle of synthetics, which come primarily from petrochemicals.[weasel words] Unlike natural fibers, their source is not renewable and they are not biodegradable.[23]

See also
  • Clothing portal
  • Clothing fetish
  • Thermoregulation
  • Timeline of requisite dress in Western civilization
  • List of iconic dresses
  • Sportswear
  • Western dress code
References
  1. ^ Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser & Mark Stoneking (2003), "Molecular evolution of Pediculus humanus and the origin of clothing" (PDF), Current Biology, 13 (16): 1414–1417, doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00507-4, PMID 12932325, archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-10 
  2. ^ Kittler, Ralf; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark (2004). "Molecular Evolution of Pediculus humanus and the Origin of Clothing". Current Biology. 14 (24): 2309. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.12.024. 
  3. ^ "...Lice Indicates Early Clothing Use ...", Mol Biol Evol (2011) 28 (1): 29-32.
  4. ^ Reed, David (2007). "Pair of lice lost or parasites regained: The evolutionary history of Anthropoid primate lice". BMC Biology.  Missing or empty |url= (help)
  5. ^ a b Flugel, John Carl (1976) , The Psychology of Clothes, International Psycho-analytical Library, No.18, New York: AMS Press. First published by Hogarth Press, London, ISBN 0-404-14721-6  Alternative ISBN 978-0-404-14721-1 (This work is one of the earliest attempts at an overview of the psycho-social and practical functions of clothing)
  6. ^ Baradel, Lacey. "Geographic Mobility and Domesticity in Eastman Johnson’s The Tramp." American Art 28.2 (2014): 26-49
  7. ^ e.g. Jeffreys, Julius (1858), The British Army in India: Its Preservation by an appropriate Clothing, Housing, Locating, Recreative Employment, and Hopeful Encouragement of the Troops, London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans & Roberts, retrieved 8 September 2010 
  8. ^ Newburgh, Louis Harry, ed. (1968) , Physiology of Heat Regulation and The Science of Clothing, New York & London: Hafner Publishing 
  9. ^ Hertig, Bruce A (February 1969), "Book review: Physiology of Heat Regulation and the Science of Clothing", Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 11 (2): 100, doi:10.1097/00043764-196902000-00012, PMC 1520373 , retrieved 8 September 2010  (reviewer's name appears next to Newburgh, but was not the co-author. See also reviewer's name at bottom of page).
  10. ^ Gilligan, Ian (January 2010), "The Prehistoric Development of Clothing: Archaeological Implications of a Thermal Model", Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 17 (1): 15–80, doi:10.1007/s10816-009-9076-x 
  11. ^ "?" (PDF). Retrieved 9 August 2010. [self-published source?]
  12. ^ Hoffecker, J., Scott, J., Excavations In Eastern Europe Reveal Ancient Human Lifestyles, University of Colorado at Boulder News Archive, March 21, 2002, colorado.edu Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ Balter M (2009). "Clothes Make the (Hu) Man". Science. 325 (5946): 1329. doi:10.1126/science.325_1329a. PMID 19745126. 
  14. ^ Kvavadze E, Bar-Yosef O, Belfer-Cohen A, Boaretto E, Jakeli N, Matskevich Z, Meshveliani T (2009). "30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers". Science. 325 (5946): 1359. doi:10.1126/science.1175404. PMID 19745144. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Supporting Online Material
  15. ^ Reed; et al. (2004). "Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans". PLoS Biology. 2 (11): e340. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020340. PMC 521174 . PMID 15502871. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)
  16. ^ Mary Louise Roberts, "Samson and Delilah revisited: the politics of women's fashion in 1920s France." American Historical Review 98.3 (1993): 657-684.
  17. ^ Simon Bliss, "'L’intelligence de la parure': Notes on Jewelry Wearing in the 1920s." Fashion Theory 20.1 (2016): 5-26.
  18. ^ Steven Zdatny, "The Boyish Look and the Liberated Woman: The Politics and Aesthetics of Women's Hairstyles." Fashion Theory 1.4 (1997): 367-397.
  19. ^ When Wrinkle-Free Clothing Also Means Formaldehyde Fumes. New York Times.
  20. ^ Changes of Free Formaldehyde Quantity in Non-iron Shirts by Washing and Storage Archived 2011-07-22 at the Wayback Machine.. Journal of Health Science.
  21. ^ Minter, Adam (15 January 2018). "No One Wants Your Used Clothes Anymore". Bloomberg View. Retrieved 17 January 2018. 
  22. ^ Banigan, Melissa (25 January 2018). "East Africa Doesn't Want Your Hand-Me-Downs". Racked. Vox Media. Retrieved 26 January 2018. 
  23. ^ The Textile Materials Eco Battle Between Natural and Synthetic Fabrics "Steven E. Davis, Sweatshirt Station".
Further reading
  • Finnane, Antonia (2008), Changing Clothes in China: Fashion, History, Nation, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-14350-9, retrieved 8 September 2010  ebook ISBN 978-0-231-51273-2
  • Forsberg, Krister; Mansdorf, S.Z (2007), Quick Selection Guide to Chemical Protective Clothing (5th ed.), Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-470-14681-1, retrieved 8 September 2010 
  • Gavin, Timothy P (2003), "Clothing and Thermoregulation During Exercise", Sports Medicine, 33 (13): 941–947, doi:10.2165/00007256-200333130-00001, PMID 14606923, archived from the original on 2011-07-07, retrieved 8 September 2010 
  • Hollander, Anne L (1993), Seeing Through Clothes, Berkley & Los Angeles, California, and London, UK: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-08231-1, retrieved 8 September 2010 
  • Montain, Scott J; Sawaka, Michael N; Cadarett, Bruce S; Quigley, Mark D; McKay, James M (1994), "Physiological tolerance to uncompensable heat stress: effects of exercise intensity, protective clothing, and climate" (PDF), Journal of Applied Physiology, 77 (1): 216–222, PMID 7961236, retrieved 8 September 2010 
  • Ross, Robert (2008), Clothing, a Global History: or, The Imperialist's New Clothes, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, ISBN 978-0-7456-3186-8, retrieved 8 September 2010  Paperback ISBN 978-0-7456-3187-5
  • Tochihara, Yutaka; Ohnaka, Tadakatsu, eds. (2005), Environmental Ergonomics: The Ergonomics of Human Comfort, Health and Performance in the Thermal Environment, Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Vol.3, Amsterdam & Boston: Elsevier, pp. 315–320, ISBN 0-08-044466-0, retrieved 8 September 2010  (see especially sections 5 – 'Clothing' – & 6 – 'Protective clothing').
  • Yarborough, Portia; Nelson, Cherilyn N, eds. (2005), Performance of Protective Clothing: Global Needs and Emerging Markets, 8th Vol., West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, ISBN 0-8031-3488-6, ISSN 1040-3035, retrieved 8 September 2010 
External links Find more aboutclothingat Wikipedia's sister projects
  • Definitions from Wiktionary
  • Media from Wikimedia Commons
  • News from Wikinews
  • Quotations from Wikiquote
  • Texts from Wikisource
  • Textbooks from Wikibooks
  • Learning resources from Wikiversity
  • BBC Wiltshire Dents Glove Museum
  • International Textile and Apparel Association, scholarly publications
  • German Hosiery Museum (English language)
  • Molecular Evolution of Pediculus humanus and the Origin of Clothing by Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser and Mark Stoneking (.PDF file)
  • Cornell Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition, History (HEARTH)
  • v
  • t
  • e
ClothingHeadwear
  • Beret
  • Cap
    • Baseball
    • Knit
  • Hat
    • Boater
    • Bowler hat
    • Cabbage-tree
    • Chupalla
    • Fedora
      • Trilby
    • Flat
    • Panama
    • Pork pie
    • Smoking
    • Top hat
      • Opera hat
  • Helmet
  • Hood
  • Kerchief
  • Turban
  • Veil
Neckwear
  • Clerical collar
  • Cravat
  • Neckerchief
  • Necktie
    • Ascot tie
    • Bolo tie
    • Bow tie
    • Stock tie
  • Scarf
Tops
  • Blouse
  • Cache-cœur
  • Cardigan
  • Crop top
  • Dress shirt
  • Guayabera
  • Guernsey
  • Halterneck
  • Henley shirt
  • Hoodie
  • Jersey
  • Polo shirt
  • Shirt
  • Shrug
  • Sleeveless shirt
  • Sweater
  • Sweater vest
  • T-shirt
  • Tube top
  • Turtleneck
  • Twinset
  • Waistcoat
Trousers
  • Bell-bottoms
  • Bondage pants
  • Capri pants
  • Cargo pants
  • Chaps
  • Dress pants
  • Formal trousers
  • High water pants
  • Lowrise pants
  • Jeans
  • Jodhpurs
  • Leggings
  • Overall
  • Palazzo pants
  • Parachute pants
  • Pedal pushers
  • Phat pants
  • Plus fours
  • Shorts
    • Bermuda shorts
    • Cycling shorts
    • Hotpants
  • Slim-fit pants
  • Sweatpants
  • Windpants
  • Yoga pants
Suits and
Uniforms
  • Ceremonial dress
    • Academic
    • Court
    • Folk
    • Diplomatic
  • Jumpsuit
  • Pantsuit
  • Religious clothing
    • Kasaya
    • Clerical clothing
    • Vestment
  • Uniforms
    • Military
      • Full
      • Mess
      • Sailor
      • Service
      • Combat
    • School
    • Prison
  • Ski suit
  • Tuxedo
Dresses
and Gowns
  • Backless dress
  • Bouffant gown
  • Coatdress
  • Cocktail dress
    • Little black dress
  • Coronation gown
  • Evening gown
    • Ball gown
    • Débutante dress
  • Frock
  • House dress
  • Jumper
  • Princess line
  • Romper suit
  • Sheath dress
  • Shirtdress
  • Slip dress
  • Strapless dress
  • Sundress
  • Wedding dress
  • Wrap dress
Skirts
  • A-line skirt
  • Ballerina skirt
  • Denim skirt
  • Gymslip
  • Men's skirts
  • Miniskirt
  • Pencil skirt
  • Prairie skirt
  • Rah-rah skirt
  • Sarong
  • Skort
  • Tutu
  • Wrap
Underwear
(lingerie)Top
  • Bra
  • Camisole
  • Undershirt
Bottom
  • Diaper
  • Panties
  • Plastic pants
  • Slip
  • Thong
  • Underpants
    • Boxer briefs
    • Boxer shorts
    • Midway briefs
    • Briefs
Full
  • Adult bodysuit
  • Infant bodysuit
  • Long underwear
  • Playsuit
  • See-through clothing
  • Teddy
Coats
and
OuterwearOvercoats
  • Chesterfield
  • Covert
  • Cloak
  • Duffel
  • Duster
  • Frock
    • Bekishe
    • Kapoteh
    • Rekel
  • Greatcoat
    • British Warm
    • Guards Coat
  • Opera
  • Overfrock
  • Paletot
  • Pea
  • Polo
  • Raincoat
  • Riding
    • Redingote
    • Shadbelly
  • Trench
  • Ulster
Suit coats
  • Blazer
  • Frock coat
    • Bekishe
    • Kapoteh
    • Rekel
  • Lounge jacket
  • Mess jacket
  • Smoking jacket
  • Sport
  • Tailcoat
    • Morning
    • Dress
Other
  • Apron
  • Blouson
  • Cagoule
  • Cape
    • Inverness
  • Coatee
  • Cut-off
  • Gilet
  • Jacket
    • Flight
    • Goggle
    • Harrington
    • Leather
    • Norfolk
    • Safari
  • Jerkin
  • Lab coat
  • Parka
  • Poncho
  • Robe
  • Shawl
  • Sleeved blanket
  • Windbreaker
Workwear
  • Boilersuit
  • Cleanroom suit
  • Hazmat suit
  • Space suit
  • Scrubs
Nightwear
  • Babydoll
  • Blanket sleeper
  • Negligee
  • Nightgown
  • Nightshirt
  • Pajamas
Swimwear
  • Bikini
  • Burkini
  • Boardshorts
  • Dry suit
  • Monokini
  • One-piece
  • Rash guard
  • Square leg suit
  • Swim briefs
  • Swim diaper
  • Trunks
  • Wetsuit
Footwear
  • Boot
  • Court shoe
  • Dress boot
  • Dress shoe
  • Flip-flops
  • Hosiery
  • Sandal
  • Shoe
  • Spats
  • Slipper
  • Sneakers
  • Sock
  • Stocking
  • Tights
Accessories
  • Belt
  • Coin purse
  • Cufflink
  • Cummerbund
  • Gaiters
  • Glasses
  • Gloves
  • Headband
  • Handbag
  • Jewellery
  • Livery
  • Muff
  • Pocket protector
  • Pocket watch
  • Sash
  • Sunglasses
  • Suspenders
  • Umbrella
  • Wallet
  • Wristwatch
Dress codesWestern dress codes
  • Formal
    • Morning dress
    • White tie
  • Semi-formal
    • Black lounge suit
    • Black tie
  • Informal
  • Casual attire
Related
  • Activewear
  • Clothing fetish
  • Clothing laws
  • Clothing technology
  • Clothing terminology
  • Cross-dressing
  • Fashion
    • Haute couture
  • History of clothing
  • Fashion portal


Carhartt Men's Acrylic Watch Hat
Carhartt Men's Acrylic Watch Hat
A classic. You'll reach for it every time the wind gets blustery and the temperatures drop. Not only warm, but comfortable, too. Made of 100 percent acrylic rib-knit fabric, stretchable, one-size-fits-all, fits most any noggin, Carhartt label sewn on front.

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adidas Men's Soccer Tiro 17 Training Pants
adidas Men's Soccer Tiro 17 Training Pants
Train hard. Stay cool. These men's soccer training pants help you warm up without overheating. Featuring ventilated climacool and mesh inserts for maximum breathability, they keep the air moving while you stay on the pitch. A slim fit promotes easy footwork.How to measure:CHEST:Measure around the fullest part of the chest, keeping the tape parallel to the floor.WAIST:Measure around the narrowest point, keeping the tape parallel to the floor.HIP:Stand with feet together and measure around the fullest point of the hip, keeping the tape parallel to the floor. Tip - If the measurement for your hip and waist are different, select your bottoms size using your hip measurement

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Levi's Men's 501 Original-Fit Jean
Levi's Men's 501 Original-Fit Jean
A cultural icon. Worn by generations, defining style for decades. Since Levi's invented it in 1873, the 501 Original has been a blank canvas for self-expression. An iconic straight fit with the signature button fly and an authentic look and feel. With no added stretch, the 501 Original sits at the waist and is regular through the thigh with a straight leg. Can be worn with a clean rolled hem or full length, whichever you prefer. For a classic all-American look, pair with a Levi’s Trucker Jacket and a simple crewneck tee.

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Legendary Whitetails Men's Buck Camp Flannel Shirt
Legendary Whitetails Men's Buck Camp Flannel Shirt
A hunter’s wardrobe is not complete without a great flannel. Our exclusive plaids are made from heavyweight 100% cotton soft brushed flannel. Featuring double pleat back for ease of movement and contrasting corduroy lined collar and cuffs for a great look and lasting durability. Left chest pocket with pencil slot and button closure, and adjustable cuffs.Material: 100% CottonWash: Machine wash cold, wash dark colors separately gentle cycle. Do not bleach.Tumble dry low. Do not iron on decoration.Big & Tall sizes are designed for men over 6'2" and add 2" in body length and 1-1⁄2" in sleeve length

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NIKE Performance Cushion Crew Socks with Band (6 Pairs)
NIKE Performance Cushion Crew Socks with Band (6 Pairs)
NIKE Unisex Performance Cushion Crew Socks (6 Pairs) offer the perfect combination of cushioning and comfort. Supportive fit with arch compression. Reinforced heel and toe for enhanced durability. Sizing: Women's Small (4-6), Medium (6-10) & Large (10-13) - Men's Medium (6-8), Large (8-12) & X-Large (12-15)

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Wrangler Authentics Men's Classic 5-Pocket Regular Fit Jean
Wrangler Authentics Men's Classic 5-Pocket Regular Fit Jean
Wrangler Authentics Men's Classic 5-Pocket Regular Fit Jean. This versatile jean is constructed with durable materials and built for long-lasting comfort. Made with a straight leg fit, this jean sits at the natural waist and features a regular seat and thigh. For nearly 70 years, Wrangler has staked its claim as a Global leader in jeans wear, casual apparel and fashion-forward western inspired attire. Built upon the nostalgic undercurrent of Americana heritage, the brand celebrates a rich legacy of authentic products consumers crave. Wrangler continues to preserve their American legacy while continuously developing innovative products that harness traditional roots, while expanding on its mainstream appeal as a fashion-forward label. Wrangler will prepare you for whatever the day may hold. So go ahead, be bold. Be adventurous. Be comfortable in your own jeans. FEATURES 100% Cotton Denim. Durable cotton fabric made to last. Classic Fit. Regular seat and thigh with a classit cut. Five-Pocket Style. Classic five-pocket style jean. Comfort All Day. The perfect jean for everyday wear. Secure Closure. Heavy-duty zipper fly with button closure.

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C.C BeanieTail Soft Stretch Cable Knit Messy High Bun Ponytail Beanie Hat
C.C BeanieTail Soft Stretch Cable Knit Messy High Bun Ponytail Beanie Hat
Top quality C.C Exclusives BeanieTail unisex warm knit ponytail beanie cap hat. Thick and soft and can cover the ears during the brutal cold. Perfect for pulling your messy bun or high ponytail through on chilly days, even suitable for man buns. Perfect for outdoor activities such as skiing, snowboarding or simple walks throughout the cold weather. Great comfortable fit. Achieve the stylish, trendy look with this must-have beanie! Patent pending. Made in Korea.

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Arctix Women's Insulated Snow Pant
Arctix Women's Insulated Snow Pant
The Arctix Women's Insulated Snowsports Pants are an outstanding value-priced garment that is wear-tested to offer maximum protection from the elements, and superior quality. The improved fit delivers great true-to-size wearability and comfort. Perfect for skiing, snowboarding, and outdoor activities in cold, wintry conditions.2 on seam pockets with zippered closure..Weight: 1 lb 7.7 oz.

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Champion Men's Powerblend Fleece Pullover Hoodie
Champion Men's Powerblend Fleece Pullover Hoodie
Say hello to you new favorite fleece hoodie. With reduced pilling and shrinkage, this style will keep its great look wash after wash. With super soft fabric and a modern silhouette, you'll never leave home without it.

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