industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and
Modern assembly line Play media A video showing new SEAT, Škoda & Volkswagen cars being transported by rail at Kutná Hora město train station in the Czech Republic
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers. It is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.
The term automotive was created from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by Elmer Sperry.
- 1 History
- 2 Safety
- 3 Economy
- 4 World motor vehicle production
- 4.1 By year
- 4.2 By country
- 4.3 By manufacturer
- 5 Company Relationships
- 5.1 Stake Holding
- 5.2 Joint Ventures
- 6 Top Vehicle Manufacturing Groups By Volume
- 7 Car Makes & Their Parent Companies
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
History Main article: History of the automobile Thomas B. Jeffery automobile factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916 Citroën assembly line in 1918
The automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 (140 models) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.
Safety Main article: Automobile safety
Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the autmobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage.
Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety.
In case of safety issues, danger, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material.
Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.
Economy See also: Automotive industry by country
Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down. It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport. Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports (2012) confirmed the opposite; namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC countries. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units.
World motor vehicle production World Motor Vehicle Production Production volume (1000 vehicles)
1960s; Post war increase
1970s; Oil crisis and tighter safety and emission regulation.
1990s; production started in NICs
2000s; rise of China as top producer
Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010 to 1950
; USA had produced more than 80% of motor vehicles.
1950s; UK, Germany and France restarted production.
1960s; Japan started production and increased volume through the 1980s. US, Japan, Germany, France and UK produced about 80% of motor vehicles through the 1980s.
1990s; Korea became a volume producer. In 2004, Korea became No. 5 passing France.
2000s; China increased its production drastically, and 2009 became the world largest producing country. 2013
; The share of China (25.4%), Korea, India, Brazil and Mexico rose to 43%, while the share of USA (12.7%), Japan, Germany, France and UK fell to 34%. By year See also: List of countries by motor vehicle production
Year Production Change Source 1997 54,434,000 1998 52,987,000 -2.7% 1999 56,258,892 6.2% 2000 58,374,162 3.8% 2001 56,304,925 -3.5% 2002 58,994,318 4.8% 2003 60,663,225 2.8% 2004 64,496,220 6.3% 2005 66,482,439 3.1% 2006 69,222,975 4.1% 2007 73,266,061 5.8% 2008 70,520,493 -3.7% 2009 61,791,868 -12.4% 2010 77,857,705 26.0% 2011 79,989,155 3.1% 2012 84,141,209 5.3% 2013 87,300,115 3.7% 2014 89,747,430 2.6% 2015 90,086,346 0.4% 2016 94,976,569 4.5% Car Exports by Country (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity Global automobile import and export in 2011 By country Main article: Automotive industry by country
The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble or manufacture automobiles. Of that figure, only 13, boldfaced in the list below, possess the capability to design automobiles from the ground up.
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Top 20 motor vehicle producing countries 2016 Country Motor vehicle production (units) China 28,118,794 United States 12,198,137 Japan 9,204,590 Germany 6,062,562 India 4,488,965 South Korea 4,228,509 Mexico 3,597,462 Spain 2,885,922 Canada 2,370,271 Brazil 2,156,356 France 2,082,000 Thailand 1,944,417 United Kingdom 1,816,622 Turkey 1,485,927 Czech Republic 1,349,896 Russia 1,303,989 Indonesia 1,177,389 Iran 1,164,710 Italy 1,103,516 Slovakia 1,040,000
"Production Statistics". OICA.
By manufacturer See also: List of manufacturers by motor vehicle production
This is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production in 2015
Rank Group Country Vehicles 1 Toyota Japan 10,083,831 2 Volkswagen Group Germany 9,872,424 3 General Motors
(with SAIC-GM) United States 7,485,587
(9,490,835) 4 Hyundai / Kia South Korea 7,988,479 5 Ford United States 6,396,369 6 Nissan Japan 5,170,074 7 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy 4,865,233 8 Honda Japan 4,543,838 9 Suzuki Japan 3,034,081 10 Renault France 3,032,652 11 PSA France 2,982,035 12 BMW Germany 2,279,503 13 SAIC China 2,260,579 14 Daimler Germany 2,134,645 15 Mazda Japan 1,540,576 Company Relationships This section does not cite any sources
. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Stake Holding
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.
Notable current relationships include:
- Daimler AG holds a 20% stake in Eicher Motors.
- Daimler AG holds a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ.
- Daimler AG holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation.
- Daimler AG holds a 6.75% stake in Tata Motors.
- Daimler AG holds a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance.
- Daimler AG holds a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group,
- Daimler AG holds an 85% stake in Master Motors.
- FAW Group owns 49% of Haima Automobile.
- FCA holds a 90% stake in Ferrari.
- FCA holds a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija.
- FCA holds 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding.
- Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks.
- Fiat Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks.
- Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, China Motor, and Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz. FMG, China Motor, and Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, and both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake.
- Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company.
- Geely Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings and a 51% stake in Lotus Cars.
- General Motors holds a 94% stake in GM Korea and SAIC Group holds a 6% stake.
- General Motors holds a 20% stake in Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines.
- Isuzu owns 10% of Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines.
- MAN SE holds a 17.01% voting stake in Scania.
- Marcopolo owns 19% of New Flyer Industries.
- Mitsubishi Group holds 20% of Mitsubishi Motors.
- Nissan owns 34% of Mitsubishi Motors and had the since October 2016, thus having the right to nominate the chairman of Mitsubishi Motors’s board and a third of its directors.
- Nissan owns 43% of Nissan Shatai.
- Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.74% voting stake in Volkswagen Group. The Porsche automotive business is fully owned by the Volkswagen Group.
- Renault and Nissan Motors have an alliance (Renault-Nissan Alliance) involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 43.4% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares.
- Renault-Nissan Alliance holds a 3.1% share in Daimler AG.
- Renault holds a 25% stake in AvtoVAZ
- Renault holds an 80.1% stake in Renault Samsung.
- SAIPA holds a 51% stake in Pars Khodro.
- Toyota holds a 100% stake in Daihatsu.
- Toyota holds a 50.1% stake in Hino.
- Toyota holds a 16.7% stake in Fuji Heavy Industries, parent company of Subaru.
- Volkswagen Group holds a 99.55% stake in the Audi Group.
- Volkswagen Group holds a 37.73% stake in Scania (68.6% voting rights), a 53.7% stake in MAN SE (55.9% voting rights), Volkswagen is integrating Scania, MAN and its own truck division into one division.
- Paccar inc. has a 19% stake in Tatra.
- AB Volvo and Eicher Motors has a 50-50% joint venture called VE Commercial Vehicles.
- Beijing Automotive Group has a joint venture with Daimler called Beijing Benz, both companies hold a 50-50% stake. both companies also have a joint venture called Beijing Foton Daimler Automobile. BAG also has a joint venture with Hyundai called Beijing Hyundai, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
- BMW and Brilliance have a joint venture called BMW Brilliance. BMW owns a 50% stake, Brilliance owns a 40.5% stake, and the Shenyang municipal government owns a 9.5% stake.
- Chang'an Automobile Group has joint venture with Groupe PSA (CAPSA), both hold a 50-50% stake,
- Chang'an Automobile Group has joint venture with Suzuki (Changan Suzuki), both hold a 50-50% stake,
- Chang'an Automobile Group has joint venture with Ford and Mazda (Changan Ford Mazda), CAG holds a 50% stake, Ford holds a 35% stake, and Mazda holds a 15% stake.
- Chang'an and Ford have a joint venture called Chang'an Ford Nanjing. Jiangling and Chang'an have a joint venture called Jiangxi Jiangling.
- Chery has a joint venture with Tata Motors called Chery Jaguar Land Rover, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
- Chery and Israel Corporation has a joint venture called Qoros, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
- Daimler AG and BYD Auto have a joint venture called Denza, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
- Dongfeng Motor and Nissan have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Motor Company.
- Dongfeng Motor and PSA Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroen,
- Dongfeng Motor has a 50-50% joint venture with Honda called Dongfeng Honda,
- Dongfeng Motor has a joint venture with AB Volvo called Dongfeng Nissan-Diesel,
- Dongfeng Motor has a 50-50% joint venture with Renault named Dongfeng Renault in Wuhan, which was founded in the end of 2013
- Ford Motor Company and Navistar International have a 50-50 joint venture called Blue Diamond Truck.
- Ford and Sollers JSC have a 50-50 joint venture called Ford Sollers.
- Both Ford and Koç Holding own a 41% stake in Ford Otosan.
- Ford and Lio Ho Group have a joint venture called Ford Lio Ho, Ford owns 70% and Lio Ho Group owns 30%.
- FAW Group and GM has a 50-50 joint venture called FAW-GM,
- FAW Group has a 50-50 joint venture with Volkswagen Group called FAW-Volkswagen,
- FAW Group has a 50-50 joint venture with Toyota called Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor and both companies also have another joint venture called Ranz.
- General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC), both have two joint ventures in Shanghai General Motors and SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. Both also hold an equal 50% stake in General Motors India Private Limited.
- General Motors and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called GM Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 75% and General Motors owns 25%. General Motors and UzAvtosanoat also have a joint venture called UzDaewooAvto both each hold a 50-50 stake.
- General Motors, AvtoVAZ, and EBRD have a joint venture called GM-AvtoVAZ, Both GM and AvtoVAZ owns 41.61% and EBRD owns 16.76%.
- Hyundai Motor Company and Kibar Holding has a joint venture called Hyundai Assan Otomotiv, Hyundai Motor Group owns 70% and Kibar Holding owns 30%.
- Isuzu and Anadolu Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Anadolu Isuzu.
- Isuzu and General Motors has a 50-50% joint venture called Isuzu Truck South Africa.
- Isuzu, Sollers JSC, and Imperial Sojitz have a joint venture called Sollers-Isuzu, Sollers JSC owns 66%, Isuzu owns 29%, and Imperial Sojitz owns 5%.
- Mahindra & Mahindra and Navistar International has a joint venture called Mahindra Trucks and Buses Limited. Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and Navistar International owns 49%.
- MAN SE and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called MAN Auto-Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 51% and MAN owns 49%.
- Navistar International and JAC has a joint venture called Anhui Jianghuai Navistar.
- PSA Groupe and Toyota have a 50-50% joint venture called Toyota Peugeot Citroen Automobile Czech, and another joint venture with Chang'an called Chang'an PSA automobile.
- Sollers JSC is involved in Joint ventures with Ford (Ford Sollers) and Mazda to produce cars.
- Tata Motors also formed a joint venture in India with Fiat and gained access to Fiat's diesel engine technology.
- Tata Motors and Marcopolo have a Tata Marcopolo, Tata owns 51% and Marcopolo owns 49%.
- ZAP owns 51% of Zhejiang Jonway.
Top Vehicle Manufacturing Groups By Volume
The table below shows the world's 10 largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2015 production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.
Marque Country of origin Ownership Markets 1. Toyota
( Japan) Daihatsu Subsidiary Europe, Asia (except South Korea), Africa, South America Hino Subsidiary South East Asia, Japan, North America, Central America, South America, Caribbean Lexus Business Unit South East Asia, China, Japan, South Korea, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Costa Rica, Panama, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India Toyota Division Global, except Iran 2. Volkswagen AG
( Germany) Audi Subsidiary Global, except Iran Bentley Subsidiary Global Bugatti Subsidiary Global, except Australia Ducati Subsidiary Global Lamborghini Subsidiary Global MAN Subsidiary Global, except North America Navistar International Subsidiary North America, South America, Russia, UK, Greece, Eastern Europe, India, Middle East, China, Singapore, South Korea Porsche Subsidiary Global, except Iran, North Korea, Syria, Cuba Scania Subsidiary Global, except North America SEAT Subsidiary Europe, China, Singapore, Mexico, Central America, South America, Middle East, Northern Africa Škoda Subsidiary Europe, Asia (Except Indonesia, The Philippines, Iran, Japan, South Korea, North Korea), Central America, South America, Dominican Republic, Northern Africa, Western Africa, Australia, New Zealand Volkswagen Division Global Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Subsidiary Global VTB Business Unit Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa 3. General Motors
( United States) Buick Business Unit North America, China, Israel Cadillac Business Unit North America, Middle East, China, Japan, South Korea Chevrolet Business Unit Global, except Australia, New Zealand GMC Business Unit North America, Middle East (except Israel) Holden Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand JieFang Business Unit China Opel Business Unit Europe (except United Kingdom), North Africa, South Africa, Middle East, China, Singapore, Chile SAIC-GM Business Unit China Vauxhall Business Unit United Kingdom UzDaewoo Business Unit Central Asia, Russia 4. Hyundai / Kia
( South Korea) Genesis Business Unit South Korea, Russia, United States, Canada, Middle East Hyundai Division Global Kia Subsidiary Global, except Japan 5. Ford
( United States) Ford Division Global Lincoln Business Unit North America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea, China Troller Veículos Especiais Subsidiary South America, Africa, Australia, Europe 6. Nissan
( Japan) Datsun Division Indonesia, India, Russia, South Africa Infiniti Subsidiary Global, except Japan, South America (excluding Chile), Africa (excluding South Africa) Nissan Division Global 7. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
( Italy) Abarth Subsidiary Global, except Iran Alfa Romeo Subsidiary Global, except Iran, China, Taiwan, the Philippines Chrysler Division Global, except Europe (excluding United Kingdom, Ireland), Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia Dodge Division Global, except Europe, Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia Fiat Subsidiary Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia Fiat Professional Business Unit Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia, United States, Canada Jeep Division Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia Lancia Division Europe (excluding United Kingdom, Ireland) Maserati Subsidiary Global Ram Division North America, Brazil, Middle East, Peru 8. Honda
( Japan) Acura Division China, Kuwait, North America, Russia Honda Division Global 9. Suzuki
( Japan) Suzuki Division Global, except United States, Canada, North Korea, South Korea Maruti Suzuki Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America 10. Renault
( France) Alpine Subsidiary AvtoVAZ Joint venture ownership Dacia Subsidiary Renault Subsidiary Renault Samsung Motors Subsidiary Renault Sport Subsidiary Car Makes & Their Parent Companies
The table below lists most car makes and their parent companies.
Parent (Owner) Parent Country Make Make Country Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Abarth Italy Honda Japan Acura Japan Polaris Industries United States Aixam France Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Alfa Romeo Italy Renault France Alpine France Aston Martin United Kingdom Aston Martin United Kingdom Volkswagen Group Germany Audi Germany SAIC-GM-Wuling China/ United States Baojun China Volkswagen Group Germany Bentley United Kingdom BMW Germany BMW Germany Brilliance China Brilliance China Volkswagen Group Germany Bugatti France General Motors United States Buick United States BYD China BYD China General Motors United States Cadillac United States Caterham United Kingdom Caterham United Kingdom Chang'an China Chang'an China General Motors United States Chevrolet United States Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Chrysler United States Groupe PSA France Citroën France Renault France Dacia Romania Toyota Japan Daihatsu Japan Nissan Japan Datsun Japan Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Dodge United States Dongfeng China Dongfeng China Groupe PSA France DS France Dongfeng China Fengshen China Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Fiat Italy Wanxiang China Karma United States Ford United States Ford United States Ferrari Italy Ferrari Italy Geely China Geely China Hyundai Motor Group South Korea Genesis South Korea General Motors United States GMC United States Toyota Japan Hino Motors Japan General Motors United States Holden (HSV) Australia Honda Japan Honda Japan Hyundai Motor Group South Korea Hyundai South Korea Nissan Japan Infiniti Japan Isuzu Motors Japan Isuzu Japan Tata Motors India Jaguar United Kingdom Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Jeep United States FAW Jie Fang / FAW-GM China/ United States Jie Fang China Kantanka Group Conglomerate Ghana Kantanka Ghana Koenigsegg Sweden Koenigsegg Sweden Hyundai Motor Group South Korea Kia South Korea Renault France Lada Russia Volkswagen Group Germany Lamborghini Italy Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Lancia Italy Tata Motors India Land Rover United Kingdom Toyota Japan Lexus Japan Ligier France Ligier France Ford United States Lincoln United States Geely China Lotus United Kingdom Geely China LTI United Kingdom Yulon Motor Taiwan Luxgen Taiwan Mahindra & Mahindra India Mahindra India Suzuki Japan Maruti Suzuki India Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Maserati Italy Mastretta Mexico Mastretta Mexico Daimler AG Germany Maybach Germany Mazda Japan Mazda Japan McLaren Automotive United Kingdom McLaren United Kingdom Daimler AG Germany Mercedes-Benz Germany SAIC Motor China MG United Kingdom Ligier France Microcar France BMW Germany Mini United Kingdom Nissan / Mitsubishi Group Japan Mitsubishi Japan Morgan Motor Company United Kingdom Morgan United Kingdom National Electric Vehicle Sweden (NEVS) Sweden NEVS Sweden Nissan Japan Nissan Japan Peter Dyson United Kingdom Noble United Kingdom Groupe PSA France Opel Germany Pagani Automobili Italy Pagani Italy Perodua Malaysia Perodua Malaysia Groupe PSA France Peugeot France PGO France PGO France Volkswagen Group Germany Porsche Germany Geely / DRB-HICOM China / Malaysia PROTON Malaysia Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Ram United States GM Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Ravon Uzbekistan Renault France Renault France SAIC Motor China Roewe China BMW Germany Rolls Royce United Kingdom Saleen United States Saleen United States Iran Khodro (IKCO) Iran Samand Iran Renault France Renault Samsung Motors South Korea Volkswagen Group Germany SEAT Spain BAIC Motor China Senova China Volkswagen Group Germany Škoda Czech Republic Daimler AG Germany Smart Germany Mahindra & Mahindra India SsangYong South Korea Subaru Corporation Japan Subaru Japan Suzuki Japan Suzuki Japan Tata Motors India Tata India Tesla United States Tesla United States Saipa Iran Tiba/Miniator Iran Toyota Japan Toyota Japan Uniti Sweden AB Sweden Uniti Sweden Groupe PSA France Vauxhall United Kingdom Dongfeng-Nissan China/ Japan Venucia China Volkswagen Group Germany Volkswagen Germany Geely China Volvo Cars Sweden Vuhl Mexico Vuhl Mexico SAIC-GM-Wuling China/ United States Wuling China See also
- Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
- Automotive industry by country
- Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010
- Automotive industry in the United States
- Big Three (automobile manufacturers)
- Effects of the 2008–10 automotive industry crisis on the United States
- List of countries by motor vehicle production
- List of largest automotive companies by revenue
- ^ Including production figures from the Chinese SAIC-GM joint venture, which the OICA left out from the 2015 GM total contrary to prior practice; they are combined here for consistency with previous years.
- ^ a b GM sold Opel and Vauxhall to French Groupe PSA in 2017.
- ^ "automotive industry". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- ^ Scientific and Technical Societies of the United States (Eighth ed.). Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences. 1968. p. 164. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- ^ "U.S. Makes Ninety Percent of World's Automobiles". Popular Science. 115 (5): 84. November 1929. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- ^ "2012 Production Statistics". OICA. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- ^ Aichner, T.; Coletti, P (2013). "Customers' online shopping preferences in mass customization". Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice. 15 (1): 20–35.
- ^ "ISO 26262-10:2012 Road vehicles -- Functional safety -- Part 10: Guideline on ISO 26262". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- ^ "Automobile Industry Introduction". Plunkett Research. 2008. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- ^ a b Khor, Martin. "Developing economies slowing down". twnside.org.sg. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- ^ "2014 Global Automotive Consumer Study : Exploring consumer preferences and mobility choices in Europe" (PDF). Deloittelcom. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-04. Retrieved 2015-07-03.
- ^ Eisenstein, Paul A. "Building BRIC's: 4 Markets Could Soon Dominate the Auto World". TheDetroitBureau.com.
- ^ Bertel Schmitt (15 February 2011). "Auto industry sets new world record". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- ^ "Global Automotive Outlook for 2011 Appears Positive as Mature Auto Markets Recover, Emerging Markets Continue to Expand". J.D. Power and Associates. 15 February 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- ^ "U.S. vehicle sales peaked in 2000". thecherrycreeknews.com. 2015-05-27. Retrieved 2015-06-18.
- ^ "Table 1-23: World Motor Vehicle Production, Selected Countries (Thousands of vehicles) | Bureau of Transportation Statistics". Rita.dot.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-03.
- ^ "Arno A. Evers FAIR-PR". Hydrogenambassadors.com. Retrieved 2015-07-03.
- ^ a b "1998 - 1997 WORLD MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCTION BY TYPE AND ECONOMIC AREA" (pdf). oica.net. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- ^ "1999 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2000 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2001 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2002 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2003 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2004 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2005 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2006 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2007 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2008 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2009 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2010 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2011 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2012 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2013 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2014 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2015 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ "2016 Production Statistics". oica.net.
- ^ a b OICA: World Motor Vehicle Production
- ^ Jared Lynch, Mark Hawthorne (17 October 2015). "Australia's car industry one year from closing its doors". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
- ^ See SGMW in "World Motor Vehicle Production: Group SAIC, Year 2015" (PDF). OICA. Retrieved 2017-04-02.
- ^ "China's Geely to Acquire Stake in Malaysian Carmaker Proton". Bloomberg.com. 2017-05-23. Retrieved 2017-06-28.
- ^ "Nissan to take 34% stake in Mitsubishi Motors - BBC News". Retrieved 2016-07-01.
- ^ "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. Retrieved 2017-06-28.
- ^ "GM Slips to Number Two Worldwide, Ford to Fourth". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
- ^ "TTAC Announces World's Top Ten Automakers". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
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