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Automotive industry
Play media The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and

View Wikipedia Article

Modern assembly line Play media A video showing new SEAT, Škoda & Volkswagen cars being transported by rail at Kutná Hora město train station in the Czech Republic

The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles,[1] some of them are called automakers. It is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.

The term automotive was created from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by Elmer Sperry.[2]

Contents
  • 1 History
  • 2 Safety
  • 3 Economy
  • 4 World motor vehicle production
    • 4.1 By year
    • 4.2 By country
    • 4.3 By manufacturer
    • 4.4 By market segment
  • 5 Company relationships
    • 5.1 Stake holding
    • 5.2 Joint ventures
  • 6 Top vehicle manufacturing groups by volume
  • 7 Car brands and parent companies
  • 8 See also
  • 9 Notes
  • 10 References
  • 11 External links
History Main article: History of the automobile Thomas B. Jeffery automobile factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916 Fiat assembly line in 1961

The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 50% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons.[3] After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and then became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units.[4] From 1970 (140 models) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.[5]

Safety Main article: Automobile safety

Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage.

Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety.[6]

In case of safety issues, danger, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material.

Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.

Economy See also: Automotive industry by country

Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly.[7] The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down.[8] It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport.[9] Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia.[10] Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate.[11][12] However, more recent reports (2012) confirmed the opposite; namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC countries.[8] In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units.[13]

World motor vehicle production @media all and (max-width:720px){.mw-parser-output .tmulti>.thumbinner{width:100%!important;max-width:none!important}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{float:none!important;max-width:none!important;width:100%!important;text-align:center}}World Motor Vehicle Production[14]Production volume (1000 vehicles)

1960s: Post war increase

1970s: Oil crisis and tighter safety and emission regulation.

1990s: production started in NICs

2000s: rise of China as top producer

Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010to 1950: USA had produced more than 80% of motor vehicles.[15]

1950s: UK, Germany and France restarted production.

1960s: Japan started production and increased volume through the 1980s. US, Japan, Germany, France and UK produced about 80% of motor vehicles through the 1980s.

1990s: Korea became a volume producer. In 2004, Korea became No. 5 passing France.

2000s: China increased its production drastically, and became the world's largest producing country in 2009 .

2013: The share of China (25.4%), Korea, India, Brazil and Mexico rose to 43%, while the share of USA (12.7%), Japan, Germany, France and UK fell to 34%. By year See also: List of countries by motor vehicle production [35] Year Production Change Source 1997 54,434,000 — [16] 1998 52,987,000 2.7% [16] 1999 56,258,892 6.2% [17] 2000 58,374,162 3.8% [18] 2001 56,304,925 3.5% [19] 2002 58,994,318 4.8% [20] 2003 60,663,225 2.8% [21] 2004 64,496,220 6.3% [22] 2005 66,482,439 3.1% [23] 2006 69,222,975 4.1% [24] 2007 73,266,061 5.8% [25] 2008 70,520,493 3.7% [26] 2009 61,791,868 12.4% [27] 2010 77,857,705 26.0% [28] 2011 79,989,155 3.1% [29] 2012 84,141,209 5.3% [30] 2013 87,300,115 3.7% [31] 2014 89,747,430 2.6% [32] 2015 90,086,346 0.4% [33] 2016 94,976,569 4.5% [34] Car exports by country (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity Global automobile import and export in 2011 By country Main article: Automotive industry by country

The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 13, boldfaced in the list below, possess the capability to design automobiles from the ground up.[36][37]

  • Algeria
  • Argentina
  • Australia (main page)
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bangladesh (main page)
  • Belarus (main page)
  • Belgium
  • Brazil (main page)
  • Bulgaria (main page)
  • Canada (main page)
  • China (main page)
  • Colombia
  • Czech Republic
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • Finland
  • France (main page)
  • Ghana
  • Germany (main page)
  • Hungary (main page)
  • India (main page)
  • Indonesia (main page)
  • Iran (main page)
  • Italy (main page)
  • Japan (main page)
  • Jordan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kenya (main page)
  • Morocco (main page)
  • Malaysia (main page)
  • Mexico (main page)
  • Netherlands
  • Pakistan (main page)
  • Philippines
  • Poland (main page)
  • Portugal
  • Romania (main page)
  • Russia (main page)
  • Serbia (main page)
  • Slovakia (main page)
  • Slovenia
  • South Africa (main page)
  • South Korea (main page)
  • Spain (main page)
  • Sweden (main page)
  • Taiwan
  • Thailand (main page)
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey (main page)
  • Ukraine (main page)
  • United Kingdom (main page)
  • United States (main page)
  • Uzbekistan (main page)
  • Venezuela
  • Vietnam
Top 20 motor vehicle producing countries (2017) Country Motor vehicle production (units) China 29,015,434 United States 11,189,985 Japan 9,693,746 Germany 5,645,581 India 4,782,896 South Korea 4,114,913 Mexico 4,068,415 Spain 2,848,335 Brazil 2,699,672 France 2,227,000 Canada 2,199,789 Thailand 1,988,823 United Kingdom 1,749,385 Turkey 1,695,731 Russia 1,551,293 Iran 1,515,396 Czech Republic 1,419,993 Indonesia 1,216,615 Italy 1,142,210 Slovakia 1,001,520

"Production Statistics". OICA. 

By manufacturer See also: List of manufacturers by motor vehicle production

This is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production in 2016.[35]

Rank Group Country Vehicles 1 Toyota Japan 10,213,486 2 Volkswagen Group Germany 10,126,281 3 Hyundai South Korea 7,889,538 4 General Motors United States 7,793,066 5 Ford United States 6,429,485 6 Nissan Japan 5,556,241 7 Honda Japan 4,999,266 8 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy / United States 4,681,457 9 Renault France 3,373,278 10 PSA France 3,152,787 11 Suzuki Japan 2,945,295 12 SAIC China 2,566,793 13 Daimler Germany 2,526,450 14 BMW Germany 2,359,756 15 Changan China 1,715,871 By market segment This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018) Company relationships This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Stake holding

It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

Notable current relationships include:[citation needed]

  • Daimler AG holds a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ.
  • Daimler AG holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation.
  • Daimler AG holds a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance.
  • Daimler AG holds a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group,
  • Daimler AG holds an 85% stake in Master Motors.
  • Dongfeng Motor holds a 12.23% stake and an 19.94% exercisable voting rights in PSA Groupe.
  • FAW Group owns 49% of Haima Automobile.
  • FCA holds a 10% stake in Ferrari.
  • FCA holds a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija.
  • FCA holds 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding.
  • Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks.
  • Fiat Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks.
  • Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, Beijing Automotive Group, China Motor, and Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz. FMG, China Motor, and Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, and both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake.
  • Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company.
  • Geely Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings and a 51% stake in Lotus Cars.[38]
  • Geely Holding Group holds a 9.69% stake in Daimler AG.
  • Geely Holding Group holds an 8.3% stake and a 15.9% exercisable voting rights in AB Volvo.
  • General Motors holds a 94% stake in GM Korea and SAIC Group holds a 6% stake.
  • General Motors holds a 20% stake in Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines.
  • Isuzu owns 10% of Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines.
  • Mahindra & Mahindra holds a 70% stake in SsangYong Motor
  • MAN SE holds a 17.01% voting stake in Scania.
  • Marcopolo owns 19% of New Flyer Industries.
  • Mitsubishi Group holds 20% of Mitsubishi Motors.
  • Nissan owns 34% of Mitsubishi Motors and had the since October 2016,[39] thus having the right to nominate the chairman of Mitsubishi Motors’s board and a third of its directors.[40]
  • Nissan owns 43% of Nissan Shatai.
  • Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.74% voting stake in Volkswagen Group. The Porsche automotive business is fully owned by the Volkswagen Group.
  • Renault and Nissan Motors have an alliance (Renault-Nissan Alliance) involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 43.4% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares.
  • Renault-Nissan Alliance holds a 3.1% share in Daimler AG.
  • Renault holds a 25% stake in AvtoVAZ
  • Renault holds an 80.1% stake in Renault Samsung.
  • SAIPA holds a 51% stake in Pars Khodro.
  • Toyota holds a 100% stake in Daihatsu.
  • Toyota holds a 50.1% stake in Hino.
  • Toyota holds a 16.7% stake in Subaru Corporation, parent company of Subaru.
  • Toyota holds a 5.9% stake in Isuzu.
  • Toyota holds a 5.05% stake in Mazda, while Mazda holds 0.25% stake in Toyota[41].
  • Volkswagen Group holds a 99.55% stake in the Audi Group.
  • Volkswagen Group holds a 37.73% stake in Scania (68.6% voting rights), a 53.7% stake in MAN SE (55.9% voting rights), Volkswagen is integrating Scania, MAN and its own truck division into one division.
  • Paccar inc. has a 19% stake in Tatra.
  • ZAP holds a 51% stake in Zhejiang Jonway.
Joint ventures
  • Beijing Automotive Group has a joint venture with Daimler called Beijing Benz, both companies hold a 50-50% stake. both companies also have a joint venture called Beijing Foton Daimler Automobile.
  • Beijing Automotive Group also has a joint venture with Hyundai called Beijing Hyundai, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • BMW and Brilliance have a joint venture called BMW Brilliance. BMW owns a 50% stake, Brilliance owns a 40.5% stake, and the Shenyang municipal government owns a 9.5% stake.
  • Changan Automobile has a joint venture with Groupe PSA (Changan PSA), both hold a 50-50% stake,
  • Changan Automobile has a joint venture with Suzuki (Changan Suzuki), both hold a 50-50% stake,
  • Changan Automobile has a 50-50% joint venture with Mazda (Changan Mazda).
  • Changan Automobile and Ford have a 50-50% joint venture called Changan Ford.
  • Changan Automobile and Jiangling Motors have a joint venture called Jiangxi Jiangling.
  • Chery has a joint venture with Tata Motors called Chery Jaguar Land Rover, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Chery and Israel Corporation has a joint venture called Qoros, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Daimler AG and BYD Auto have a joint venture called Denza, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Dongfeng Motor and Nissan have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Motor Company.
  • Dongfeng Motor and PSA Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroen,
  • Dongfeng Motor has a 50-50% joint venture with Honda called Dongfeng Honda,
  • Dongfeng Motor has a joint venture with AB Volvo called Dongfeng Nissan-Diesel,
  • Dongfeng Motor has a 50-50% joint venture with Renault named Dongfeng Renault in Wuhan, which was founded in the end of 2013
  • Ford and Navistar International have a 50-50 joint venture called Blue Diamond Truck.
  • Ford and Sollers JSC have a 50-50 joint venture called Ford Sollers.
  • Ford and Koç Holding have a 50-50 joint venture called Ford Otosan.
  • Ford and Lio Ho Group have a joint venture called Ford Lio Ho, Ford owns 70% and Lio Ho Group owns 30%.
  • FAW Group and General Motors has a 50-50 joint venture called FAW-GM,
  • FAW Group has a 50-50 joint venture with Volkswagen Group called FAW-Volkswagen,
  • FAW Group has a 50-50 joint venture with Toyota called Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor and both companies also have another joint venture called Ranz.
  • General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC), both have two joint ventures in Shanghai General Motors and SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. Both also hold an equal 50% stake in General Motors India Private Limited.
  • General Motors and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called GM Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 75% and General Motors owns 25%.
  • General Motors, AvtoVAZ, and EBRD have a joint venture called GM-AvtoVAZ, Both GM and AvtoVAZ owns 41.61% and EBRD owns 16.76%.
  • Hyundai Motor Company and Kibar Holding has a joint venture called Hyundai Assan Otomotiv, Hyundai owns 70% and Kibar Holding owns 30%.
  • Isuzu and Anadolu Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Anadolu Isuzu.
  • Isuzu and General Motors has a 50-50% joint venture called Isuzu Truck South Africa.
  • Isuzu, Sollers JSC, and Imperial Sojitz have a joint venture called Sollers-Isuzu, Sollers JSC owns 66%, Isuzu owns 29%, and Imperial Sojitz owns 5%.
  • Mahindra & Mahindra and Navistar International have a joint venture called Mahindra Trucks and Buses Limited. Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and Navistar International owns 49%.
  • Mahindra & Mahindra has a joint venture with Renault called Mahindra Renault, where Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and Renault owns 49%.
  • MAN SE and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called MAN Auto-Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 51% and MAN SE owns 49%.
  • Navistar International and JAC has a joint venture called Anhui Jianghuai Navistar.
  • PSA Groupe and Toyota have a 50-50% joint venture called Toyota Peugeot Citroen Automobile Czech
  • Sollers JSC is involved in joint ventures with Ford (Ford Sollers) and Mazda to produce cars.
  • Tata Motors also formed a joint venture in India with Fiat and gained access to Fiat's diesel engine technology.
  • Tata Motors and Marcopolo have a joint venture called Tata Marcopolo, where Tata owns 51% and Marcopolo owns 49%.
  • Volvo Group and Eicher Motors has a 50-50% joint venture called VE Commercial Vehicles.
Top vehicle manufacturing groups by volume

The table below shows the world's 10 largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2016 production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.[42][43]

Marque Country of origin Ownership Markets 1. Toyota (Japan) Daihatsu Japan Subsidiary Europe, Asia (except South Korea, South Asia (excluding Sri Lanka)), Africa, South America Hino Japan Subsidiary South East Asia, Japan, North America, Central America, South America, Caribbean Lexus Japan Business Unit South East Asia, China, Japan, South Korea, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Costa Rica, Panama, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India Toyota Japan Division Global, except Iran 2. Volkswagen AG (Germany) Audi Germany Subsidiary Global, except Iran Bentley United Kingdom Subsidiary Global Bugatti France Subsidiary Global, except Australia Ducati Italy Subsidiary Global Lamborghini Italy Subsidiary Global MAN Germany Subsidiary Global, except North America Porsche Germany Subsidiary Global, except Iran, North Korea, Syria, Cuba Scania Sweden Subsidiary Global, except North America SEAT Spain Subsidiary Europe, China, Singapore, Mexico, Central America, South America, Middle East, Northern Africa Škoda Czech Republic Subsidiary Europe, Asia (except Indonesia, The Philippines, Iran, Japan, South Korea, North Korea), Central America, South America, Dominican Republic, Northern Africa, Western Africa, Australia, New Zealand Volkswagen Germany Division Global Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Germany Subsidiary Global VTB Brazil Business Unit Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa 3. Hyundai (South Korea) Genesis South Korea Business Unit South Korea, Russia, United States, Canada, Middle East Hyundai South Korea Division Global Kia South Korea Subsidiary Global 4. General Motors (United States) Buick United States Business Unit North America, China, Israel Cadillac United States Business Unit North America, Middle East, China, Europe, Japan, South Korea Chevrolet United States Business Unit Global, except Australia, New Zealand GMC United States Business Unit North America, Middle East (except Israel) Holden Australia Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand JieFang China Business Unit China SAIC-GM China Business Unit China UzDaewoo Uzbekistan Business Unit Central Asia, Russia 5. Ford (United States) Ford United States Division Global Lincoln United States Business Unit North America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea, China Troller Veículos Especiais Brazil Subsidiary South America, Africa, Australia, Europe 6. Nissan (Japan) Datsun Japan Division Indonesia, India, Russia, South Africa Infiniti Japan Subsidiary Global, except Japan, South America (excluding Chile), Africa (excluding South Africa) Nissan Japan Division Global 7. Honda (Japan) Acura Japan Division China, Kuwait, North America, Russia Honda Japan Division Global 8. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (Italy) Abarth Italy Subsidiary Global, except Iran Alfa Romeo Italy Subsidiary Global, except Iran, China, Taiwan, the Philippines and Brazil Chrysler United States Division Global, except Europe (excluding United Kingdom, Ireland), Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore) Dodge United States Division Global, except Europe, Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding Indonesia, the Philippines) Fiat Italy Subsidiary Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia Fiat Professional Italy Business Unit Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia, United States, Canada Jeep United States Division Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia (excluding India, Sri Lanka), South East Asia (excluding Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore) Lancia Italy Division Europe, except United Kingdom, Ireland Maserati Italy Subsidiary Global RAM United States Division North America, Brazil, Middle East, Peru 9. Renault (France) Dacia Romania Subsidiary Europe, North Africa Lada Russia Business Unit Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Egypt Renault France Division Global Renault Samsung Motors South Korea Subsidiary South Korea 10. Groupe PSA (France) Citroën France Division Europe, Central and South America, Northern and Western Africa, South Africa, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand, Asia (except India, Pakistan, Bangladesh) DS France Division Europe, China and Brazil Peugeot France Division Global, except USA, Canada, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh Opel Germany Subsidiary Europe (except United Kingdom), North Africa, South Africa, Middle East, Singapore, Chile Vauxhall United Kingdom Subsidiary United Kingdom Car brands and parent companies

The table below lists most car brands and their parent companies.

Parent (Owner) Parent Origin Brand Brand Origin Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Abarth Italy Honda Japan Acura Japan Polaris Industries United States Aixam France Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Alfa Romeo Italy Renault France Alpine France Aston Martin United Kingdom Aston Martin United Kingdom Volkswagen Group Germany Audi Germany SAIC-GM-Wuling China/United States Baojun China Volkswagen Group Germany Bentley United Kingdom BMW Germany BMW Germany Brilliance China Brilliance China Volkswagen Group Germany Bugatti France General Motors United States Buick United States BYD China BYD China General Motors United States Cadillac United States Caterham United Kingdom Caterham United Kingdom Chang'an China Chang'an China General Motors United States Chevrolet United States Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Chrysler United States Groupe PSA France Citroën France Volkswagen Group Germany Cupra Spain Renault France Dacia Romania Toyota Japan Daihatsu Japan Nissan Japan Datsun Japan Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Dodge United States Dongfeng Motor Corporation China Dongfeng China Groupe PSA France DS France Dongfeng Motor Corporation China Dongfeng Fengshen China Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Fiat Italy Wanxiang China Karma United States Ford United States Ford United States Ferrari Italy Ferrari Italy Geely China Geely China Hyundai Motor Group South Korea Genesis South Korea General Motors United States GMC United States Toyota Japan Hino Motors Japan General Motors United States Holden (HSV) Australia Honda Japan Honda Japan Hyundai Motor Group South Korea Hyundai South Korea Nissan Japan Infiniti Japan Isuzu Motors Japan Isuzu Japan Tata Motors India Jaguar United Kingdom Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Jeep United States FAW Group / FAW-GM China/United States Jie Fang China Kantanka Group Conglomerate Ghana Kantanka Ghana Koenigsegg Sweden Koenigsegg Sweden Hyundai Motor Group South Korea Kia South Korea Renault France Lada Russia Volkswagen Group Germany Lamborghini Italy Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Lancia Italy Tata Motors India Land Rover United Kingdom Toyota Japan Lexus Japan Ligier France Ligier France Ford United States Lincoln United States Geely China Lotus United Kingdom Geely China LTI United Kingdom Yulon Taiwan Luxgen Taiwan Mahindra & Mahindra India Mahindra India Suzuki Japan Maruti Suzuki India Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Maserati Italy Mastretta Mexico Mastretta Mexico Daimler AG Germany Maybach Germany Mazda Japan Mazda Japan McLaren Automotive United Kingdom McLaren United Kingdom Daimler AG Germany Mercedes-Benz Germany SAIC Motor China MG United Kingdom Ligier France Microcar France BMW Germany Mini United Kingdom Nissan / Mitsubishi Group Japan Mitsubishi Japan Morgan Motor Company United Kingdom Morgan United Kingdom National Electric Vehicle Sweden (NEVS) Sweden NEVS Sweden Nissan Japan Nissan Japan Peter Dyson United Kingdom Noble United Kingdom Groupe PSA France Opel Germany Pagani Automobili Italy Pagani Italy Perodua Malaysia Perodua Malaysia Groupe PSA France Peugeot France PGO France PGO France Volkswagen Group Germany Porsche Germany Geely / DRB-HICOM China / Malaysia PROTON Malaysia Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy Ram United States GM Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Ravon Uzbekistan Renault France Renault France Rimac Automobili Croatia Rimac Croatia SAIC Motor China Roewe China BMW Germany Rolls Royce United Kingdom Saleen United States Saleen United States Iran Khodro Iran Samand Iran Renault France Renault Samsung Motors South Korea Volkswagen Group Germany SEAT Spain BAIC Motor China Senova China Volkswagen Group Germany Škoda Czech Republic Daimler AG Germany Smart Germany Mahindra & Mahindra India SsangYong South Korea Subaru Corporation Japan Subaru Japan Suzuki Japan Suzuki Japan Tata Motors India Tata India Tesla United States Tesla United States Saipa Iran Tiba/Miniator Iran Toyota Japan Toyota Japan Uniti Sweden AB Sweden Uniti Sweden Groupe PSA France Vauxhall United Kingdom Dongfeng Motor Co., Ltd. (Dongfeng-Nissan) China/Japan Venucia China Volkswagen Group Germany Volkswagen Germany Geely China Volvo Cars Sweden Vuhl Mexico Vuhl Mexico SAIC-GM-Wuling China/United States Wuling China Innoson Nigeria IVM Nigeria See also
  • Automotive industry portal
  • Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
  • Automotive industry by country
  • Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010
  • Automotive industry in the United States
  • Big Three (automobile manufacturers)
  • Effects of the 2008–10 automotive industry crisis on the United States
  • List of countries by motor vehicle production
  • Motocycle
  • List of largest automotive companies by revenue
Notes References
  1. ^ "automotive industry". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  2. ^ Scientific and Technical Societies of the United States (Eighth ed.). Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences. 1968. p. 164. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  3. ^ "U.S. Makes Ninety Percent of World's Automobiles". Popular Science. 115 (5): 84. November 1929. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  4. ^ "2012 Production Statistics". OICA. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  5. ^ Aichner, T.; Coletti, P (2013). "Customers' online shopping preferences in mass customization". Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice. 15 (1): 20–35. 
  6. ^ "ISO 26262-10:2012 Road vehicles -- Functional safety -- Part 10: Guideline on ISO 26262". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  7. ^ "Automobile Industry Introduction". Plunkett Research. 2008. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Khor, Martin. "Developing economies slowing down". twnside.org.sg. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  9. ^ "2014 Global Automotive Consumer Study : Exploring consumer preferences and mobility choices in Europe" (PDF). Deloittelcom. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-04. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  10. ^ Eisenstein, Paul A. "Building BRIC's: 4 Markets Could Soon Dominate the Auto World". TheDetroitBureau.com. 
  11. ^ Bertel Schmitt (15 February 2011). "Auto industry sets new world record". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  12. ^ "Global Automotive Outlook for 2011 Appears Positive as Mature Auto Markets Recover, Emerging Markets Continue to Expand". J.D. Power and Associates. 15 February 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  13. ^ "U.S. vehicle sales peaked in 2000". thecherrycreeknews.com. 2015-05-27. Retrieved 2015-06-18. 
  14. ^ "Table 1-23: World Motor Vehicle Production, Selected Countries (Thousands of vehicles) | Bureau of Transportation Statistics". Rita.dot.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  15. ^ "Arno A. Evers FAIR-PR". Hydrogenambassadors.com. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  16. ^ a b "1998 - 1997 WORLD MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCTION BY TYPE AND ECONOMIC AREA" (pdf). oica.net. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  17. ^ "1999 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  18. ^ "2000 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  19. ^ "2001 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  20. ^ "2002 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  21. ^ "2003 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  22. ^ "2004 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  23. ^ "2005 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  24. ^ "2006 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  25. ^ "2007 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  26. ^ "2008 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  27. ^ "2009 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  28. ^ "2010 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  29. ^ "2011 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  30. ^ "2012 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  31. ^ "2013 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  32. ^ "2014 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  33. ^ "2015 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  34. ^ "2016 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  35. ^ a b OICA: World Motor Vehicle Production
  36. ^ Jared Lynch, Mark Hawthorne (17 October 2015). "Australia's car industry one year from closing its doors". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017. 
  37. ^ http://www.oica.net/wp-content/uploads/By-country.pdf
  38. ^ "China's Geely to Acquire Stake in Malaysian Carmaker Proton". Bloomberg.com. 2017-05-23. Retrieved 2017-06-28. 
  39. ^ "Nissan to take 34% stake in Mitsubishi Motors - BBC News". Retrieved 2016-07-01. 
  40. ^ "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. Retrieved 2017-06-28. 
  41. ^ http://www.caradvice.com.au/572997/toyota-buys-stake-in-mazda-joint-us-factory-ev-development-planned/
  42. ^ "GM Slips to Number Two Worldwide, Ford to Fourth". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  43. ^ "TTAC Announces World's Top Ten Automakers". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
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NOCO Genius Boost HD GB70 2000 Amp 12V UltraSafe Lithium Jump Starter
NOCO Genius Boost HD GB70 2000 Amp 12V UltraSafe Lithium Jump Starter
The GB70 is a compact, yet powerful lithium-ion jump starter for 12-volt batteries. With it, you can safely jump start a dead battery in seconds - up to 40 times on a single charge. It's mistake-proof, making it safe for anyone to use and features spark-proof technology, as well as reverse polarity protection. The GB70 lithium jump starter integrates with a high-output 400 lumen LED flashlight with seven light modes, holds its charge for up to one year and features a USB battery pack for recharging personal devices on the go - up to 8 smartphone recharges. The GB70 features rapid charge technology that charges in just over three (3) hours, plus a 12-volt auxiliary port for powering tire pumps, inverters, lights and more. It's rated at 2,000 Amps (15,700 Joules3S), and suitable for use on gasoline engines up to 8 Liters and diesel engines up to 6 Liters, such as a car, boat, truck, disel pickup tractor and more. Includes the GB70, HD battery clamps, USB charging cable, XGC male plug, XGC female plug, XGC cable, microfiber storage bag, our 1-year hassle-free limited warranty, and free lifetime customer support. Other commonly used search terms include: jump starter, jumper cables, car jump starter, battery jumper, car starter, car battery jump starter, car jumper, jump pack, car jump, jump starter power bank, battery booster, battery jump, jumper pack, jumper battery, battery jump pack, portable jump starter, jumpstart, jumper starter, battery jump box, jump starters, genius boost, booster pack, portable car battery jump starter, jump starter pack, jumper box portable power,jumper box, jump starter kit, jump battery, noco genius boost, lithium jump starter, jumper starter diesel, diesel jump starter, and battery jump starter.

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$149.95
-$101.00(-40%)



Beam Electronics Universal Smartphone Car Air Vent Mount Holder Cradle for iPhone XS XS Max X 8 8 Plus 7 7 Plus SE 6s 6 Plus 6 5s 5 4s 4 Samsung Galaxy S6 S5 S4 LG Nexus Sony Nokia and More…
Beam Electronics Universal Smartphone Car Air Vent Mount Holder Cradle for iPhone XS XS Max X 8 8 Plus 7 7 Plus SE 6s 6 Plus 6 5s 5 4s 4 Samsung Galaxy S6 S5 S4 LG Nexus Sony Nokia and More…
Quick Release Button: Press button on back of unit to slide open and then take out mobile phone. Press the arms on both side to clamp mobile phone again, simple of operation, save time and power.360 Degree Rotation: The fully 360-degree rotation provide you with the best viewing angle.The holder ensures safe driving whether you are talking, navigating, listening to music or charging.Broad Compatibility: Passed a wide range of tests, fit for most cellphones, iPhone 7 7 Plus iPhone 6s Plus, 6s, 5s, 5c ,Samsung Galaxy S6, HTC,LG, Nexus, Nokia, GPS Device. Sturdy, cradle-less and attractive device holding system.suitable for width size from 1.9 inch to 3.7inch smart phone or electronic devices.Single-handed Operation: Simple installation and removal of smart phones. Simplistic Installation, Single-handed Operation, No Tools Needed.1 year Warranty. Not Compatible with the Pixel 5 smartphone. car mount, car mounts, cell phone holder, cell phone holders, car phone mount, car phone mounts, car holder, car holders, cell phone car mount, cell phone car mounts, phone mount for car, phone mount for cars, phone mount, phone mounts, phone holder for car, phone holder for cars, car phone holder, car phone holders, phone car mount, phone car mounts, car mount for phone, car mount for phones, cell phone mount, cell phone mounts, mount

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$15.99



Magnetic Mount, WizGear [2 Pack] Universal Air Vent Magnetic Car Mount Phone Holder, for Cell Phones and Mini Tablets with Fast Swift-Snap Technology, with 4 Metal Plates
Magnetic Mount, WizGear [2 Pack] Universal Air Vent Magnetic Car Mount Phone Holder, for Cell Phones and Mini Tablets with Fast Swift-Snap Technology, with 4 Metal Plates
WizGear Universal Air Vent Magnetic Phone Car Mount Holder Phone Holder For Cars Setting your cell phone in a car mount in your car has never been easier! WizGear Air Vent Car Mount for smartphones saves you the hassle of placing your smartphone securely to make sure it doesn’t fall just push it into the air vent ! The WizGear Magnetic Air Vent Mount features a magnetic technology, which means your smartphone will be secure and have no chance of falling. When a phone is secure in place, it becomes easier to use for GPS navigation too. Features1) This phone magnetic car mount holder for cell phones is not bulky or space consuming at all. You no longer need to suffice for keeping your phone in the cup holder or dashboard, because a normal car mount gets in the way. This magnetic car mount inserts into the Air Vent, thereby not blocking your windshield. 2) Navigation is extremely easy with this magnetic car mount. It can easily rotate, fix, or tilt to any angle that best assists the viewer of the phone. 3) The magnetic technology is safe to use, and will not harm any smartphone. The carbon steel plates inside the magnetic car mount are ultra thin and designed in a way that it provides powerful holding power as well as absorbing magnetic instability. Along with being safe, it is also powerful, it attracts any phone to it quickly – this is the auto-mount feature. The user can just bring the phone near the mount and it will take it easily, so the user no longer has to fuss about with safekeeping their phone Instructions how to set up the Car Mount1)Insert the mount in the Air Vent Mount in your car. 2) Place the magnet metal plate in your case between the cover and the phone, Or stick on the round magnet metal on your phone or GPS 3) And your phone is good to go!

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$9.99
-$10.00(-50%)



iOttie Easy One Touch 4 Dashboard & Windshield Car Phone Mount Holder for iPhone Xs Max R 8 Plus 7 6s SE Samsung Galaxy S9 S8 Edge S7 S6 Note 9 & Other Smartphone
iOttie Easy One Touch 4 Dashboard & Windshield Car Phone Mount Holder for iPhone Xs Max R 8 Plus 7 6s SE Samsung Galaxy S9 S8 Edge S7 S6 Note 9 & Other Smartphone
The Easy One Touch 4 provides a compact, versatile, and highly functional mounting solution. It offers a redesigned telescopic arm which extends up to 5 inches to provide users with even more viewing angles. Also included is an adjustable bottom foot that not only moves left and right but also up and down. As always, the Easy One Touch 4 includes the powerful iOttie sticky gel pad. The Easy One Touch 4 has one last exciting feature: new compatibility. Phones up to an impressive 3. 5 inches will fit safely into this mount. Mount Smart. Drive Smarter!*Please note: if you have Lexus or Toyota Vehicles from the years 2003-2011 we highly recommend mounting on your windshield (state law permitting). You may also consider our Easy One Touch 4 Air Vent or Easy One Touch 4 CD Slot Car Mounts as additional options.

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$24.95



Mallory 532 26" Cool Tool Snow Brush with Integrated Scraper and Foam Grip Handle (Colors may vary)
Mallory 532 26" Cool Tool Snow Brush with Integrated Scraper and Foam Grip Handle (Colors may vary)
Mallory USA, by Hopkins Manufacturing, is the leading brand of snow and ice tools in Canada and North America. Mallory is recognized for quality, durability and lightweight solutions. Mallory's 26" Snow Tool Brush is comfortable and easy to use with its curved handle, comfort foam grip, and unbreakable scraper blade. Thick bristles make brushing snow and ice quick and painless. A must-have for any vehicle.

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$9.07



Tesla TM-FYP57-BLK_X-Small Yoga Mesh Leggings Pants High-Waist Tummy Control w Hidden Pocket FYP57
Tesla TM-FYP57-BLK_X-Small Yoga Mesh Leggings Pants High-Waist Tummy Control w Hidden Pocket FYP57
Tesla Brand Certified Guaranteed to be the best and only Yoga wear you'll ever need. If you are not satisfied for any reason, 30-Days NO Risk 100% Full Refund Assurance Ultra Stretch Fit (Enough thickness with breathability : No See through) that slims, conforms, and countours with each pose and movement. Yoga for Strength, Flexibility and Relaxation Premium Yoga Wear for Women Tesla's Yoga pants can be utilized for training as well as day-to-day casual wear High-waist style that contours and enriches the your silhouette Design Engineered Engineered for comfort and free motion mobility Elastic inner waistband without drip Two distinct styles: Capri and Long pants Side-Pockets that can hold simple objects such as keys or credit cards Functional Fabric 87% Polyester, Spandex Fabric composition 13% (Solid color standard) Provides lightweight comfort along with sweat absorption and drying capabilities Multi-functional elastic stretch fabric that is durable and resilient without compromising movement

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$15.98



First Alert 1038789 Standard Home Fire Extinguisher, Red
First Alert 1038789 Standard Home Fire Extinguisher, Red
First Alert is the category leader in fire safety and delivers reliable life safety products that help our consumers protect what matters most through innovation and performance. A First Alert fire extinguisher can be your first line of defense in case of a fire in your home, boat, car or business. With proper care, caution and Preparation, many accidents can be prevented. In order to minimize damage or injury, the first step is having the right fire extinguisher on hand. The standard home fire extinguisher is ideal for use in any household location and is designed to fight wood; paper; fabric; flammable liquid and electrical fires. This item meets bureau of motor carriers and UL standards and can be recharged by a certified professional. It also includes a mounting bracket to keep unit secure and ready for reach. If a fire should start within the home, be prepared with the First Alert standard home fire extinguisher.

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$17.59
-$15.40(-47%)



Battery Tender 022-0209-DL-WH 4A Selectable Charger is an AGM/Standard or GEL/Lithium Iron Switchable, 12v or 6v Switchable at 4a, Includes Rings & Clips. It Will Never Over Charge Your Battery
Battery Tender 022-0209-DL-WH 4A Selectable Charger is an AGM/Standard or GEL/Lithium Iron Switchable, 12v or 6v Switchable at 4a, Includes Rings & Clips. It Will Never Over Charge Your Battery
The fully automatic 4 Amp Power Tender is a top-of-the-line 12V or 6V switchable battery charger, perfect for automotive, motorcycle and marine repair and maintenance shops.  Float / maintenance function maintains batteries at proper storage voltage without the damaging effects caused by trickled chargers. The integrated smart controller assures that your battery is charged safely and correctly at all times through our ISM (Infinite Sequential Monitoring). The ISM adapts to the battery’s needs hundreds of times per second to deliver the proper amount of charge. With reverse polarity protection and spark-proof operation, you can connect it and forget it!

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$62.64
-$2.29(-4%)



OEM QUALITY 21" + 21" AERO Premium All-Season Windshield Wiper Blades (Set of 2)
OEM QUALITY 21" + 21" AERO Premium All-Season Windshield Wiper Blades (Set of 2)
Each purchase includes 2 genuine AERO premium all-season wiper blades. The AERO wipers use top quality materials and pass strict QC testings. This product offers all the quality and durability of the major brand names, but at a fraction of the cost. All AERO wipers come with a 6 months warranty - the best in the industry. AERO Wiper Specifications: Item: Genuine AERO premium all-season wiper blades Quantity: 2 pieces - 1 driver side wiper and 1 passenger side wiper Fitment: J-Hook (Direct OEM replacement) Material: Premium rubber with DuPont Teflon coating Design: Bracketless Temperature Tolerance: +158F to -40F (+70C to -40C) Wiping Durability: 1 million times of wiping Warranty: 6 months AERO Wiper Features and benefits include: - OEM replacement, quality and fitment are guaranteed - All-Season wiper blades eliminate the need for a snow or summer blades - Durable material offers longer performance life over other conventional wiper blades - Specially blended rubber delivers the ultimate smooth, clean, streak-free and chatter-free wipe - Flexible spine design fits the windshield better, providing superior windshield contact - Aerodynamic design significantly reduces drag, noise and wind lift - Bracketless design helps prevents snow and ice buildup Shipping & Delivery: All orders will be shipped within the same or next business day via USPS first class or USPS Priority. Delivery time is typically 3-5 business days. *** Please Note *** To minimize the unnecessary consumption of paper, we will not ship the wipers in a carton box. We will ship the wipers in the manufacturer box and wrapped in a plastic bag. The safe arrival of the wipers is guaranteed. Thanks.

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$24.95
-$5.96(-24%)



AmazonBasics Microfiber Cleaning Cloth - 144 Pack
AmazonBasics Microfiber Cleaning Cloth - 144 Pack
AmazonBasics CW190423B Microfiber Cleaning Cloth, (Pack of 144)

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$49.99


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