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Automotive industry
Play media The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and

View Wikipedia Article

Modern assembly line Play media A video showing new SEAT, Škoda & Volkswagen cars being transported by rail at Kutná Hora město train station in the Czech Republic

The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers. It is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.

The term automotive was created from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by Elmer Sperry.

Contents
  • 1 History
  • 2 Safety
  • 3 Economy
  • 4 World motor vehicle production
    • 4.1 By year
    • 4.2 By country
    • 4.3 By manufacturer
  • 5 Company Relationships
    • 5.1 Stake Holding
    • 5.2 Joint Ventures
  • 6 Top Vehicle Manufacturing Groups By Volume
  • 7 Car Makes & Their Parent Companies
  • 8 See also
  • 9 Notes
  • 10 References
  • 11 External links

History Main article: History of the automobile Thomas B. Jeffery automobile factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916 Citroën assembly line in 1918

The automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 (140 models) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.

Safety Main article: Automobile safety

Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the autmobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage.

Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety.

In case of safety issues, danger, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material.

Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.

Economy See also: Automotive industry by country

Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down. It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport. Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports (2012) confirmed the opposite; namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC countries. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units.

World motor vehicle production World Motor Vehicle Production Production volume (1000 vehicles)

1960s; Post war increase

1970s; Oil crisis and tighter safety and emission regulation.

1990s; production started in NICs

2000s; rise of China as top producer

Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010 to 1950; USA had produced more than 80% of motor vehicles.

1950s; UK, Germany and France restarted production.

1960s; Japan started production and increased volume through the 1980s. US, Japan, Germany, France and UK produced about 80% of motor vehicles through the 1980s.

1990s; Korea became a volume producer. In 2004, Korea became No. 5 passing France.

2000s; China increased its production drastically, and 2009 became the world largest producing country.

2013; The share of China (25.4%), Korea, India, Brazil and Mexico rose to 43%, while the share of USA (12.7%), Japan, Germany, France and UK fell to 34%. By year See also: List of countries by motor vehicle production

Year Production Change Source 1997 54,434,000   1998 52,987,000 -2.7% 1999 56,258,892 6.2% 2000 58,374,162 3.8% 2001 56,304,925 -3.5% 2002 58,994,318 4.8% 2003 60,663,225 2.8% 2004 64,496,220 6.3% 2005 66,482,439 3.1% 2006 69,222,975 4.1% 2007 73,266,061 5.8% 2008 70,520,493 -3.7% 2009 61,791,868 -12.4% 2010 77,857,705 26.0% 2011 79,989,155 3.1% 2012 84,141,209 5.3% 2013 87,300,115 3.7% 2014 89,747,430 2.6% 2015 90,086,346 0.4% 2016 94,976,569 4.5% Car Exports by Country (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity Global automobile import and export in 2011 By country Main article: Automotive industry by country

The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble or manufacture automobiles. Of that figure, only 13, boldfaced in the list below, possess the capability to design automobiles from the ground up.

  •  Algeria
  •  Argentina
  •  Australia (main page)
  •  Austria
  •  Azerbaijan
  •  Bangladesh (main page)
  •  Belarus (main page)
  •  Belgium
  •  Brazil (main page)
  •  Bulgaria (main page)
  •  Canada (main page)
  •  China (main page)
  •  Colombia
  •  Czech Republic
  •  Egypt
  •  Finland
  •  France (main page)
  •  Ghana
  •  Germany (main page)
  •  Hungary (main page)
  •  India (main page)
  •  Indonesia (main page)
  •  Iran (main page)
  •  Italy (main page)
  •  Japan (main page)
  •  Jordan
  •  Kazakhstan
  •  Kenya (main page)
  •  Morocco (main page)
  •  Malaysia (main page)
  •  Mexico (main page)
  •  Netherlands
  •  Pakistan (main page)
  •  Philippines
  •  Poland (main page)
  •  Portugal
  •  Romania (main page)
  •  Russia (main page)
  •  Serbia (main page)
  •  Slovakia (main page)
  •  Slovenia
  •  South Africa (main page)
  •  South Korea (main page)
  •  Spain (main page)
  •  Sweden (main page)
  •  Taiwan
  •  Thailand (main page)
  •  Turkey (main page)
  •  Ukraine (main page)
  •  United Kingdom (main page)
  •  United States (main page)
  •  Uzbekistan (main page)
  •  Venezuela
  •  Vietnam
Top 20 motor vehicle producing countries 2016 Country Motor vehicle production (units)  China 28,118,794  United States 12,198,137  Japan 9,204,590  Germany 6,062,562  India 4,488,965  South Korea 4,228,509  Mexico 3,597,462  Spain 2,885,922  Canada 2,370,271  Brazil 2,156,356  France 2,082,000  Thailand 1,944,417  United Kingdom 1,816,622  Turkey 1,485,927  Czech Republic 1,349,896  Russia 1,303,989  Indonesia 1,177,389  Iran 1,164,710  Italy 1,103,516  Slovakia 1,040,000

"Production Statistics". OICA. 

By manufacturer See also: List of manufacturers by motor vehicle production

This is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production in 2015

Rank Group Country Vehicles 1 Toyota  Japan 10,083,831 2 Volkswagen Group  Germany 9,872,424 3 General Motors
(with SAIC-GM)  United States 7,485,587
(9,490,835) 4 Hyundai / Kia  South Korea 7,988,479 5 Ford  United States 6,396,369 6 Nissan  Japan 5,170,074 7 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  Italy 4,865,233 8 Honda  Japan 4,543,838 9 Suzuki  Japan 3,034,081 10 Renault  France 3,032,652 11 PSA  France 2,982,035 12 BMW  Germany 2,279,503 13 SAIC  China 2,260,579 14 Daimler  Germany 2,134,645 15 Mazda  Japan 1,540,576 Company Relationships This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Stake Holding

It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

Notable current relationships include:

  • Daimler AG holds a 20% stake in Eicher Motors.
  • Daimler AG holds a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ.
  • Daimler AG holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation.
  • Daimler AG holds a 6.75% stake in Tata Motors.
  • Daimler AG holds a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance.
  • Daimler AG holds a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group,
  • Daimler AG holds an 85% stake in Master Motors.
  • FAW Group owns 49% of Haima Automobile.
  • FCA holds a 90% stake in Ferrari.
  • FCA holds a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija.
  • FCA holds 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding.
  • Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks.
  • Fiat Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks.
  • Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, China Motor, and Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz. FMG, China Motor, and Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, and both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake.
  • Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company.
  • Geely Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings and a 51% stake in Lotus Cars.
  • General Motors holds a 94% stake in GM Korea and SAIC Group holds a 6% stake.
  • General Motors holds a 20% stake in Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines.
  • Isuzu owns 10% of Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines.
  • MAN SE holds a 17.01% voting stake in Scania.
  • Marcopolo owns 19% of New Flyer Industries.
  • Mitsubishi Group holds 20% of Mitsubishi Motors.
  • Nissan owns 34% of Mitsubishi Motors and had the since October 2016, thus having the right to nominate the chairman of Mitsubishi Motors’s board and a third of its directors.
  • Nissan owns 43% of Nissan Shatai.
  • Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.74% voting stake in Volkswagen Group. The Porsche automotive business is fully owned by the Volkswagen Group.
  • Renault and Nissan Motors have an alliance (Renault-Nissan Alliance) involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 43.4% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares.
  • Renault-Nissan Alliance holds a 3.1% share in Daimler AG.
  • Renault holds a 25% stake in AvtoVAZ
  • Renault holds an 80.1% stake in Renault Samsung.
  • SAIPA holds a 51% stake in Pars Khodro.
  • Toyota holds a 100% stake in Daihatsu.
  • Toyota holds a 50.1% stake in Hino.
  • Toyota holds a 16.7% stake in Fuji Heavy Industries, parent company of Subaru.
  • Volkswagen Group holds a 99.55% stake in the Audi Group.
  • Volkswagen Group holds a 37.73% stake in Scania (68.6% voting rights), a 53.7% stake in MAN SE (55.9% voting rights), Volkswagen is integrating Scania, MAN and its own truck division into one division.
  • Paccar inc. has a 19% stake in Tatra.
Joint Ventures
  • AB Volvo and Eicher Motors has a 50-50% joint venture called VE Commercial Vehicles.
  • Beijing Automotive Group has a joint venture with Daimler called Beijing Benz, both companies hold a 50-50% stake. both companies also have a joint venture called Beijing Foton Daimler Automobile. BAG also has a joint venture with Hyundai called Beijing Hyundai, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • BMW and Brilliance have a joint venture called BMW Brilliance. BMW owns a 50% stake, Brilliance owns a 40.5% stake, and the Shenyang municipal government owns a 9.5% stake.
  • Chang'an Automobile Group has joint venture with Groupe PSA (CAPSA), both hold a 50-50% stake,
  • Chang'an Automobile Group has joint venture with Suzuki (Changan Suzuki), both hold a 50-50% stake,
  • Chang'an Automobile Group has joint venture with Ford and Mazda (Changan Ford Mazda), CAG holds a 50% stake, Ford holds a 35% stake, and Mazda holds a 15% stake.
  • Chang'an and Ford have a joint venture called Chang'an Ford Nanjing. Jiangling and Chang'an have a joint venture called Jiangxi Jiangling.
  • Chery has a joint venture with Tata Motors called Chery Jaguar Land Rover, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Chery and Israel Corporation has a joint venture called Qoros, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Daimler AG and BYD Auto have a joint venture called Denza, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Dongfeng Motor and Nissan have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Motor Company.
  • Dongfeng Motor and PSA Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroen,
  • Dongfeng Motor has a 50-50% joint venture with Honda called Dongfeng Honda,
  • Dongfeng Motor has a joint venture with AB Volvo called Dongfeng Nissan-Diesel,
  • Dongfeng Motor has a 50-50% joint venture with Renault named Dongfeng Renault in Wuhan, which was founded in the end of 2013
  • Ford Motor Company and Navistar International have a 50-50 joint venture called Blue Diamond Truck.
  • Ford and Sollers JSC have a 50-50 joint venture called Ford Sollers.
  • Both Ford and Koç Holding own a 41% stake in Ford Otosan.
  • Ford and Lio Ho Group have a joint venture called Ford Lio Ho, Ford owns 70% and Lio Ho Group owns 30%.
  • FAW Group and GM has a 50-50 joint venture called FAW-GM,
  • FAW Group has a 50-50 joint venture with Volkswagen Group called FAW-Volkswagen,
  • FAW Group has a 50-50 joint venture with Toyota called Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor and both companies also have another joint venture called Ranz.
  • General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC), both have two joint ventures in Shanghai General Motors and SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. Both also hold an equal 50% stake in General Motors India Private Limited.
  • General Motors and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called GM Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 75% and General Motors owns 25%. General Motors and UzAvtosanoat also have a joint venture called UzDaewooAvto both each hold a 50-50 stake.
  • General Motors, AvtoVAZ, and EBRD have a joint venture called GM-AvtoVAZ, Both GM and AvtoVAZ owns 41.61% and EBRD owns 16.76%.
  • Hyundai Motor Company and Kibar Holding has a joint venture called Hyundai Assan Otomotiv, Hyundai Motor Group owns 70% and Kibar Holding owns 30%.
  • Isuzu and Anadolu Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Anadolu Isuzu.
  • Isuzu and General Motors has a 50-50% joint venture called Isuzu Truck South Africa.
  • Isuzu, Sollers JSC, and Imperial Sojitz have a joint venture called Sollers-Isuzu, Sollers JSC owns 66%, Isuzu owns 29%, and Imperial Sojitz owns 5%.
  • Mahindra & Mahindra and Navistar International has a joint venture called Mahindra Trucks and Buses Limited. Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and Navistar International owns 49%.
  • MAN SE and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called MAN Auto-Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 51% and MAN owns 49%.
  • Navistar International and JAC has a joint venture called Anhui Jianghuai Navistar.
  • PSA Groupe and Toyota have a 50-50% joint venture called Toyota Peugeot Citroen Automobile Czech, and another joint venture with Chang'an called Chang'an PSA automobile.
  • Sollers JSC is involved in Joint ventures with Ford (Ford Sollers) and Mazda to produce cars.
  • Tata Motors also formed a joint venture in India with Fiat and gained access to Fiat's diesel engine technology.
  • Tata Motors and Marcopolo have a Tata Marcopolo, Tata owns 51% and Marcopolo owns 49%.
  • ZAP owns 51% of Zhejiang Jonway.
Top Vehicle Manufacturing Groups By Volume

The table below shows the world's 10 largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2015 production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.

Marque Country of origin Ownership Markets 1. Toyota ( Japan) Daihatsu Subsidiary Europe, Asia (except South Korea), Africa, South America Hino Subsidiary South East Asia, Japan, North America, Central America, South America, Caribbean Lexus Business Unit South East Asia, China, Japan, South Korea, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Costa Rica, Panama, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India Toyota Division Global, except Iran 2. Volkswagen AG ( Germany) Audi Subsidiary Global, except Iran Bentley Subsidiary Global Bugatti Subsidiary Global, except Australia Ducati Subsidiary Global Lamborghini Subsidiary Global MAN Subsidiary Global, except North America Navistar International Subsidiary North America, South America, Russia, UK, Greece, Eastern Europe, India, Middle East, China, Singapore, South Korea Porsche Subsidiary Global, except Iran, North Korea, Syria, Cuba Scania Subsidiary Global, except North America SEAT Subsidiary Europe, China, Singapore, Mexico, Central America, South America, Middle East, Northern Africa Škoda Subsidiary Europe, Asia (Except Indonesia, The Philippines, Iran, Japan, South Korea, North Korea), Central America, South America, Dominican Republic, Northern Africa, Western Africa, Australia, New Zealand Volkswagen Division Global Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Subsidiary Global VTB Business Unit Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa 3. General Motors ( United States) Buick Business Unit North America, China, Israel Cadillac Business Unit North America, Middle East, China, Japan, South Korea Chevrolet Business Unit Global, except Australia, New Zealand GMC Business Unit North America, Middle East (except Israel) Holden Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand JieFang Business Unit China Opel Business Unit Europe (except United Kingdom), North Africa, South Africa, Middle East, China, Singapore, Chile SAIC-GM Business Unit China Vauxhall Business Unit United Kingdom UzDaewoo Business Unit Central Asia, Russia 4. Hyundai / Kia ( South Korea) Genesis Business Unit South Korea, Russia, United States, Canada, Middle East Hyundai Division Global Kia Subsidiary Global, except Japan 5. Ford ( United States) Ford Division Global Lincoln Business Unit North America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea, China Troller Veículos Especiais Subsidiary South America, Africa, Australia, Europe 6. Nissan ( Japan) Datsun Division Indonesia, India, Russia, South Africa Infiniti Subsidiary Global, except Japan, South America (excluding Chile), Africa (excluding South Africa) Nissan Division Global 7. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles ( Italy) Abarth Subsidiary Global, except Iran Alfa Romeo Subsidiary Global, except Iran, China, Taiwan, the Philippines Chrysler Division Global, except Europe (excluding United Kingdom, Ireland), Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia Dodge Division Global, except Europe, Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia Fiat Subsidiary Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia Fiat Professional Business Unit Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia, United States, Canada Jeep Division Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia Lancia Division Europe (excluding United Kingdom, Ireland) Maserati Subsidiary Global Ram Division North America, Brazil, Middle East, Peru 8. Honda ( Japan) Acura Division China, Kuwait, North America, Russia Honda Division Global 9. Suzuki ( Japan) Suzuki Division Global, except United States, Canada, North Korea, South Korea Maruti Suzuki Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America 10. Renault ( France) Alpine Subsidiary AvtoVAZ Joint venture ownership Dacia Subsidiary Renault Subsidiary Renault Samsung Motors Subsidiary Renault Sport Subsidiary Car Makes & Their Parent Companies

The table below lists most car makes and their parent companies.

Parent (Owner) Parent Country Make Make Country Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  Italy Abarth  Italy Honda  Japan Acura  Japan Polaris Industries  United States Aixam  France Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  Italy Alfa Romeo  Italy Renault  France Alpine  France Aston Martin  United Kingdom Aston Martin  United Kingdom Volkswagen Group  Germany Audi  Germany SAIC-GM-Wuling  China/ United States Baojun  China Volkswagen Group  Germany Bentley  United Kingdom BMW  Germany BMW  Germany Brilliance  China Brilliance  China Volkswagen Group  Germany Bugatti  France General Motors  United States Buick  United States BYD  China BYD  China General Motors  United States Cadillac  United States Caterham  United Kingdom Caterham  United Kingdom Chang'an  China Chang'an  China General Motors  United States Chevrolet  United States Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  Italy Chrysler  United States Groupe PSA  France Citroën  France Renault  France Dacia  Romania Toyota  Japan Daihatsu  Japan Nissan  Japan Datsun  Japan Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  Italy Dodge  United States Dongfeng  China Dongfeng  China Groupe PSA  France DS  France Dongfeng  China Fengshen  China Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  Italy Fiat  Italy Wanxiang  China Karma  United States Ford  United States Ford  United States Ferrari  Italy Ferrari  Italy Geely  China Geely  China Hyundai Motor Group  South Korea Genesis  South Korea General Motors  United States GMC  United States Toyota  Japan Hino Motors  Japan General Motors  United States Holden (HSV)  Australia Honda  Japan Honda  Japan Hyundai Motor Group  South Korea Hyundai  South Korea Nissan  Japan Infiniti  Japan Isuzu Motors  Japan Isuzu  Japan Tata Motors  India Jaguar  United Kingdom Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  Italy Jeep  United States FAW Jie Fang / FAW-GM  China/ United States Jie Fang  China Kantanka Group Conglomerate  Ghana Kantanka  Ghana Koenigsegg  Sweden Koenigsegg  Sweden Hyundai Motor Group  South Korea Kia  South Korea Renault  France Lada  Russia Volkswagen Group  Germany Lamborghini  Italy Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  Italy Lancia  Italy Tata Motors  India Land Rover  United Kingdom Toyota  Japan Lexus  Japan Ligier  France Ligier  France Ford  United States Lincoln  United States Geely  China Lotus  United Kingdom Geely  China LTI  United Kingdom Yulon Motor  Taiwan Luxgen  Taiwan Mahindra & Mahindra  India Mahindra  India Suzuki  Japan Maruti Suzuki  India Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  Italy Maserati  Italy Mastretta  Mexico Mastretta  Mexico Daimler AG  Germany Maybach  Germany Mazda  Japan Mazda  Japan McLaren Automotive  United Kingdom McLaren  United Kingdom Daimler AG  Germany Mercedes-Benz  Germany SAIC Motor  China MG  United Kingdom Ligier  France Microcar  France BMW  Germany Mini  United Kingdom Nissan / Mitsubishi Group  Japan Mitsubishi  Japan Morgan Motor Company  United Kingdom Morgan  United Kingdom National Electric Vehicle Sweden (NEVS)  Sweden NEVS  Sweden Nissan  Japan Nissan  Japan Peter Dyson  United Kingdom Noble  United Kingdom Groupe PSA  France Opel  Germany Pagani Automobili  Italy Pagani  Italy Perodua  Malaysia Perodua  Malaysia Groupe PSA  France Peugeot  France PGO  France PGO  France Volkswagen Group  Germany Porsche  Germany Geely / DRB-HICOM  China /  Malaysia PROTON  Malaysia Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  Italy Ram  United States GM Uzbekistan  Uzbekistan Ravon  Uzbekistan Renault  France Renault  France SAIC Motor  China Roewe  China BMW  Germany Rolls Royce  United Kingdom Saleen  United States Saleen  United States Iran Khodro (IKCO)  Iran Samand  Iran Renault  France Renault Samsung Motors  South Korea Volkswagen Group  Germany SEAT  Spain BAIC Motor  China Senova  China Volkswagen Group  Germany Škoda  Czech Republic Daimler AG  Germany Smart  Germany Mahindra & Mahindra  India SsangYong  South Korea Subaru Corporation  Japan Subaru  Japan Suzuki  Japan Suzuki  Japan Tata Motors  India Tata  India Tesla  United States Tesla  United States Saipa  Iran Tiba/Miniator  Iran Toyota  Japan Toyota  Japan Uniti Sweden AB  Sweden Uniti  Sweden Groupe PSA  France Vauxhall  United Kingdom Dongfeng-Nissan  China/ Japan Venucia  China Volkswagen Group  Germany Volkswagen  Germany Geely  China Volvo Cars  Sweden Vuhl  Mexico Vuhl  Mexico SAIC-GM-Wuling  China/ United States Wuling  China See also
  • Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
  • Automotive industry by country
  • Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010
  • Automotive industry in the United States
  • Big Three (automobile manufacturers)
  • Effects of the 2008–10 automotive industry crisis on the United States
  • List of countries by motor vehicle production
  • Motocycle
  • List of largest automotive companies by revenue
Notes
  1. ^ Including production figures from the Chinese SAIC-GM joint venture, which the OICA left out from the 2015 GM total contrary to prior practice; they are combined here for consistency with previous years.
  2. ^ a b GM sold Opel and Vauxhall to French Groupe PSA in 2017.
References
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  3. ^ "U.S. Makes Ninety Percent of World's Automobiles". Popular Science. 115 (5): 84. November 1929. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  4. ^ "2012 Production Statistics". OICA. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  5. ^ Aichner, T.; Coletti, P (2013). "Customers' online shopping preferences in mass customization". Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice. 15 (1): 20–35. 
  6. ^ "ISO 26262-10:2012 Road vehicles -- Functional safety -- Part 10: Guideline on ISO 26262". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  7. ^ "Automobile Industry Introduction". Plunkett Research. 2008. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Khor, Martin. "Developing economies slowing down". twnside.org.sg. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  9. ^ "2014 Global Automotive Consumer Study : Exploring consumer preferences and mobility choices in Europe" (PDF). Deloittelcom. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-04. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  10. ^ Eisenstein, Paul A. "Building BRIC's: 4 Markets Could Soon Dominate the Auto World". TheDetroitBureau.com. 
  11. ^ Bertel Schmitt (15 February 2011). "Auto industry sets new world record". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  12. ^ "Global Automotive Outlook for 2011 Appears Positive as Mature Auto Markets Recover, Emerging Markets Continue to Expand". J.D. Power and Associates. 15 February 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  13. ^ "U.S. vehicle sales peaked in 2000". thecherrycreeknews.com. 2015-05-27. Retrieved 2015-06-18. 
  14. ^ "Table 1-23: World Motor Vehicle Production, Selected Countries (Thousands of vehicles) | Bureau of Transportation Statistics". Rita.dot.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  15. ^ "Arno A. Evers FAIR-PR". Hydrogenambassadors.com. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  16. ^ a b "1998 - 1997 WORLD MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCTION BY TYPE AND ECONOMIC AREA" (pdf). oica.net. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  17. ^ "1999 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  18. ^ "2000 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  19. ^ "2001 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  20. ^ "2002 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  21. ^ "2003 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  22. ^ "2004 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  23. ^ "2005 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  24. ^ "2006 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  25. ^ "2007 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  26. ^ "2008 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  27. ^ "2009 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  28. ^ "2010 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  29. ^ "2011 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  30. ^ "2012 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  31. ^ "2013 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  32. ^ "2014 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  33. ^ "2015 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  34. ^ "2016 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  35. ^ a b OICA: World Motor Vehicle Production
  36. ^ Jared Lynch, Mark Hawthorne (17 October 2015). "Australia's car industry one year from closing its doors". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017. 
  37. ^ See SGMW in "World Motor Vehicle Production: Group SAIC, Year 2015" (PDF). OICA. Retrieved 2017-04-02. 
  38. ^ "China's Geely to Acquire Stake in Malaysian Carmaker Proton". Bloomberg.com. 2017-05-23. Retrieved 2017-06-28. 
  39. ^ "Nissan to take 34% stake in Mitsubishi Motors - BBC News". Retrieved 2016-07-01. 
  40. ^ "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. Retrieved 2017-06-28. 
  41. ^ "GM Slips to Number Two Worldwide, Ford to Fourth". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  42. ^ "TTAC Announces World's Top Ten Automakers". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
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AmazonBasics Lightning to USB A Cable - Apple MFi Certified - White - 6 Feet /1.8 Meters
AmazonBasics Lightning to USB A Cable - Apple MFi Certified - White - 6 Feet /1.8 Meters
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Beam Electronics Universal Smartphone Car Air Vent Mount Holder Cradle Compatible with iPhone X 8 8 Plus 7 7 Plus SE 6s 6 Plus 6 5s 5 4s 4 Samsung Galaxy S6 S5 S4 LG Nexus Sony Nokia and More…
Beam Electronics Universal Smartphone Car Air Vent Mount Holder Cradle Compatible with iPhone X 8 8 Plus 7 7 Plus SE 6s 6 Plus 6 5s 5 4s 4 Samsung Galaxy S6 S5 S4 LG Nexus Sony Nokia and More…
Quick Release Button: Press button on back of unit to slide open and then take out mobile phone. Press the arms on both side to clamp mobile phone again, simple of operation, save time and power.360 Degree Rotation: The fully 360-degree rotation provide you with the best viewing angle.The holder ensures safe driving whether you are talking, navigating, listening to music or charging.Broad Compatibility: Passed a wide range of tests, fit for most cellphones, iPhone 7 7 Plus iPhone 6s Plus, 6s, 5s, 5c ,Samsung Galaxy S6, HTC,LG, Nexus, Nokia, GPS Device. Sturdy, cradle-less and attractive device holding system.suitable for width size from 1.9 inch to 3.7inch smart phone or electronic devices.Single-handed Operation: Simple installation and removal of smart phones. Simplistic Installation, Single-handed Operation, No Tools Needed.1 year Warranty. Not Compatible with the Pixel 5 smartphone. car mount, car mounts, cell phone holder, cell phone holders, car phone mount, car phone mounts, car holder, car holders, cell phone car mount, cell phone car mounts, phone mount for car, phone mount for cars, phone mount, phone mounts, phone holder for car, phone holder for cars, car phone holder, car phone holders, phone car mount, phone car mounts, car mount for phone, car mount for phones, cell phone mount, cell phone mounts, mount

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Magnetic Mount, WizGear [2 PACK] Universal Air Vent Magnetic Car Mount Phone Holder, for Cell Phones and Mini Tablets with Fast Swift-Snap Technology, With 4 Metal Plates
Magnetic Mount, WizGear [2 PACK] Universal Air Vent Magnetic Car Mount Phone Holder, for Cell Phones and Mini Tablets with Fast Swift-Snap Technology, With 4 Metal Plates
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Car Phone Mount, Vansky 3-in-1 Universal Phone Holder Cell Phone Car Air Vent Holder Dashboard Mount Windshield Mount for iPhone 7 Plus,8 Plus,X,7,6S,6,Samsung Galaxy Note S6 S7 and More
Car Phone Mount, Vansky 3-in-1 Universal Phone Holder Cell Phone Car Air Vent Holder Dashboard Mount Windshield Mount for iPhone 7 Plus,8 Plus,X,7,6S,6,Samsung Galaxy Note S6 S7 and More
Vansky 3-in-1 Car Phone Mount - 3 ways for your choose, whatever you want! Multi functional, Rotatable, Convenient, Steady3-in-1 Smart designVansky car mount not only has the 3-in-1 usage in dashboard, windshield or air vent, but it is also equipped with 3 holders in one package: one holder one mount. Users can use three of them without any disassembly at the same time and can service multiple devices and vehicles for your needs.Features: Multifunctional, Convenient, Steady, SafetyOver current and over voltage protectionFull 360-degree adjustable rotation for optimal viewing angleAdjustable holder to view your device at any angle or orientation while driving Easy install- Easy one press button releases the device with just a push of a fingerCompatible with most smartphones,GPS,pad,MP3/MP4 players, etcPackage Included: 1 x Vansky Universal Bracket1 x Windshield Mount1 x Dashboard Mount1 x Air Vent Holder1 x User ManualWarranty: At Vansky, we stand strongly behind the craftsmanship of our products.That's why we guarantee them with 45 Days Money Back & One Year Hassle Free Guarantee and provide Friendly, Easy-to-reach Support.

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SENSO Bluetooth Wireless Headphones, Best Sports Earphones w/ Mic IPX7 Waterproof HD Stereo Sweatproof Earbuds for Gym Running Workout 8 Hour Battery Noise Cancelling Headsets Hifi Cordless Headphones
SENSO Bluetooth Wireless Headphones, Best Sports Earphones w/ Mic IPX7 Waterproof HD Stereo Sweatproof Earbuds for Gym Running Workout 8 Hour Battery Noise Cancelling Headsets Hifi Cordless Headphones
Brand: Senso Model: ActivBuds S-255 Color: Black WHY THE SENSO ACTIVBUDS S-255 IS THE BETTER CHOICE IN BLUETOOTH HEADPHONES? - TRUE HIGH DEFINITION SOUND Enjoy Stereo Sound with High Definition & unparalleled rock-solid bass with ultra crisp treble. - BLUETOOTH V4.1 SKIP-FREE WIRELESS UP TO 30 FEET - IPX7 WATERPROOF / SWEATPROOF PROTECTION - LONGER BATTERY LIFE - Better battery efficiency with up to 8 HOURS of play. - STYLISH AND ERGONOMIC DESIGN Cordless Headphones - PASSIVE NOISE CANCELLATION - ADJUSTABLE EARHOOKS - CONTROL CALLS - Hands Free Calling and Easy Controls for volume, skip, pause and play. - COMPATIBLE WITH ALL BLUETOOTH ENABLED DEVICES Connect with two smart phones at once. - PREMIUM PACKAGING AND PREMIUM QUALITY ACCESSORIES - 1 Year Warranty / 30 Day Hassle-Free Returns Technical specification: - Bluetooth Specification: 4.1+EDR - IPX7 Waterproof Rating - Noise Reduction: CVC6.0 - Transmission Distance: 30ft - Battery: Lithium-ion Polymer 85mAh - Frequency Response: 20 -22kHz - Charging Port: Micro USB - Charging Time: 1-2 Hours - Playback Time: Up to 8 Hours - Standby Time: 240h What's in the Box: • Bluetooth Headhpone • Carrying Case • Short Charging Cable • 3 Sets of Ear Tips - Small, Medium, Large • 1 Set of Memory Foam Ear Tips • Cable Management Clip • User Manual Bonus Items: • Air vent Magnetic Car Mount Cellphone Holder • Mobile Phone Wallet / Card Holder Buyers Trust the SENSO Brand which is Dedicated to the Highest Quality Products and Fanatical Customer Support. Your COMPLETE SATISFACTION is our primary objective. Enjoy Freedom of Sound for an Active Lifestyle - Quantities may be limited - ORDER NOW!

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AstroAI Digital Tire Pressure Gauge 150 PSI 4 Settings for Car Truck Bicycle with Backlit LCD and Non-Slip Grip, Red
AstroAI Digital Tire Pressure Gauge 150 PSI 4 Settings for Car Truck Bicycle with Backlit LCD and Non-Slip Grip, Red
The AstroAI Digital Tire Pressure Gauge helps you maintain correct tire pressure, reduce tire wear and extend tire life. The Backlit LCD display and Lighted nozzle are for visibility in dimly light areas and the accurate and easy-to-read digits help you easily measure your vehicle's tire pressure. The tool provides 4 settings with range: 0-150PSI / 0-10Bar / 0-10Kgf/cm² or 0-1000KPA and the ergonomic design and non-slip texture are both suitable for men and women's hands. Versatile use for cars, trucks, motocycles, bicycles etc.SpecificationsMeasurement Ranges: PSI: 0-150, Bar: 0-10, KPA: 0-1000, Kg/cm: 0-10Minimum Increment: 0.5 PSIPower: 3V Lithium Coin Cell, Battery IncludedDisplay: 8.3 x 4 inches LCD displayOperating temperature: 23-122 ℉Useful note: In order to get a good seal, please put the tire's air nozzle up or off to the side. It's the best when the nozzle is around 6 or 7 o'clock position so that you can firmly press the guage straight down which means you have to crane your head a little bit for reading. Always remember the most important thing for you is to be able to press down straight & hard onto the tire's nozzle.Package Included1 x AstroAI Tire Gauge

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Rain-X RX30214 Weatherbeater Wiper Blade - 14-Inches - (Pack of 1)
Rain-X RX30214 Weatherbeater Wiper Blade - 14-Inches - (Pack of 1)
In 2001 Rain-X introduced the Weatherbeater wiper blade, continuing its tradition of designing products that help you see more clearly and outsmart the elements, for a better driving experience. The Rain-X Weatherbeater wiper blade continues to be a favorite wiper blade of drivers looking for wipe quality, durability and a great value.

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$8.40
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Coleman 2000020264 Cooler Quad Portable Camping Chair, Red
Coleman 2000020264 Cooler Quad Portable Camping Chair, Red
Relax at the campsite while keeping a cold drink handy with the Coleman Cooler Quad Portable Camping Chair. This folding chair comes equipped with a built-in cooler pocket that keeps up to four cans of your favorite beverage cool, so you can grab a refreshing drink without getting up from your seat. With its adjustable arms and fully cushioned seat and back, the chair is built to provide support and comfort. A mesh cup holder offers easy access to a drink, while a side pocket allows you to keep books, magazines, and other personal items within reach. Durably constructed from heavy-duty steel, the chair's frame can support up to 325 pounds. The collapsible camping chair easily slips into the included carrying bag for easy portability.

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$31.25
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AmazonBasics Microfiber Cleaning Cloth - 144 Pack
AmazonBasics Microfiber Cleaning Cloth - 144 Pack
AmazonBasics CW190423B Microfiber Cleaning Cloth, (Pack of 144)

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Rain-X 5079282-2 Latitude 2-IN-1 Water Repellency Wiper Blade, 28" (Pack of 1)
Rain-X 5079282-2 Latitude 2-IN-1 Water Repellency Wiper Blade, 28" (Pack of 1)
No other wipers deliver the innovation and technology that is offered by Rain X Latitude Water Repellency Wiper Blades. These unique blades apply a patented Rain-X water repellent directly to your windshield for you. The repellent is transferred from the squeegee to the glass – and the magic of Rain-X is activated! Rain-X Latitude Water Repellency Wiper Blades feature advanced beam technology designed to hug your windshield for maximum contact and superior wipe quality. These 2-in-1 wipers blades both clear and repel the elements to provide superior driving visibility. Compared to traditional wiper blades, the difference is amazing

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$14.29
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