Tools
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Tool
simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tools dates back hundreds of millennia, use tools to make other tools. The set of tools needed to

View Wikipedia Article

For other uses, see Tool (disambiguation) and Equipment.

A modern toolbox

A tool is an object of whatever relatively simple construction is necessary for its user to hold and operate easily to perform a simple task (like moving, lifting, breaking, holding, turning, bending) not as effectively performed or not possible, safe, or desirable to perform using a bodily member alone. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tools dates back hundreds of millennia, use tools to make other tools. The set of tools needed to perform different tasks that are part of the same activity is called gear or equipment.

While one may apply the term tool loosely to many things that are means to an end (e.g., a fork), strictly speaking an object is a tool only if, besides being constructed to be held, it is also made of a material that allows its user to apply to it various degrees of force. If repeated use wears part of the tool down (like a knife blade), it may be possible to restore it; if it wears the tool out or breaks it, the tool must be replaced. Thus tool falls under the taxonomic category implement, and is on the same taxonomic rank as instrument, utensil, device, or ware.

Contents
  • 1 History
  • 2 Functions
    • 2.1 Simple machines
    • 2.2 Tool substitution
    • 2.3 Multi-use tools
  • 3 Use by other animals
  • 4 Tool metaphors
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links
History Prehistoric stone tools over 10,000 years old, found in Les Combarelles cave, France Carpentry tools recovered from the wreck of a 16th-century sailing ship, the Mary Rose. From the top, a mallet, brace, plane, handle of a T-auger, handle of a gimlet, possible handle of a hammer, and rule. Stone and metal knives An upholstery regulator Main article: History of technology

Anthropologists believe that the use of tools was an important step in the evolution of mankind.[1] Because tools are used extensively by both humans and wild chimpanzees, it is widely assumed that the first routine use of tools took place prior to the divergence between the two species.[2] These early tools, however, were likely made of perishable materials such as sticks, or consisted of unmodified stones that cannot be distinguished from other stones as tools.

Stone artifacts only date back to about 2.5 million years ago.[3] However, a 2010 study suggests the hominin species Australopithecus afarensis ate meat by carving animal carcasses with stone implements. This finding pushes back the earliest known use of stone tools among hominins to about 3.4 million years ago.[4]

Finds of actual tools date back at least 2.6 million years in Ethiopia.[5] One of the earliest distinguishable stone tool forms is the hand axe.

Up until recently, weapons found in digs were the only tools of “early man” that were studied and given importance. Now, more tools are recognized as culturally and historically relevant. As well as hunting, other activities required tools such as preparing food, “…nutting, leatherworking, grain harvesting and woodworking…” Included in this group are “flake stone tools".

Tools are the most important items that the ancient humans used to climb to the top of the food chain; by inventing tools, they were able to accomplish tasks that human bodies could not, such as using a spear or bow and arrow to kill prey, since their teeth were not sharp enough to pierce many animals' skins. “Man the hunter” as the catalyst for Hominin change has been questioned. Based on marks on the bones at archaeological sites, it is now more evident that pre-humans were scavenging off of other predators' carcasses rather than killing their own food.[6]

Mechanical devices experienced a major expansion in their use in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome with the systematic employment of new energy sources, especially waterwheels. Their use expanded through the Dark Ages with the addition of windmills.

Machine tools occasioned a surge in producing new tools in the industrial revolution. Advocates of nanotechnology expect a similar surge as tools become microscopic in size.[7][8]

Functions

One can classify tools according to their basic functions:

  • Cutting and edge tools, such as the knife, scythe or sickle, are wedge-shaped implements that produce a shearing force along a narrow face. Ideally, the edge of the tool needs to be harder than the material being cut or else the blade will become dulled with repeated use. But even resilient tools will require periodic sharpening, which is the process of removing deformation wear from the edge. Other examples of cutting tools include gouges and drill bits.
  • Moving tools move large and tiny items. Many are levers which give the user a mechanical advantage. Examples of force-concentrating tools include the hammer which moves a nail or the maul which moves a stake. These operate by applying physical compression to a surface. In the case of the screwdriver, the force is rotational and called torque. By contrast, an anvil concentrates force on an object being hammered by preventing it from moving away when struck. Writing implements deliver a fluid to a surface via compression to activate the ink cartridge. Grabbing and twisting nuts and bolts with pliers, a glove, a wrench, etc. likewise move items by some kind of force.
  • Tools that enact chemical changes, including temperature and ignition, such as lighters and blowtorches.
  • Guiding, measuring and perception tools include the ruler, glasses, set square, sensors, straightedge, theodolite, microscope, monitor, clock, phone, printer
  • Shaping tools, such as molds, jigs, trowels.
  • Fastening tools, such as welders, rivet guns, nail guns, or glue guns.
  • Information and data manipulation tools, such as computers, IDE, spreadsheets

Some tools may be combinations of other tools. An alarm-clock is for example a combination of a measuring tool (the clock) and a perception tool (the alarm). This enables the alarm-clock to be a tool that falls outside of all the categories mentioned above.

There is some debate on whether to consider protective gear items as tools, because they do not directly help perform work, just protect the worker like ordinary clothing. They do meet the general definition of tools and in many cases are necessary for the completion of the work. Personal protective equipment includes such items as gloves, safety glasses, ear defenders and biohazard suits.

Simple machines Main article: Simple machine

A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force.[9] In general, they can be defined as the simplest mechanisms that use mechanical advantage (also called leverage) to multiply force.[10] Usually the term refers to the six classical simple machines which were defined by Renaissance scientists:[11]

  • Lever
  • Wheel and axle
  • Pulley
  • Inclined plane
  • Wedge
  • Screw
Tool substitution

Often, by design or coincidence, a tool may share key functional attributes with one or more other tools. In this case, some tools can substitute for other tools, either as a makeshift solution or as a matter of practical efficiency. "One tool does it all" is a motto of some importance for workers who cannot practically carry every specialized tool to the location of every work task; such as a carpenter who does not necessarily work in a shop all day and needs to do jobs in a customer's house. Tool substitution may be divided broadly into two classes: substitution "by-design", or "multi-purpose" , and substitution as makeshift. Substitution "by-design" would be tools that are designed specifically to accomplish multiple tasks using only that one tool.

Substitution as makeshift is when human ingenuity comes into play and a tool is used for its unintended purpose such as a mechanic using a long screw driver to separate a cars control arm from a ball joint instead of using a tuning fork. In many cases, the designed secondary functions of tools are not widely known. As an example of the former, many wood-cutting hand saws integrate a carpenter's square by incorporating a specially shaped handle that allows 90° and 45° angles to be marked by aligning the appropriate part of the handle with an edge and scribing along the back edge of the saw. The latter is illustrated by the saying "All tools can be used as hammers." Nearly all tools can be used to function as a hammer, even though very few tools are intentionally designed for it and even fewer work as well as the original.

Tools are also often used to substitute for many mechanical apparatuses, especially in older mechanical devices. In many cases a cheap tool could be used to occupy the place of a missing mechanical part. A window roller in a car could easily be replaced with a pair of vise-grips or regular pliers. A transmission shifter or ignition switch would be able to be replaced with a screw-driver. Again, these would be considered tools that are being used for their unintended purposes, substitution as makeshift. Tools such as a rotary tool would be considered the substitution "by-design", or "multi-purpose". This class of tools allows the use of one tool that has at least two different capabilities. "Multi-purpose" tools are basically multiple tools in one device/tool. Tools such as this are often power tools that come with many different attachments like a rotary tool does, so you could say that a power drill is a "multi-purpose" tool because you can do more than just one thing with a power drill.

Multi-use tools Bicycle multi-tool

A multi-tool is a hand tool that incorporates several tools into a single, portable device; the Swiss army knife represents one of the earliest examples. Other tools have a primary purpose but also incorporate other functionality - for example, lineman's pliers incorporate a gripper and cutter, and are often used as a hammer; and some hand saws incorporate a carpenter's square in the right-angle between the blade's dull edge and the saw's handle. This would also be the category in which the "multi-purpose" tools since they are also multiple tools in one (multi-use and multi-purpose can be used interchangeably). These types of tools were specifically made to catch the eye of many different craftsman who traveled to do their work. To these workers these types of tools were revolutionary because they were one tool or one device that could do several different things. With this new revolution of tools the traveling craftsman would not have to carry so many tools with them to job sites, being that their space would be limited to the vehicle they were driving. The problem of having to deal with so many different tools was solved with the overtaking of multi-use tools.

Use by other animals A Bonobo at the San Diego Zoo "fishing" for termites Main article: Tool use by animals

Observation has confirmed that a number of species can use tools including monkeys, apes, elephants, several birds, and sea otters. Philosophers originally thought that only humans had the ability to make tools, until zoologists observed birds[12] and monkeys[13][14][15] making tools. Now the unique relationship of humans with tools is considered to be that we are the only species that uses tools to make other tools.[16]

Tool metaphors

A telephone is a communication tool that interfaces between two people engaged in conversation at one level. It also interfaces between each user and the communication network at another level. It is in the domain of media and communications technology that a counter-intuitive aspect of our relationships with our tools first began to gain popular recognition. Marshall McLuhan famously said "We shape our tools. And then our tools shape us." McLuhan was referring to the fact that our social practices co-evolve with our use of new tools and the refinements we make to existing tools.

See also
  • Antique tool
  • Ergonomics
  • List of timber framing tools
  • Tool library
  • Toolbank
  • Toolmaker
References
  1. ^ Sam Lilley, Men, Machines and History: The Story of Tools and Machines in Relation to Social Progress, 1948 Cobbett Press.
  2. ^ Whiten, A., J. Goodall, W. C. McGrew, T. Nishida, V. Reynolds, Y. Sugiyama, C. E. G. Tutin, R. W. Wrangham, and C. Boesch. 1999. Cultures in Chimpanzees. Nature 399:682-685. Panger, M. A., A. S. Brooks, B. G. Richmond, and B. Wood. 2002. Older than the Oldowan? Rethinking the emergence of hominin tool use. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 11:235-245.
  3. ^ Jones, S., Martin, R. & Pilbeam, D., eds. (1994). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-32370-3. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Also ISBN 0-521-46786-1 (paperback)
  4. ^ McPherron, Shannon P.; Zeresenay Alemseged; Curtis W. Marean; Jonathan G. Wynn; Denne Reed; Denis Geraads; Rene Bobe; Hamdallah A. Bearat (2010). "Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia". Nature. 466 (7308): 857–860. Bibcode:2010Natur.466..857M. doi:10.1038/nature09248. PMID 20703305. 
  5. ^ Semaw, S., M. J. Rogers, J. Quade, P. R. Renne, R. F. Butler, M. Domínguez-Rodrigo, D. Stout, W. S. Hart, T. Pickering, and S. W. Simpson. 2003. 2.6-Million-year-old stone tools and associated bones from OGS-6 and OGS-7, Gona, Afar, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Evolution 45:169-177.
  6. ^ Holmes, Bob. "Man's early hunting role in doubt". Newscientist.com. Retrieved 12 November 2012. 
  7. ^ Nanotechnology: Big Potential In Tiny Particles, David Whelan. Retrieved on November 6, 2006
  8. ^ Will this Tiny Science Usher in the Next Industrial Revolution?, Katrina C. Arabe. Retrieved on November 6, 2006
  9. ^ Paul, Akshoy; Roy, Pijush; Mukherjee, Sanchayan (2005), Mechanical sciences: engineering mechanics and strength of materials, Prentice Hall of India, p. 215, ISBN 81-203-2611-3. 
  10. ^ Asimov, Isaac (1988), Understanding Physics, New York City, USA: Barnes & Noble, p. 88, ISBN 0-88029-251-2. 
  11. ^ Anderson, William Ballantyne (1914). Physics for Technical Students: Mechanics and Heat. New York City: McGraw Hill. pp. 112–122. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  12. ^ Selection of tool diameter by New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides, Jackie Chappell and Alex Kacelnik November 29, 2003
  13. ^ Calvin, William H. "The Throwing Madonna: Essays on the Brain". 
  14. ^ Host: Alan Alda (02-09-2005). "Chimp Minds". Scientific American Frontiers. Season 15. Episode 4https://www.pbs.org/saf/1504/resources/transcript.htm |transcripturl= missing title (help). PBS.  Check date values in: |= (help)
  15. ^ "Rolling Hills Wildlife Adventure: Chimpanzee". Archived from the original on 2016-05-23. 
  16. ^ Bjorklund, David F.; Bering, Jesse M. (5 June 1997). "Big brains, slow development and social complexity:The development and evolutionary origins of social cognition". In Cooper, Cary L. International review of industrial and organizational psychology. Robertson, Ivan T. John Wiley and Sons. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-471-96111-6. Retrieved 10 July 2011. 
External links
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Types of tools
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  • Grave goods
  • Jar burial
  • Long barrow
    • unchambered
    • Grønsalen
  • Megalithic tomb
  • Mummy
  • Passage grave
  • Rectangular dolmen
  • Ring cairn
  • Simple dolmen
  • Stone box grave
  • Tor cairn
  • Tumulus
  • Unchambered long cairn
Other cultural
  • Astronomy
    • sites
    • lunar calendar
  • Behavioral modernity
  • Origin of language
    • trepanning
  • Prehistoric medicine
  • Evolutionary musicology
    • music archaeology
  • Prehistoric music
    • Alligator drum
    • flutes
    • Divje Babe flute
    • gudi
  • Prehistoric numerals
  • Origin of religion
    • Paleolithic religion
    • Prehistoric religion
    • Spiritual drug use
  • Prehistoric warfare
  • Symbols
    • symbolism
Authority control
  • GND: 4065596-9
  • NARA: 10644093
  • NDL: 00561564


TP-Link HS300 WiFi Smart Power Strip w/ 6 Surge Protection Outlets & 3 USB Ports No Hub Required, Works with Alexa Echo & Google Assistant, 1-Pack, White
TP-Link HS300 WiFi Smart Power Strip w/ 6 Surge Protection Outlets & 3 USB Ports No Hub Required, Works with Alexa Echo & Google Assistant, 1-Pack, White
With independent control of 6 devices and extra USB ports to charge 3 others, the kasa smart Wi-Fi power strip is ideal for your family rooms, home office or small business, power up your office remotely and even your holiday lights. Remotely control each outlet with the kasa smart app or use voice commands with Alexa, Google assistant, or Microsoft cortana.

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$79.99



Himalayan Glow 1002 Pink Crystal Salt Lamp, (8-11 lbs), Natural
Himalayan Glow 1002 Pink Crystal Salt Lamp, (8-11 lbs), Natural
Comes with 15-watt bulb, Dimmer switch and 6-feet electric cord. ETL-listed (complete lamp). Purify the air and beautify the home. Relax in the warm glow of this Himalayan natural salt crystal lamp. It is wholesome and good for a creative mind. Bring divine harmony to any room with this beautiful salt crystal lamp. Its therapeutic glow of orange hues infuses a natural calm bringing the mind and body to a gradual sense of tranquility and wellbeing. Experience it for yourself. ►Specification power input: 120V/60Hzpower source: plug in bulbs: 15-watt E12 socket incandescent light bulbs. ►Package content: ☺1 x natural Himalayan salt lamp ☺1 x dimmer Switch 15W bulb (one pre-installed) ☺1 x user manual.

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$16.99
-$3.00(-15%)



Century Indoor 24-Hour Mechanical Outlet Timer, 3 Prong, 2-Pack
Century Indoor 24-Hour Mechanical Outlet Timer, 3 Prong, 2-Pack
Century Indoor 24-Hour Mechanical Outlet Timer with 3 Prong turns indoor lighting on and off at set times. Package includes 2 mini timers that can be used in two locations, which will give your home that lived in look while you're away. This plug-in timer provides up to 48 on/off settings per day and the cycle repeats every 24 hours. Easy to set in 30 minute intervals with segment pins that can easy push down or up. Use the manual override button to turn the timer on or outlet on, so you don't have to delete any preprogrammed settings. The compact design fits the bottom outlet without blocking outlet above. Plug fans, lamps or holiday lights in and set the timer to turn the device on and off so it won't remain on when unused. This Timer provides the safety and security as you come home to a lighted house. No fumbling for the light switch or tripping over obstacles in your way, the lights are on when you walk in the door. This timer is compatible with compact fluorescent lighting, LED bulbs. The Century Timer bring simplicity to your life, by maximizing convenience, security and energy savings.

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$11.99



BLACK+DECKER HHVI315JO42 Dustbuster Cordless Lithium Hand Vacuum, Flexi Blue
BLACK+DECKER HHVI315JO42 Dustbuster Cordless Lithium Hand Vacuum, Flexi Blue
The BLACK+DECKER HHVI315JO42 DUSTBUSTER Cordless Lithium Hand Vacuum, Flexi Blue, is ideal for picking up dirt and debris in your everyday life. This hand vac offers increased bowl capacity (31.8oz) which allows you to collect 50% more dirt before needing to empty (in comparison to HNV220BCZ01). The Lithium technology provides strong suction and extended run time. It has a washable bowl and filter which allows for thorough cleaning between jobs. The translucent, bagless dirt bowl makes it easy to see dirt and easy to empty. This vac also includes a crevice tool that provides access to hard to reach areas and it also has a brush which allows you to dust and vacuum upholstery. The wide mouth design effortlessly scoops up large debris and the cyclonic action helps to keep the filter clean and suction strong. 1.5 Amp Hours. This vac has a lightweight and portable design which makes for convenient cleaning. A wall mount provides a versatile storage solution. Includes: Hand Vac, Jack Plug Charger, Wall Mount, Push-In Crevice Tool, Push-In Brush.

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$24.99
-$10.00(-29%)



O'Keeffe's Working Hands Hand Cream, 3.4 ounce Jar
O'Keeffe's Working Hands Hand Cream, 3.4 ounce Jar
O'Keeffe's K0350002 Working Hands Hand Cream, 3.4 oz., Jar

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$5.90
-$2.10(-26%)



Woods 13547WD Outdoor Yard Stake with Photocell and Built-In Timer, 6 Grounded Outlets, 6ft Cord, Green
Woods 13547WD Outdoor Yard Stake with Photocell and Built-In Timer, 6 Grounded Outlets, 6ft Cord, Green
Yard Master 13547 6-Outlet Power Stake with Light Sensor and 6-Foot Cord. Contains 6-feet of 16/3-gauge cord, green color blends in with your landscaping. Accepts up to 6 plugged-in items at a time, weatherproof timer and outlet covers make this perfect for use any season. 15A rating at 125V, 16/3-gauge, SJTW(rated weatherproof). Featuring built-in rain-proof mechanical timer, auotmate and set lighting schedules. Several timer cycles include ON at dusk, OFF at dawn, OFF always, 2, 4, 6, and 8-hour cycles . May save you on energy costs, light sensor unit will automatically turn On/Off lights as needed. Ratings: 125V/15A/1875W Resistive; 125V/8A/1000W Tungsten. TOLL FREE HOTLINE, 1-800-561-4321. If you have immediate questions about application, installation, troubleshooting, or a damaged component, please call CCI Consumer product hotline at 1-800-561-4321 or email questions to: CCI.ConsumerSupport@southwire.com. Yard Master (TM ) is a registered trademark of Coleman Cable Inc.

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$15.19
-$9.41(-38%)



Beautural Portable Fabric Shaver and Lint Remover with 2-Speeds, Adjustable Shave Height, Dual Protection for Your Clothes, Quickly and Effectively Remove Fluff, Lint, and Bobbles
Beautural Portable Fabric Shaver and Lint Remover with 2-Speeds, Adjustable Shave Height, Dual Protection for Your Clothes, Quickly and Effectively Remove Fluff, Lint, and Bobbles
Beautural Portable Fabric Shaver: Hate when your favorite clothes or household furniture and linens look old and worn due to excessive lint and bobbles? Keep all your clothes and fabrics looking like new with Beautural Portable Fabric Shaver. Beautural’s mission is to create home and beauty products that are both modern and high quality. Come join our family of brands with over 5 million satisfied customers and counting. Beautural Fabric Shaver Features: 1. Ideal for safely shaving off lint and bobbles from a variety of fabrics. Includes wool products, linens, furniture, and all types of clothes. 2. Powered by 2 AA batteries so you can take it wherever you go. 3. Adjustable to suit all different fabric surfaces. Three adjustable shave heights and two speed options. 4. Extra large cutting head allows for quick and easy removal of fuzz. 5. Removable see-through lint collection container easy to empty Box Contains: 1 x Beautural Fabric Shaver 1 x Cleaning Brush 1 x Protective Cap 1 x User Manual Beautural Comprehensive Warranty: Here at Beautural, we stand by our products 100% with 30-day full refund and 12-month warranty. A happy purchasing experience is our #1 priority and we will happily send you a replacement fabric shaver if any issues arise. Note: Please place a garment on a flat surface when using the fabric shaver and make sure the surface has no wrinkles as this may cause damage. Batteries (2 x AA) are not included.

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$16.99
-$3.00(-15%)



Woods 59746WD Outdoor 24-Hour Photoelectric Timer with Remote Control 3-Outlet, Ideal for Automating Holiday Decorations and Christmas Lights, 1 Pack, Black
Woods 59746WD Outdoor 24-Hour Photoelectric Timer with Remote Control 3-Outlet, Ideal for Automating Holiday Decorations and Christmas Lights, 1 Pack, Black
Woods 59746 Outdoor 24-Hr Photoelectric Timer with Remote Control, 3-Outlet. Control outdoor lights with a push of a button from inside our home. Control outdoor lights and animated holiday decorations with a push of a button from inside your home. Automatically on at dusk and off at dawn or programmable on at dusk and off 2, 4, 6, or 8 hours later. Remote control manually overrides the timer, turns lights on or off from a distance up to 80 feet away - with 3 grounded outlets. Compatible with CFL, LED & incandescent lighting, cUL Listed. Rated 125V, 60Hz 10 A General Purpose/10 A Resistive/1000 W Tungsten/500 VA Electronic Ballast 120Vac 60Hz 8.3A Ballast 1/2 HP. The Woods (R) brand is a registered trademark of Coleman Cable Inc. TOLL FREE HOTLINE, 1-800-561-4321. If you have immediate questions about application, installation, troubleshooting, or a damaged component, please call CCI Consumer product hotline at 1-800-561-4321 or email questions to: CCI.ConsumerSupport@southwire.com

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$15.64
-$8.35(-35%)



MagnoGrip 311-090 Magnetic Wristband
MagnoGrip 311-090 Magnetic Wristband
100% polyester imported embedded with strong magnets for holding screws, scissors, and small tools provides a third helping hand when you need it most ideal for many woodworking, home improvement, and do-it yourself projects made of durable 1680d ballistic polyester one size fits all. WARNING: Cancer and Reproductive Harm – www.P65Warnings.ca.gov

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$12.23
-$1.10(-8%)



First Alert Powered Alarm SCO5CN Combination Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Detector, Battery Operated, 1 Pack
First Alert Powered Alarm SCO5CN Combination Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Detector, Battery Operated, 1 Pack
The First Alert SCO5CN Combination Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Alarm features dual sensors to detect both smoke and carbon monoxide in a single device. A photoelectric sensor detects the smoke most often produced by smoldering fires, and minimizes false alarms from cooking smoke or shower steam. Additionally, the advanced electrochemical CO sensor detects carbon monoxide leaks from multiple sources, such as faulty fuel-burning appliances, blocked chimneys, and generators running inside or too close to homes. A loud, 85-decibel siren alerts you to the threat; unique alarm sounds and indicator lights on its face distinguish a smoke warning from a carbon monoxide warning. This carbon monoxide and smoke detector is battery operated, so you don't need an electrician for installation. Requiring just two AA batteries and featuring an easy-access battery compartment for quick changes, this smoke and carbon monoxide detector has a single button that allows you to silence a false alarm or test the unit.

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$22.36
-$32.63(-59%)


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