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List of stock market crashes and bear markets
This is a list of stock market crashes and bear markets in Europe and United States. List of recessions in the United States List of economic crises

View Wikipedia Article

This is a list of stock market crashes and bear markets in Europe and United States.

  • 1 Table
  • 2 See also
  • 3 Notes
  • 4 References
Table [33] Name Date Country Causes Ref Tulip mania Bubble 1637 A bubble (1633–37) in the Netherlands during which contracts for bulbs of tulips reached extraordinarily high prices, and suddenly collapsed [1] The Mississippi Bubble 1720 Banque Royale by John Law stopped payments of its note in exchange for specie and as result caused economic collapse in France. South Sea Bubble of 1720 1720 Affected early European stock markets, during early days of chartered joint stock companies Bengal Bubble of 1769 1769 Primarily caused by the British East India Company, whose shares fell from £276 in December 1768 to £122 in 1784 Credit crisis of 1772 1772 Financial Crisis of 1791–92 1791 Shares of First bank of US boom and bust in Aug and Sept 1791. Groundwork of Alexander Hamilton's cooperation with the Bank of New York to end this event would be crucial in ending the Panic of 1792 next year. Panic of 1796–97 1796 A series of downturns in Atlantic credit markets led to broader commercial downturns in Great Britain and the United States. Panic of 1819 1819 Panic of 1825 1825 Panic of 1837 10 May 1837 Panic of 1847 1847 Panic of 1857 1857 Panic of 1866 1866 Black Friday 24 Sep 1869 Panic of 1873 9 May 1873 Initiated the Long Depression in the United States and much of Europe Paris Bourse crash of 1882 19 Jan 1882 Panic of 1884 1884 Encilhamento 1890 Lasting 3 years, 1890–1893, a boom and bust process that boomed in late 1880s and burst on early 1890s, causing a collapse in the Brazilian economy and aggravating an already unstable political situation. [2] [3] [4] [5] Panic of 1893 1893 Panic of 1896 1896 Panic of 1901 17 May 1901 Lasting 3 years, the market was spooked by the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901, coupled with a severe drought later the same year. Panic of 1907 Oct 1907 Lasting over a year, markets took fright after U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt had threatened to rein in the monopolies that flourished in various industrial sectors, notably railways. Wall Street Crash of 1929 24 Oct 1929 Lasting over 4 years, the bursting of the speculative bubble in shares led to further selling as people who had borrowed money to buy shares had to cash them in, when their loans were called in. Also called the Great Crash or the Wall Street Crash, leading to the Great Depression. Recession of 1937–38 1937 Lasting around a year, this share price fall was triggered by an economic recession within the Great Depression and doubts about the effectiveness of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal policy. Kennedy Slide of 1962 28 May 1962 Also known as the 'Flash Crash of 1962' [6] Brazilian Markets Crash of 1971 July 1971 Lasting through the 1970s and early-1980s, this was the end of a boom that started in 1969, compounded by the 1970s energy crisis coupled with early 1980s Latin American debt crisis. [7] [8] [9] 1973–74 stock market crash Jan 1973 Lasting 23 months, dramatic rise in oil prices, the miners' strike and the downfall of the Heath government. Souk Al-Manakh stock market crash Aug 1982 Black Monday 19 Oct 1987 Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange Crash June 1989 Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange Crash, due to its weak internal controls and absence of credit discipline, that led to its collapse, and of which it never recovered [10] [11] [12] Friday the 13th mini-crash 13 Oct 1989 Failed leveraged buyout of United Airlines causes crash Early 1990s recession July 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait in July 1990, causing oil prices to increase. The Dow dropped 18% in three months, from 2,911.63 on July 3 to 2,381.99 on October 16,1990. This recession lasted approximately 8 months. Japanese asset price bubble 1991 Lasting approximately twenty years, through at least the end of 2011, share and property price bubble bursts and turns into a long deflationary recession. Some of the key economic events during the collapse of the Japanese asset price bubble include the 1997 Asian financial crisis and the Dot-com bubble. In addition, more recent economic events, such as the late-2000s financial crisis and August 2011 stock markets fall have prolonged this period. Black Wednesday 16 Sep 1992 The Conservative government was forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) after they were unable to keep sterling above its agreed lower limit. 1997 Asian financial crisis 2 July 1997 Investors deserted emerging Asian shares, including an overheated Hong Kong stock market. Crashes occur in Thailand, Indonesia, South Korea, Philippines, and elsewhere, reaching a climax in the October 27, 1997 mini-crash. October 27, 1997, mini-crash 27 Oct 1997 Global stock market crash that was caused by an economic crisis in Asia. 1998 Russian financial crisis 17 Aug 1998 The Russian government devalues the ruble, defaults on domestic debt, and declares a moratorium on payment to foreign creditors. Dot-com bubble 10 March 2000 Collapse of a technology bubble. Economic effects arising from the September 11 attacks 11 Sep 2001 The September 11 attacks caused global stock markets to drop sharply. The attacks themselves caused approximately $40 billion in insurance losses, making it one of the largest insured events ever. See world economic effects arising from the September 11 attacks. Stock market downturn of 2002 9 Oct 2002 Downturn in stock prices during 2002 in stock exchanges across the United States, Canada, Asia, and Europe. After recovering from lows reached following the September 11 attacks, indices slid steadily starting in March 2002, with dramatic declines in July and September leading to lows last reached in 1997 and 1998. See stock market downturn of 2002. Chinese stock bubble of 2007 27 Feb 2007 The SSE Composite Index of the Shanghai Stock Exchange tumbles 9% from unexpected selloffs, the largest drop in 10 years, triggering major drops in worldwide stock markets. [13] [14] [15] United States bear market of 2007–09 11 Oct 2007 Till June 2009, the Dow Jones Industrial Average, Nasdaq Composite and S&P 500 all experienced declines of greater than 20% from their peaks in late 2007. [16] [17] Financial crisis of 2007–08 16 Sep 2008 On September 16, 2008, failures of large financial institutions in the United States, due primarily to exposure of securities of packaged subprime loans and credit default swaps issued to insure these loans and their issuers, rapidly devolved into a global crisis resulting in a number of bank failures in Europe and sharp reductions in the value of equities (stock) and commodities worldwide. The failure of banks in Iceland resulted in a devaluation of the Icelandic króna and threatened the government with bankruptcy. Iceland was able to secure an emergency loan from the IMF in November. Later on, U.S. President George W. Bush signs the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act into law, creating a Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) to purchase failing bank assets. Had disastrous effects on the world economy along with world trade. [18] [19] 2009 Dubai debt standstill 27 Nov 2009 Dubai requests a debt deferment following its massive renovation and development projects, as well as the Great Recession. The announcement causes global stock markets to drop. [20] European sovereign debt crisis 27 April 2010 Standard & Poor's downgrades Greece's sovereign credit rating to junk four days after the activation of a €45-billion EU–IMF bailout, triggering the decline of stock markets worldwide and of the Euro's value, and furthering a European sovereign debt crisis. [21] [22] [23] 2010 Flash Crash 6 May 2010 The Dow Jones Industrial Average suffers its worst intra-day point loss, dropping nearly 1,000 points before partially recovering. [24] August 2011 stock markets fall 1 Aug 2011 S&P 500 entered a short-lived bear market between 02nd May 2011 (intraday high: 1,370.58) and 04 October 2011 (intraday low: 1,074.77), a decline of 21.58%. The stock market rebounded thereafter and ended the year flat. 2015–16 Chinese stock market crash 12 June 2015 China stock market crash starts in June and continues into July and August. In January 2016, Chinese stock market experiences a steep sell-off which sets off a global rout. [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] 2015–16 stock market selloff 18 August 2015 The Dow Jones fell 588 points during a two-day period, 1,300 points from August 18–21. On Monday, August 24, world stock markets were down substantially, wiping out all gains made in 2015, with interlinked drops in commodities such as oil, which hit a six-year price low, copper, and most of Asian currencies, but the Japanese yen, losing value against the United States dollar. With this plunge, an estimated ten trillion dollars had been wiped off the books on global markets since June 3. [30] [31] [32] See also
  • List of recessions in the United States
  • List of economic crises
  • List of recessions in the United Kingdom
  • Economic bubble
  • List of banking crises
  • List of largest daily changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average
  1. ^ Dash, Mike "Tulipomania: The Story of the World's Most Coveted Flower & the Extraordinary Passions It Aroused" 2001
  2. ^ James D. Henderson, Helen Delpar & Maurice P. Brungardt "A Reference Guide to Latin American History" Richard Weldon Editor – M.E.Sharpe Inc. 2000, ISBN I563247445 page 172, 2nd column, "1890" (2nd paragraph)
  3. ^ Jeffrey D. Needell; "A Tropical Belle Epoque: Elite Culture and Society in Turn-of-the-Century" Cambridge University Press 1987 Pages 10 & 12
  4. ^ Gail D. Triner; "Banking and economic development: Brazil, 1889–1930" Palgrave™ 2000 ISBN 0-312-23399-X Pages 44–74
  5. ^ Viscount of Taunay; "O Encilhamento; scenas contemporaneas da Bolsa do Rio de Janeiro em 1890, 1891 e 1892" (in Portuguese) ("The Encilhamento: contemporary scenes of Rio Stock Exchange in 1890, 1891 & 1892") Editora Melhoramentos, Rio 1893
  6. ^ "Back to the Future: Lessons From the Forgotten 'Flash Crash' of 1962"
  7. ^ Gary Previts, Peter Walton & Peter Wolnizer "A Global History of Accounting, Financial Reporting And Public Policy; Americas – Volume 14B" The University of Sydney/The Accounting Foundation, Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2011 ISBN 978-0-85724-811-4 Page 41, from the last paragraph
  8. ^ Detailed PDF Archived 2012-12-03 at the Wayback Machine. Academic work about the subject (in Portuguese) UNICAMP june 2007
  9. ^ Marta Barcellos & Simone Azevedo; "Histórias do Mercado de Capitais no Brasil" ("Histories of Financial Markets in Brazil") (in Portuguese) Campus Elsevier Brazil 2011 ISBN 85-352-3994-4 Introduction and Chapter 4
  10. ^ Markham, Jeffrey W. "A Financial History of the United States; Volume III (1970–2001)" M.E.Sharpe 2002 ISBN 0-7656-0730-1 page 147, from last paragraph
  11. ^ Article Archived 2013-10-21 at the Wayback Machine. about the decline of Rio Stock Exchange. Last 3 paragraphs are about the 1989 crash
  12. ^ Barcellos & Azevedo 2011, Pages 141-142; 149 to 151, and 154
  13. ^ Chen, Shu-Ching Jean; Kwok, Vivian Wai-yin (27 February 2007). "Black Tuesday In China". Forbes. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 
  14. ^ "Share sale knocks Chinese market". BBC News. 27 February 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 
  15. ^ Han, Pliny (27 February 2007). "Chinese shares slump sharply, down 8.84%". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 
  16. ^ Browning, E. S. (28 June 2008). "Dow Hits Bear-Market Territory, Signaling Woe for Economy". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 
  17. ^ Korkki, Phyllis (4 March 2007). "A Scary Tuesday Was No Black Monday". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 
  18. ^ "IMF approves $2.1bn Iceland loan". BBC News. 20 November 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 
  19. ^ Sahadi, Jeanne (4 October 2008). "Bailout is law". CNN. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 
  20. ^ Robertson, David (30 November 2009). "Investors face huge losses as debt-ridden Dubai World is abandoned by government". The Times. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 
  21. ^ "Greek bonds rated 'junk' by Standard & Poor's". BBC News. 2010-04-27. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  22. ^ "Greece crisis: Euro markets hit again". BBC News. 2010-04-28. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  23. ^ "Greece crisis deepens on global market sell-off". CNN. 2010-04-28. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  24. ^ Moyer, Liz (7 May 2010). "Was The Market Mayhem A Mistake? Maybe Not". Forbes. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 
  25. ^ "Chinese stock market beats Wall Street and FTSE by closing up in 2015". 
  26. ^ "Today's Stock Market News and Analysis from". 
  27. ^ Editorial, Reuters. "Shanghai stocks poised to end 2015 up nearly 10 pct, beating Wall Street". 
  28. ^ "Shanghai Composite Index ends year up nearly 10%". 
  29. ^ Mulligan, Mark (29 July 2015). "Chinese consumers 'laugh off' stock market gyrations". 
  30. ^ Shan Li; Andrea Chang; Paresh Dave (August 21, 2015). "Stock market suffers worst one-day drop since 2008". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 24, 2015. 
  31. ^ "customRangeStart":1440054000,"customRangeEnd":1440399600,"range":"custom","allowChartStacking":true} "DJI Interactive Stock Quote". Yahoo Finance. Yahoo! Inc. August 24, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2015. 
  32. ^ Popper, Nathaniel; Gough, Neil (August 23, 2015). "Global Stocks Tumble Further Amid Doubts About China". New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2015. 
  33. ^ Popper, Nathaniel; Gough, Neil (August 23, 2015). "Global Stocks Tumble Further Amid Doubts About China". New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2015. 
  • Sobel, Robert (1988). Panic on Wall Street: A Classic History of America's Financial Disasters with a New Exploration of the Crash of 1987. New York: Truman Talley Books/Dutton. ISBN 0-525-48404-3. 
  • v
  • t
  • e
Stock market crashes17th century
  • Early stock market crashes in the Dutch Republic
18th century
  • The Mississippi Bubble
  • South Sea Bubble of 1720
  • Panic of 1792
  • Panic of 1796–97
19th century
  • Panic of 1819
  • Panic of 1825
  • Panic of 1837
  • Panic of 1847
  • Panic of 1857
  • Black Friday (1869)
  • Panic of 1873
  • Paris Bourse crash of 1882
  • Panic of 1884
  • Encilhamento
  • Panic of 1893
  • Panic of 1896
20th century
  • Panic of 1901
  • Panic of 1907
  • Depression of 1920–21
  • Wall Street Crash of 1929
  • Recession of 1937–38
  • 1971 Brazilian markets crash
  • 1973–74 stock market crash
  • Souk Al-Manakh stock market crash (1982)
  • Japanese asset price bubble (1986–1991)
  • Black Monday (1987)
  • Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange collapse
  • Friday the 13th mini-crash (1989)
  • 1990s Japanese stock market crash
  • Dot-com bubble (1995–2000)
  • 1997 Asian financial crisis
  • October 27, 1997, mini-crash
  • 1998 Russian financial crisis
21st century
  • Economic effects arising from the September 11 attacks (2001)
  • Stock market downturn of 2002
  • Chinese stock bubble of 2007
  • United States bear market of 2007–09
  • Financial crisis of 2007–08
  • Dubai debt standstill
  • European debt crisis
  • 2010 Flash Crash
  • 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami (Aftermath)
  • August 2011 stock markets fall
  • 2011 Bangladesh share market scam
  • 2015–16 Chinese stock market turbulence
  • 2015–16 stock market crash
  • 2016 United Kingdom EU referendum (Aftermath)
  • 2018 Cryptocurrency crash
See also: List of stock market crashes and bear markets



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