Paul Krugman
Paul Krugman

Paul Krugman
Paul Robin Krugman (/ˈkrʊɡmən/ (listen) KRUUG-mən; born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics

View Wikipedia Article

American economist "Krugman" redirects here. For the surname, see Krugman (surname).

Paul KrugmanKrugman at a press conference after receiving the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2008Born (1953-02-28) February 28, 1953 (age 66)
Albany, New York, U.S.InstitutionCity University of New York
Princeton University
London School of EconomicsFieldInternational economics
MacroeconomicsSchool or
traditionKeynesian economics
New Keynesian macroeconomicsAlma materMassachusetts Institute of Technology
Yale UniversityDoctoral
advisorRüdiger DornbuschInfluencesAvinash Dixit
Rudi Dornbusch
John Maynard Keynes
Paul Samuelson
Joseph StiglitzContributionsInternational trade theory
New trade theory
New economic geographyAwardsJohn Bates Clark Medal (1991)
Princess of Asturias Awards (2004)
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (2008)Information at IDEAS / RePEc

Paul Robin Krugman (/ˈkrʊɡmən/ (listen) KRUUG-mən;[1][2] born February 28, 1953)[3] is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.[4] In 2008, Krugman was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his contributions to New Trade Theory and New Economic Geography.[5] The Prize Committee cited Krugman's work explaining the patterns of international trade and the geographic distribution of economic activity, by examining the effects of economies of scale and of consumer preferences for diverse goods and services.[6]

Krugman was previously a professor of economics at MIT, and later at Princeton University. He retired from Princeton in June 2015, and holds the title of professor emeritus there. He also holds the title of Centenary Professor at the London School of Economics.[7] Krugman was President of the Eastern Economic Association in 2010, and is among the most influential economists in the world.[8] Krugman is known in academia for his work on international economics (including trade theory and international finance),[9][10] economic geography, liquidity traps, and currency crises.

Krugman is the author or editor of 27 books, including scholarly works, textbooks, and books for a more general audience, and has published over 200 scholarly articles in professional journals and edited volumes.[11] He has also written several hundred columns on economic and political issues for The New York Times, Fortune and Slate. A 2011 survey of economics professors named him their favorite living economist under the age of 60.[12] As a commentator, Krugman has written on a wide range of economic issues including income distribution, taxation, macroeconomics, and international economics. Krugman considers himself a modern liberal, referring to his books, his blog on The New York Times, and his 2007 book The Conscience of a Liberal.[13] His popular commentary has attracted widespread attention and comments, both positive and negative.[14]

Contents Early life and education Paul Krugman, Roger Tsien, Martin Chalfie, Osamu Shimomura, Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Masukawa, Nobel Prize Laureates 2008, at a press conference at the Swedish Academy of Science in Stockholm.

Krugman was born to a Jewish family,[15] the son of Anita and David Krugman. In 1922, his paternal grandparents immigrated to the United States from Brest, Belarus, at that time a part of Poland.[16] He was born in Albany, New York, and grew up in Merrick, a hamlet in Nassau County.[17] He graduated from John F. Kennedy High School in Bellmore.[18] According to Krugman, his interest in economics began with Isaac Asimov's Foundation novels, in which the social scientists of the future use a new science of "psychohistory" to try to save civilization. Since present-day science fell far short of "psychohistory", Krugman turned to economics as the next best thing.[19][20]

Krugman earned his B.A. [21] summa cum laude in economics from Yale University in 1974, and went on to pursue a PhD in economics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In 1977, he successfully completed his PhD in three years, with a thesis titled Essays on flexible exchange rates. While at MIT, he was part of a small group of MIT students sent to work for the Central Bank of Portugal for three months in the summer of 1976, during the chaotic aftermath of the Carnation Revolution.[22]

Krugman later praised his PhD thesis advisor, Rudi Dornbusch, as "one of the great economics teachers of all time" and said that he "had the knack of inspiring students to pick up his enthusiasm and technique, but find their own paths".[23] In 1978, Krugman presented a number of ideas to Dornbusch, who flagged as interesting the idea of a monopolistically competitive trade model. Encouraged, Krugman worked on it and later wrote, " knew within a few hours that I had the key to my whole career in hand".[22] In that same year, Krugman wrote "The Theory of Interstellar Trade", a tongue-in-cheek essay on computing interest rates on goods in transit near the speed of light. He says he wrote it to cheer himself up when he was "an oppressed assistant professor".[24]

Academic career Krugman giving a lecture at the German National Library in Frankfurt in 2008.

Krugman became an assistant professor at Yale University in September 1977. He joined the faculty of MIT in 1979. From 1982 to 1983, Krugman spent a year working at the Reagan White House as a staff member of the Council of Economic Advisers. He rejoined MIT as a full professor in 1984. Krugman has also taught at Stanford, Yale, and the London School of Economics.[25]

In 2000, Krugman joined Princeton University as Professor of Economics and International Affairs. He is also currently Centenary Professor at the London School of Economics, and a member of the Group of Thirty international economic body.[4] He has been a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research since 1979.[26] Krugman was President of the Eastern Economic Association in 2010.[27] In February 2014, he announced that he would be retiring from Princeton in June 2015 and that he would be joining the faculty at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York.[28]

Paul Krugman has written extensively on international economics, including international trade, economic geography, and international finance. The Research Papers in Economics project ranks him among the world's most influential economists.[8] Krugman's International Economics: Theory and Policy, co-authored with Maurice Obstfeld, is a standard undergraduate textbook on international economics.[29] He is also co-author, with Robin Wells, of an undergraduate economics text which he says was strongly inspired by the first edition of Paul Samuelson's classic textbook.[30] Krugman also writes on economic topics for the general public, sometimes on international economic topics but also on income distribution and public policy.

The Nobel Prize Committee stated that Krugman's main contribution is his analysis of the effects of economies of scale, combined with the assumption that consumers appreciate diversity, on international trade and on the location of economic activity.[6] The importance of spatial issues in economics has been enhanced by Krugman's ability to popularize this complicated theory with the help of easy-to-read books and state-of-the-art syntheses. "Krugman was beyond doubt the key player in 'placing geographical analysis squarely in the economic mainstream' ... and in conferring it the central role it now assumes."[31]

New trade theory

Prior to Krugman's work, trade theory (see David Ricardo and Heckscher–Ohlin model) emphasized trade based on the comparative advantage of countries with very different characteristics, such as a country with a high agricultural productivity trading agricultural products for industrial products from a country with a high industrial productivity. However, in the 20th century, an ever-larger share of trade occurred between countries with similar characteristics, which is difficult to explain by comparative advantage. Krugman's explanation of trade between similar countries was proposed in a 1979 paper in the Journal of International Economics, and involves two key assumptions: that consumers prefer a diverse choice of brands, and that production favors economies of scale.[32] Consumers' preference for diversity explains the survival of different versions of cars like Volvo and BMW. However, because of economies of scale, it is not profitable to spread the production of Volvos all over the world; instead, it is concentrated in a few factories and therefore in a few countries (or maybe just one). This logic explains how each country may specialize in producing a few brands of any given type of product, instead of specializing in different types of products.

Graph illustrating Krugman's 'core-periphery' model. The horizontal axis represents costs of trade, while the vertical axis represents the share of either region in manufacturing. Solid lines denote stable equilibria, dashed lines denote unstable equilibria.

Krugman modeled a 'preference for diversity' by assuming a CES utility function like that in a 1977 paper by Avinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz.[33][34] Many models of international trade now follow Krugman's lead, incorporating economies of scale in production and a preference for diversity in consumption.[6][35] This way of modeling trade has come to be called New Trade Theory.[31]

Krugman's theory also took into account transportation costs, a key feature in producing the "home market effect", which would later feature in his work on the new economic geography. The home market effect "states that, ceteris paribus, the country with the larger demand for a good shall, at equilibrium, produce a more than proportionate share of that good and be a net exporter of it."[31] The home market effect was an unexpected result, and Krugman initially questioned it, but ultimately concluded that the mathematics of the model were correct.[31]

When there are economies of scale in production, it is possible that countries may become 'locked into' disadvantageous patterns of trade.[36] Krugman points out that although globalization has been positive on a whole, since the 1980s the process known as hyper-globalization has at least played a part in rising inequality.[37] Nonetheless, trade remains beneficial in general, even between similar countries, because it permits firms to save on costs by producing at a larger, more efficient scale, and because it increases the range of brands available and sharpens the competition between firms.[38] Krugman has usually been supportive of free trade and globalization.[39][40] He has also been critical of industrial policy, which New Trade Theory suggests might offer nations rent-seeking advantages if "strategic industries" can be identified, saying it's not clear that such identification can be done accurately enough to matter.[41]

New economic geography

It took an interval of eleven years, but ultimately Krugman's work on New Trade Theory (NTT) converged to what is usually called the "new economic geography" (NEG), which Krugman began to develop in a seminal 1991 paper, "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography", published in the Journal of Political Economy.[42] In Krugman's own words, the passage from NTT to NEG was "obvious in retrospect; but it certainly took me a while to see it. ... The only good news was that nobody else picked up that $100 bill lying on the sidewalk in the interim."[43] This would become Krugman's most-cited academic paper: by early 2009, it had 857 citations, more than double his second-ranked paper.[31] Krugman called the paper "the love of my life in academic work."[44]

The "home market effect" that Krugman discovered in NTT also features in NEG, which interprets agglomeration "as the outcome of the interaction of increasing returns, trade costs and factor price differences."[31] If trade is largely shaped by economies of scale, as Krugman's trade theory argues, then those economic regions with most production will be more profitable and will therefore attract even more production. That is, NTT implies that instead of spreading out evenly around the world, production will tend to concentrate in a few countries, regions, or cities, which will become densely populated but will also have higher levels of income.[6][10]

Agglomeration and economies of scale

Manufacturing is characterized by increasing returns to scale and less restrictive and expansive land qualifications as compared to agricultural uses. So, geographically where can manufacturing be predicted to develop? Krugman states that manufacturing's geographical range is inherently limited by economies of scale, but also that manufacturing will establish and accrue itself in an area of high demand. Production that occurs adjacent to demand will result in lower transportation costs, but demand, as a result, will be greater due to concentrated nearby production. These forces act upon one another simultaneously, producing manufacturing and population agglomeration. Population will increase in these areas due to the more highly developed infrastructure and nearby production, therefore lowering the expense of good, while economies of scale provide varied choices of goods and services. These forces will feed into each other until the greater portion of the urban population and manufacturing hubs are concentrated into a relatively insular geographic area.[45]

International finance

Krugman has also been influential in the field of international finance. As a graduate student, Krugman visited the Federal Reserve Board, where Stephen Salant and Dale Henderson were completing their discussion paper on speculative attacks in the gold market. Krugman adapted their model for the foreign exchange market, resulting in a 1979 paper on currency crises in the Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, which showed that misaligned fixed exchange rate regimes are unlikely to end smoothly: instead, they end in a sudden speculative attack.[46] Krugman's paper is considered one of the main contributions to the 'first generation' of currency crisis models,[47][48] and it is his second-most-cited paper (457 citations as of early 2009).[31]

In response to the global financial crisis of 2008, Krugman proposed, in an informal "mimeo" style of publication,[49] an "international finance multiplier", to help explain the unexpected speed with which the global crisis had occurred. He argued that when, "highly leveraged financial institutions , which do a lot of cross-border investment lose heavily in one market ... they find themselves undercapitalized, and have to sell off assets across the board. This drives down prices, putting pressure on the balance sheets of other HLIs, and so on." Such a rapid contagion had hitherto been considered unlikely because of "decoupling" in a globalized economy.[50][51][52] He first announced that he was working on such a model on his blog, on October 5, 2008.[53] Within days of its appearance, it was being discussed on some popular economics-oriented blogs.[54][55] The note was soon being cited in papers (draft and published) by other economists,[56] even though it had not itself been through ordinary peer review processes.

Macroeconomics and fiscal policy

Krugman has done much to revive discussion of the liquidity trap as a topic in economics.[57][58][59][60] He recommended pursuing aggressive fiscal policy and unconventional monetary policy to counter Japan's lost decade in the 1990s, arguing that the country was mired in a Keynesian liquidity trap.[61][62][63] The debate he started at that time over liquidity traps and what policies best address them continues in the economics literature.[64]

Krugman had argued in The Return of Depression Economics that Japan was in a liquidity trap in the late 1990s, since the central bank could not drop interest rates any lower to escape economic stagnation.[65] The core of Krugman's policy proposal for addressing Japan's liquidity trap was inflation targeting, which, he argued "most nearly approaches the usual goal of modern stabilization policy, which is to provide adequate demand in a clean, unobtrusive way that does not distort the allocation of resources."[63] The proposal appeared first in a web posting on his academic site.[66] This mimeo-draft was soon cited, but was also misread by some as repeating his earlier advice that Japan's best hope was in "turning on the printing presses", as recommended by Milton Friedman, John Makin, and others.[67][68][69]

Krugman has since drawn parallels between Japan's 'lost decade' and the late 2000s recession, arguing that expansionary fiscal policy is necessary as the major industrialized economies are mired in a liquidity trap.[70] In response to economists who point out that the Japanese economy recovered despite not pursuing his policy prescriptions, Krugman maintains that it was an export-led boom that pulled Japan out of its economic slump in the late-90s, rather than reforms of the financial system.[71]

Krugman was one of the most prominent advocates of the 2008–2009 Keynesian resurgence, so much so that economics commentator Noah Smith referred to it as the "Krugman insurgency."[72][73][74] His view that most peer-reviewed macroeconomic research since the mid-1960s is wrong, preferring simpler models developed in the 1930s, has been criticized by some modern economists, like John H. Cochrane.[75] In June 2012, Krugman and Richard Layard launched A manifesto for economic sense, where they call for greater use of fiscal stimulus policy to reduce unemployment and foster growth.[76] The manifesto received over four thousand signatures within two days of its launch,[77] and has attracted both positive and critical responses.[78][79]

President George W. Bush poses for a photo with Nobel Prize winners Monday, Nov. 24, 2008, in the Oval Office. Joining President Bush from left are, Dr. Paul Krugman, Economics Prize Laureate; Dr. Martin Chalfie, Chemistry Prize Laureate; and Dr. Roger Tsien, Chemistry Prize Laureate. Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences Wikinews has related news: American Paul Krugman wins Nobel prize for economics

Krugman was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (informally the Nobel Prize in Economics), the sole recipient for 2008. This prize includes an award of about $1.4 million and was given to Krugman for his work associated with New Trade Theory and the New Economic Geography.[80] In the words of the prize committee, "By having integrated economies of scale into explicit general equilibrium models, Paul Krugman has deepened our understanding of the determinants of trade and the location of economic activity."[81]

Awards Play media Paul Krugman accepts EPI Distinguished Economist Award (2011)

A May 2011 Hamilton College analysis of 26 politicians, journalists, and media commentators who made predictions in major newspaper columns or television news shows from September 2007 to December 2008 found that Krugman was the most accurate. Only nine of the prognosticators predicted more accurately than chance, two were significantly less accurate, and the remaining 14 were no better or worse than a coin flip. Krugman was correct in 15 out of 17 predictions, compared to 9 out of 11 for the next most accurate media figure, Maureen Dowd.[98]

Foreign Policy named Krugman one of its 2012 FP Top 100 Global Thinkers "for wielding his acid pen against austerity".[99]

Author Krugman at the 2010 Brooklyn Book Festival.

In the 1990s, besides academic books and textbooks, Krugman increasingly began writing books for a general audience on issues he considered important for public policy. In The Age of Diminished Expectations (1990), he wrote in particular about the increasing US income inequality in the "New Economy" of the 1990s. He attributes the rise in income inequality in part to changes in technology, but principally to a change in political atmosphere which he attributes to Movement Conservatives.

In September 2003, Krugman published a collection of his columns under the title, The Great Unraveling, about the Bush administration's economic and foreign policies and the US economy in the early 2000s. His columns argued that the large deficits during that time were generated by the Bush administration as a result of decreasing taxes on the rich, increasing public spending, and fighting the Iraq War. Krugman wrote that these policies were unsustainable in the long run and would eventually generate a major economic crisis. The book was a best-seller.[83][100][101]

In 2007, Krugman published The Conscience of a Liberal, whose title refers to Barry Goldwater's Conscience of a Conservative.[102] It details the history of wealth and income gaps in the United States in the 20th century. The book describes how the gap between rich and poor declined greatly in middle of the century, and then widened in the last two decades to levels higher even than in the 1920s. In Conscience, Krugman argues that government policies played a much greater role than commonly thought both in reducing inequality in the 1930s through 1970s and in increasing it in the 1980s through the present, and criticizes the Bush administration for implementing policies that Krugman believes widened the gap between the rich and poor.

Krugman also argued that Republicans owed their electoral successes to their ability to exploit the race issue to win political dominance of the South.[103][104] Krugman argues that Ronald Reagan had used the "Southern Strategy" to signal sympathy for racism without saying anything overtly racist,[105] citing as an example Reagan's coining of the term "welfare queen".[106]

In his book, Krugman proposed a "new New Deal", which included placing more emphasis on social and medical programs and less on national defense.[107] In his review of Conscience of a Liberal, the liberal journalist and author Michael Tomasky credited Krugman with a commitment "to accurate history even when some fudging might be in order for the sake of political expediency."[103] In a review for The New York Times, Pulitzer prize-winning historian David M. Kennedy stated, "Like the rants of Rush Limbaugh or the films of Michael Moore, Krugman's shrill polemic may hearten the faithful, but it will do little to persuade the unconvinced".[108]

In late 2008, Krugman published a substantial updating of an earlier work, entitled The Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of 2008. In the book, he discusses the failure of the United States regulatory system to keep pace with a financial system increasingly out-of-control, and the causes of and possible ways to contain the greatest financial crisis since the 1930s. In 2012, Krugman published End This Depression Now!, a book which argues that looking at the available historical economic data, fiscal cuts and austerity measures only deprive the economy of valuable funds that can circulate and further add to a poor economy – people cannot spend, and markets cannot thrive if there is not enough consumption and there cannot be sufficient consumption if there is large unemployment. He argues that while it is necessary to cut debt, it is the worst time to do so in an economy that has just suffered the most severe of financial shocks, and must be done instead when an economy is near full-employment when the private sector can withstand the burden of decreased government spending and austerity. Failure to stimulate the economy either by public or private sectors will only unnecessarily lengthen the current economic depression and make it worse.[109]


Martin Wolf has written that Krugman is both the "most hated and most admired columnist in the US".[110] Economist J. Peter Neary has noted that Krugman "has written on a wide range of topics, always combining one of the best prose styles in the profession with an ability to construct elegant, insightful and useful models."[111] Neary added that "no discussion of his work could fail to mention his transition from Academic Superstar to Public Intellectual. Through his extensive writings, including a regular column for The New York Times, monographs and textbooks at every level, and books on economics and current affairs for the general public ... he has probably done more than any other writer to explain economic principles to a wide audience."[111] Krugman has been described as the most controversial economist in his generation[112][113] and according to Michael Tomasky since 1992 he has moved "from being a center-left scholar to being a liberal polemicist."[103]

From the mid-1990s onwards, Krugman wrote for Fortune (1997–99)[26] and Slate (1996–99),[26] and then for The Harvard Business Review, Foreign Policy, The Economist, Harper's, and Washington Monthly. In this period Krugman critiqued various positions commonly taken on economic issues from across the political spectrum, from protectionism and opposition to the World Trade Organization on the left to supply-side economics on the right.[114]

During the 1992 presidential campaign, Krugman praised Bill Clinton's economic plan in The New York Times, and Clinton's campaign used some of Krugman's work on income inequality. At the time, it was considered likely that Clinton would offer him a position in the new administration, but allegedly Krugman's volatility and outspokenness caused Clinton to look elsewhere.[112] Krugman later said that he was "temperamentally unsuited for that kind of role. You have to be very good at people skills, biting your tongue when people say silly things."[114][115] In a Fresh Dialogues interview, Krugman added, "you have to be reasonably organized ... I can move into a pristine office and within three days it will look like a grenade went off."[116]

In 1999, near the height of the dot com boom, The New York Times approached Krugman to write a bi-weekly column on "the vagaries of business and economics in an age of prosperity."[114] His first columns in 2000 addressed business and economic issues, but as the 2000 US presidential campaign progressed, Krugman increasingly focused on George W. Bush's policy proposals. According to Krugman, this was partly due to "the silence of the media – those 'liberal media' conservatives complain about ..."[114] Krugman accused Bush of repeatedly misrepresenting his proposals, and criticized the proposals themselves.[114] After Bush's election, and his perseverance with his proposed tax cut in the midst of the slump (which Krugman argued would do little to help the economy but substantially raise the fiscal deficit), Krugman's columns grew angrier and more focused on the administration. As Alan Blinder put it in 2002, "There's been a kind of missionary quality to his writing since then ... He's trying to stop something now, using the power of the pen."[114] Partly as a result, Krugman's twice-weekly column on the Op-Ed page of The New York Times has made him, according to Nicholas Confessore, "the most important political columnist in America ... he is almost alone in analyzing the most important story in politics in recent years – the seamless melding of corporate, class, and political party interests at which the Bush administration excels."[114] In an interview in late 2009, Krugman said his missionary zeal had changed in the post-Bush era and he described the Obama administration as "good guys but not as forceful as I'd like ... When I argue with them in my column this is a serious discussion. We really are in effect speaking across the transom here."[117] Krugman says he's more effective at driving change outside the administration than inside it, "now, I'm trying to make this progressive moment in American history a success. So that's where I'm pushing."[117]

Krugman's columns have drawn criticism as well as praise. A 2003 article in The Economist[118] questioned Krugman's "growing tendency to attribute all the world's ills to George Bush", citing critics who felt that "his relentless partisanship is getting in the way of his argument" and claiming errors of economic and political reasoning in his columns.[83] Daniel Okrent, a former The New York Times ombudsman, in his farewell column, criticized Krugman for what he said was "the disturbing habit of shaping, slicing and selectively citing numbers in a fashion that pleases his acolytes but leaves him open to substantive assaults."[119][120]

Krugman's New York Times blog is "The Conscience of a Liberal", devoted largely to economics and politics.

Five days after 9/11 terrorist attacks, Krugman argued in his column that calamity was "partly self-inflicted" due to transfer of responsibility for airport security from government to airlines. His column provoked an angry response and The New York Times was flooded with complaints. According to Larissa MacFarquhar of The New Yorker, while some people[who?] thought that he was too partisan to be a columnist for The New York Times, he was revered on the left.[121][122] Similarly, on the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 on the United States Krugman again provoked a controversy by accusing on his New York Times blog former U.S. President George W. Bush and former New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani of rushing "to cash in on the horror" after the attacks and describing the anniversary as "an occasion for shame".[123][124]

Krugman was noteworthy for his fierce opposition to the 2016 presidential campaign of Bernie Sanders. On January 19, 2016, he wrote an article which criticized Bernie Sanders for his perceived lack of political realism, compared Sanders' plans for healthcare and financial reform unfavorably to those of Hillary Clinton, and cited criticisms of Sanders from other liberal policy wonks like Mike Konczal and Ezra Klein.[125] Later, Krugman wrote an article which accused Sanders of " for easy slogans over hard thinking" and attacking Hillary Clinton in a way that was "just plain dishonest".[126]

On the 12 July 2016, Krugman tweeted "leprechaun economics", in response to Central Statistics Office (Ireland) data that 2015 GDP grew 26.3% and 2015 GNP grew 18.7%. The leprechaun economics affair (proved in 2018 to be Apple restructuring its double Irish subsidiaries), led to the Central Bank of Ireland introducing a new economic statistic, Modified gross national income (or GNI*) to better measure the Irish economy (2016 Irish GDP is 143% of 2016 Irish GNI*). The term leprechaun economics has since been used by Krugman,[127][128] and others,[129][130] to describe distorted/unsound economic data.

Krugman has expressed reservations regarding the Trump administration.[131]

East Asian growth

In a 1994 Foreign Affairs article, Paul Krugman argued that it was a myth that the economic successes of the East Asian 'tigers' constituted an economic miracle. He argued that their rise was fueled by mobilizing resources and that their growth rates would inevitably slow.[132] His article helped popularize the argument made by Lawrence Lau and Alwyn Young, among others, that the growth of economies in East Asia was not the result of new and original economic models, but rather from high capital investment and increasing labor force participation, and that total factor productivity had not increased. Krugman argued that in the long term, only increasing total factor productivity can lead to sustained economic growth. Krugman's article was highly criticized in many Asian countries when it first appeared, and subsequent studies disputed some of Krugman's conclusions. However, it also stimulated a great deal of research, and may have caused the Singapore government to provide incentives for technological progress.[133]

During the 1997 Asian financial crisis, Krugman advocated currency controls as a way to mitigate the crisis. Writing in a Fortune magazine article, he suggested exchange controls as "a solution so unfashionable, so stigmatized, that hardly anyone has dared suggest it."[134] Malaysia was the only country that adopted such controls, and although the Malaysian government credited its rapid economic recovery on currency controls, the relationship is disputed.[135] An empirical study found that the Malaysian policies produced faster economic recovery and smaller declines in employment and real wages.[136] Krugman later stated that the controls might not have been necessary at the time they were applied, but that nevertheless "Malaysia has proved a point – namely, that controlling capital in a crisis is at least feasible."[137] Krugman more recently pointed out that emergency capital controls have even been endorsed by the IMF, and are no longer considered radical policy.[138][139][140]

U.S. economic policies

In the early 2000s, Krugman repeatedly criticized the Bush tax cuts, both before and after they were enacted. Krugman argued that the tax cuts enlarged the budget deficit without improving the economy, and that they enriched the wealthy – worsening income distribution in the US.[101][141][142][143][144] Krugman advocated lower interest rates (to promote investment and spending on housing and other durable goods), and increased government spending on infrastructure, military, and unemployment benefits, arguing that these policies would have a larger stimulus effect, and unlike permanent tax cuts, would only temporarily increase the budget deficit.[144][145] In addition, he was against Bush's proposal to privatize social security.[146]

In August 2005, after Alan Greenspan expressed concern over housing markets, Krugman criticized Greenspan's earlier reluctance to regulate the mortgage and related financial markets, arguing that " like a man who suggests leaving the barn door ajar, and then – after the horse is gone – delivers a lecture on the importance of keeping your animals properly locked up."[147] Krugman has repeatedly expressed his view that Greenspan and Phil Gramm are the two individuals most responsible for causing the subprime crisis. Krugman points to Greenspan and Gramm for the key roles they played in keeping derivatives, financial markets, and investment banks unregulated, and to the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, which repealed Great Depression era safeguards that prevented commercial banks, investment banks and insurance companies from merging.[148][149][150][151]

Krugman has also been critical of some of the Obama administration's economic policies. He has criticized the Obama stimulus plan as being too small and inadequate given the size of the economy and the banking rescue plan as misdirected; Krugman wrote in The New York Times: "an overwhelming majority believes that the government is spending too much to help large financial institutions. This suggests that the administration's money-for-nothing financial policy will eventually deplete its political capital."[152] In particular, he considered the Obama administration's actions to prop up the US financial system in 2009 to be impractical and unduly favorable to Wall Street bankers.[120] In anticipation of President Obama's Job Summit in December 2009, Krugman said in a Fresh Dialogues interview, "This jobs summit can't be an empty exercise ... he can't come out with a proposal for $10 or $20 Billion of stuff because people will view that as a joke. There has to be a significant job proposal ... I have in mind something like $300 Billion."[153]

Krugman has recently criticized China's exchange rate policy, which he believes to be a significant drag on global economic recovery from the Late-2000s recession, and he has advocated a "surcharge" on Chinese imports to the US in response.[154] Jeremy Warner of The Daily Telegraph accused Krugman of advocating a return to self-destructive protectionism.[155]

In April 2010, as the Senate began considering new financial regulations, Krugman argued that the regulations should not only regulate financial innovation, but also tax financial-industry profits and remuneration. He cited a paper by Andrei Shleifer and Robert Vishny released the previous week, which concludes that most innovation was in fact about "providing investors with false substitutes for assets like bank deposits," and once investors realize the sheer number of securities that are unsafe a "flight to safety" occurs which necessarily leads to "financial fragility."[156][157]

In his June 28, 2010 column in The New York Times, in light of the recent G-20 Toronto Summit, Krugman criticized world leaders for agreeing to halve deficits by 2013. Krugman claimed that these efforts could lead the global economy into the early stages of a "third depression" and leave "millions of lives blighted by the absence of jobs." He advocated instead the continued stimulus of economies to foster greater growth.[158]

In a 2014 review of Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century he stated we are in a Second Gilded Age.[159]

Economic views Keynesian economics

Krugman identifies as a Keynesian[160][161] and a saltwater economist,[162] and he has criticized the freshwater school on macroeconomics.[163][164] Although he has used New Keynesian theory in his work, he has also criticized it for lacking predictive power and for hewing to ideas like the efficient-market hypothesis and rational expectations.[164] Since the 1990s, he has promoted the practical use of the IS-LM model of the neoclassical synthesis, pointing out its relative simplicity compared to New Keynesian models, and its continued currency in economic policy analysis.[165][166][167]

In the wake of the 2007–2009 financial crisis he has remarked that he is "gravitating towards a Keynes-Fisher-Minsky view of macroeconomics."[168] Post-Keynesian observers cite commonalities between Krugman's views and those of the Post-Keynesian school.[169][170][171] In recent academic work, he has collaborated with Gauti Eggertsson on a New Keynesian model of debt-overhang and debt-driven slumps, inspired by the writings of Irving Fisher, Hyman Minsky, and Richard Koo. Their work argues that during a debt-driven slump, the "paradox of toil", together with the paradox of flexibility, can exacerbate a liquidity trap, reducing demand and employment.[172]

Free trade

Krugman's support for free trade in the 1980s–1990s provoked some ire from the anti-globalization movement.[173][174][175] In 1987 he quipped that, "If there were an Economist's Creed, it would surely contain the affirmations 'I understand the Principle of Comparative Advantage' and 'I advocate Free Trade'."[176][177] However, Krugman argues in the same article that, given the findings of New Trade Theory, " has shifted from optimum to reasonable rule of thumb ... it can never again be asserted as the policy that economic theory tells us is always right." In the article, Krugman comes out in favor of free trade given the enormous political costs of actively engaging in strategic trade policy and because there is no clear method for a government to discover which industries will ultimately yield positive returns. He also notes that increasing returns and strategic trade theory do not disprove the underlying truth of comparative advantage.

In 2015, Krugman noted his ambivalence about the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership, as the agreement was not mainly about trade and, "whatever you may say about the benefits of free trade, most of those benefits have already been realized" .[178]

Between 2007 and 2016, he supported totally opposite positions. Indeed, from 2016, he denounces the protectionism of the United States, while in 2009, he asked for a 25% tariff on Chinese imports[179]:

From 2016, he writes that protectionism does not cause recessions but can make economies less efficient and reduce long-term growth. Indeed, if there is a trade war, imports would decrease as much as exports, so employment would not be strongly impacted.[180] He considers that the United States should not repeat Reagan's 1971 policy on taxes and quotas on imported products. [181]According to him, protectionism can cause disruptions in the "value chains" and impact American workers, even if there will be no recessions. Thus, protectionism would disturb communities in the same way as free trade in the past. In addition, other countries would take retaliatory measures against US exports.[182]He believes that the United States should not exit or change NAFTA because it would cause economic losses and disruptions to businesses, jobs, and communities.[183] He notes that although free trade has harmed industries, communities and some workers, it is a win-win system that enriches both parties to the agreement, while a trade war is negative for all parties involved.[184] He writes that the trade deficit does not pose a clear and immediate threat to the economy. "True, at times of high unemployment deficits can cost us jobs. But in normal times trade deficits do not reduce overall employment or impoverish us either." Moreover, according to him, tariffs and trade restrictions do not really reduce the overall trade deficit. It is not foreign exporters who pay customs duties but rather consumers. And the trade deficit would not be due to the lack of trade protection but to the lack of national savings.[185]

In 2009, contrary to what he wrote in 2016, he advised the United States to adopt protectionist measures against China. He was asking for a 25% customs duty on Chinese products. He believes that the United States should repeat Reagan's 1971 protectionist policy on imported products. Paul Krugman writes that China is pursuing a mercantilist and predatory policy, i.e. it keeps its currency undervalued to accumulate trade surpluses by using capital flow control. The Chinese government sells renminbi and buys foreign currency in order to keep the renminbi low, which gives the Chinese manufacturing sector a cost advantage over its competitors. China's surpluses are draining US demand and slowing the economic recovery in other countries with which China trades. He therefore admits that trade deficits are impoverishing the United States and represents a threat . Krugman writes: "This is the most distorted exchange rate policy a great nation has ever followed". He notes that the undervalued renmenbi is tantamount to imposing high tariffs or providing export subsidies. A cheaper currency improves employment and competitiveness because it makes imports more expensive while making domestic products more attractive. He expects Chinese surpluses to destroy 1.4 million American jobs until 2011. He proposes to take inspiration from the policy of the United States in 1971 under Reagan, i.e. the temporary taxation of certain countries' products, to force them to readjust their currencies. As a result, he is asking for a general rate of 25% on Chinese products. So, he thinks that tariffs and trade restrictions may really reduce the overall trade deficit. And the trade deficit would therefore be due to the lack of protection against China, which manipulates its currency, and not to the lack of national savings.[186][187] He adds, "we currently live in a world where mercantilism works". So it is a not win-win system that enriches both parties to the agreement but rather a system where some countries get rich at the expense of others. He writes "What China is doing amounts to a seriously predatory trade policy, the kind of thing that is supposed to be prevented by the threat of sanctions"..."I say confront the issue head on". He explained that in a trade conflict, with a depressed world economy, it is the surplus countries that have a lot to lose, while the deficit countries could win, even if there are retaliatory measures and economic disruption. "Victims of this mercantilism have little to lose from a commercial confrontation. "[188] He argue that protectionism is not a bad thing when unemployment is high or when the economic situation is not good. He quotes Paul Samuelson: "With employment less than full ... all the debunked mercantilistic arguments turn out to be valid." In addition, he supports the protectionism of other countries towards China: "Other countries are taking (modest) protectionist measures precisely because China refuses to let its currency rise. And more such measures are entirely appropriate".[189][190][191]

In 2007, he note that free trade is not good for everyone. Way back in 1941 Paul Samuelson and Wolfgang Stolper pointed out that even the most conventional economic analysis suggests that some group within a country - and possibly a large group - actually loses from trade. Krugman notes that in the free trade system, the real wages of less educated workers fall due to competition from low-cost imports. Indeed, wages fall more than import prices and the problem is aggravated because trade is increasingly with low-wage countries.[192]

In 2016, he write that protectionism does not lead to recessions. Indeed, in a trade war, since exports and imports will decrease equally, for the world as a whole, the negative effect of a decrease in exports will be offset by the expansionary effect of a decrease in imports. So according to him, "trade wars are a wash". In addition, he notes that Smoot-Hawley tariff didn't cause the Great Depression. The decline in trade between 1929 and 1933 "was almost entirely a consequence of the Depression, not a cause". Trade barriers were a response to depression, partly a consequence of deflation[193]

In 2016, he write in contradiction with his own advice to the United States: "it’s also true that much of the elite defense of globalization is basically dishonest: false claims of inevitability, scare tactics (protectionism causes depressions!), vastly exaggerated claims for the benefits of trade liberalization and the costs of protection, hand-waving away the large distributional effects that are what standard models actually predict. I hope, by the way, that I haven’t done any of that"..."So the elite case for ever-freer trade is largely a scam"[194]

Finally, Paul Krugman received the Nobel Prize in 2008, for demonstrating a theory that free trade is not necessarily best [195]. So according to him [196]: "There is still a case for free trade as a good policy, and as a useful target in the practical world of politics, but it can never again be asserted as the policy that economic theory tells us is always right." "The strategic trade policy argument thus shows that at least under some circumstances a government, by supporting its firms in international competition, can raise national welfare at another country’s expense".

Political views

Krugman describes himself as liberal, and has explained that he views the term "liberal" in the American context to mean "more or less what social democratic means in Europe".[102] In a 2009 Newsweek article, Evan Thomas described Krugman as having "all the credentials of a ranking member of the East coast liberal establishment" but also as someone who is anti-establishment, a "scourge of the Bush administration", and a critic of the Obama administration.[120] In 1996, Newsweek's Michael Hirsh remarked,

.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}

Say this for Krugman: though an unabashed liberal ... he's ideologically colorblind. He savages the supply-siders of the Reagan–Bush era with the same glee as he does the 'strategic traders' of the Clinton administration.[112]

Krugman has at times advocated free markets in contexts where they are often viewed as controversial. He has written against rent control and land-use restrictions in favor of market supply and demand,[197][198] likened the opposition against free trade and globalization to the opposition against evolution via natural selection (1996),[174] opposed farm subsidies,[199] argued that sweatshops are preferable to unemployment,[39] dismissed the case for living wages (1998),[200] and argued against mandates, subsidies, and tax breaks for ethanol (2000).[201] In 2003, he questioned the usefulness of NASA's manned space flights given the available technology and their high financial cost compared to their general benefits.[202] Krugman has also criticized U.S. zoning laws[203] and European labor market regulation.[204][205] He calls current Israeli policy "narrow-minded" and "basically a gradual, long-run form of national suicide", saying that it's "bad for Jews everywhere, not to mention the world".[206]

Krugman endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the run-up for the 2016 U.S. presidential election.[207]

U.S. race relations

Krugman has criticized the Republican Party leadership for what he sees as a strategic (but largely tacit) reliance on racial divisions.[208][209][210] In his Conscience of a Liberal, he wrote:

The changing politics of race made it possible for a revived conservative movement, whose ultimate goal was to reverse the achievements of the New Deal, to win national elections – even though it supported policies that favored the interests of a narrow elite over those of middle- and lower-income Americans.[211]

On working in the Reagan administration

Krugman worked for Martin Feldstein when the latter was appointed chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers and chief economic advisor to President Ronald Reagan. He later wrote in an autobiographical essay, "It was, in a way, strange for me to be part of the Reagan Administration. I was then and still am an unabashed defender of the welfare state, which I regard as the most decent social arrangement yet devised."[22] Krugman found the time "thrilling, then disillusioning". He did not fit into the Washington political environment, and was not tempted to stay on.[22]

On Gordon Brown vs David Cameron

According to Krugman, Gordon Brown and his party were unfairly blamed for the late-2000s financial crisis.[212] He has also praised the former British Prime Minister, whom he described as "more impressive than any US politician" after a three-hour conversation with him.[213] Krugman asserted that Brown "defined the character of the worldwide financial rescue effort" and urged British voters not to support the opposition Conservative Party in the 2010 General Election, arguing their Party Leader David Cameron "has had little to offer other than to raise the red flag of fiscal panic".[212][214]

On Iraq War

Krugman opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq. He wrote in his New York Times column: "What we should have learned from the Iraq debacle was that you should always be skeptical and that you should never rely on supposed authority. If you hear that ‘everyone’ supports a policy, whether it’s a war of choice or fiscal austerity, you should ask whether ‘everyone’ has been defined to exclude anyone expressing a different opinion."[215]

On Donald Trump

Krugman has been a vocal critic of Donald Trump and his administration.[216] His criticisms have included the president's climate change proposals, the Republican tax plan and Trump's foreign policy initiatives. Krugman has often used his New York Times Op-Ed column to set out arguments against the President's policies.

Personal life

Krugman has been married twice. His first wife, Robin L. Bergman, is a designer. He is currently married to Robin Wells, an academic economist who received her BA from the University of Chicago and her PhD from the University of California, Berkeley.[217] She, as did Krugman, taught at MIT. Together, Krugman and his wife have collaborated on several economics textbooks. Although rumors began to circulate in early 2007 that Krugman's "son" was working for Hillary Clinton's campaign, Krugman reiterated in his New York Times op-ed column that he and his wife are childless.[218][219][220]

Krugman currently lives in New York City.[221] Upon retiring from Princeton after fifteen years of teaching in June 2015, he addressed the issue in his column, stating that while he retains the utmost praise and respect for Princeton, he wishes to reside in New York City and hopes to focus more on public policy issues.[222] He subsequently became a professor at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York and a distinguished scholar at the Graduate Center's Luxembourg Income Study Center.[222][223]

Krugman reports that he is a distant relative of conservative journalist David Frum.[224] He has described himself as a "Loner. Ordinarily shy. Shy with individuals."[225]

Published works Academic books (authored or coauthored) Academic books (edited or coedited) Economics textbooks Books for a general audience Selected academic articles See also References
  1. ^ Krugman, Paul (May 18, 2012). "Head Still Talking". The Conscience of a Liberal. The New York Times.
  2. ^ Blodget, Henry (November 22, 2014). "Ladies And Gentlemen, We Have Finally Learned The Right Way To Say 'Krugman'!". Business Insider.
  3. ^ "Paul Krugman". Encyclopædia Britannica. June 8, 2017.
  4. ^ a b "About Paul Krugman". krugmanonline. W. W. Norton & Company. 2012.
  5. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2008".
  6. ^ a b c d Nobel Prize Committee, "The Prize in Economic Sciences 2008"
  7. ^ "Lionel Robbins Memorial Lectures 2009: The Return of Depression Economics". London School of Economics, Centre for Economic Performance. June 8, 2009.
  8. ^ a b "Economist Rankings at IDEAS – Top 10% Authors, as of May 2016". Research Papers in Economics. May 2016. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  9. ^ Note: Krugman modeled a 'preference for diversity' by assuming a CES utility function like that in A. Dixit and J. Stiglitz (1977), 'Monopolistic competition and optimal product diversity', American Economic Review 67.
  10. ^ a b Forbes, October 13, 2008, "Paul Krugman, Nobel"
  11. ^ "Columnist Biography: Paul Krugman". The New York Times. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  12. ^
  13. ^ The New York Times, "The Conscience of a Liberal." Retrieved August 6, 2009
  14. ^ "The one-handed economist", The Economist, November 13, 2003, retrieved August 10, 2011
  15. ^ Encyclopedia of American Jewish History, Volume 1 edited by Stephen Harlan Norwood, Eunice G. Pollack p. 721
  16. ^ Dunham, Chris (July 14, 2009). "In Search of a Man Selling Krug". Retrieved October 4, 2011.
  17. ^ Krugman, Paul (June 26, 2015). "Friday Night Music: Got To Admit It's Getting Better". The New York Times. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  18. ^ Associated Press, "Paul Krugman, LI Native, wins Nobel in economics"[permanent dead link],Newsday, October 14, 2008
  19. ^ Interview, U.S. Economist Krugman Wins Nobel Prize in Economics "PBS, Jim Lehrer News Hour", October 13, 2008, transcript Retrieved October 14, 2008
  20. ^ The New York Times, August 6, 2009, "Up Front: Paul Krugman"
  21. ^ "Paul Krugman Biography |".
  22. ^ a b c d Incidents From My Career, by Paul Krugman, Princeton University Press, Retrieved December 10, 2008
  23. ^ Paul Krugman, 2002, Rudi Dornbusch
  24. ^ Paul Krugman, March 11, 2008, The New York Times blog, "Economics: the final frontier"
  25. ^ Krugman Curriculum Vitae
  26. ^ a b c d Princeton Weekly Bulletin, October 20, 2008, "Biography of Paul Krugman", 98(7)
  27. ^ "Home – Eastern Economic Association". Eastern Economic Association.
  28. ^ Krugman, Paul (February 28, 2014), "Changes (Personal/Professional)", The New York Times, retrieved July 18, 2014, I have informed Princeton that I will be retiring at the end of next academic year, that is, in June 2015. In August 2015 I will join the faculty of the Graduate Center, City University of New York, as a professor in the Ph.D. program in economics. I will also become a distinguished scholar at the Graduate Center's Luxembourg Income Study Center.
  29. ^ "Sources of international friction and cooperation in high-technology development and trade." National Academies Press, 1996, p. 190
  30. ^ Paul Krugman (December 13, 2009). "Paul Samuelson, RIP". The New York Times. One of the things Robin Wells and I did when writing our principles of economics textbook was to acquire and study a copy of the original, 1948 edition of Samuelson's textbook.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g Behrens, Kristian; Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric (2009). "Krugman's Papers in Regional Science: The 100 dollar bill on the sidewalk is gone and the 2008 Nobel Prize well-deserved". Papers in Regional Science. 88 (2): 467–89. doi:10.1111/j.1435-5957.2009.00241.x.
  32. ^ Arvind Panagariya (October 13, 2008). "Paul Krugman, Nobel". Forbes.
  33. ^ Dixit, Avinash; Stiglitz, Joseph (1977). "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity". American Economic Review. 67 (3): 297–308. JSTOR 1831401.
  34. ^ Kikuchi, Toru (2010). "The Dixit-Stiglitz-Krugman Trade Model: A Geometric Note". Discussion Papers from Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University (1006).
  35. ^ Rosser, J. Barkley (2011). "2: The New Economic Geography Approach". Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity. Springer. p. 24. The workhorse model of this approach since 1991 has been the model of monopolistic competition due to Avinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz (1977). It was used by Paul Krugman (1979, 1980) to provide an approach to analyzing increasing returns in international trade.
  36. ^ Krugman, P. (1981). "Trade, accumulation, and uneven development". Journal of Development Economics. 8 (2): 149–61. doi:10.1016/0304-3878(81)90026-2. hdl:10419/160238.
  37. ^ Paul Krugman.[permanent dead link] in UBS Nobel Perspectives interview, 2008.
  38. ^ "Bold strokes: a strong economic stylist wins the Nobel", The Economist, October 16, 2008.
  39. ^ a b In Praise of Cheap Labor by Paul Krugman, Slate, March 21, 1997
  40. ^ (He writes on p. xxvi of his book The Great Unraveling that "I still have the angry letter Ralph Nader sent me when I criticized his attacks on globalization.")
  41. ^ Strategic trade policy and the new international economics, Paul R. Krugman (ed), The MIT Press, p. 18, ISBN 978-0-262-61045-2
  42. ^ "Honoring Paul Krugman" Economix blog of The New York Times, Edward Glaeser, October 13, 2008.
  43. ^ Krugman (1999) "Was it all in Ohlin?"
  44. ^ Krugman PR (2008), "Interview with the 2008 laureate in economics Paul Krugman", December 6, 2008. Stockholm, Sweden.
  45. ^
  46. ^ "Currency Crises". Retrieved October 4, 2011.
  47. ^ Sarno, Lucio; Mark P. Taylor (2002). The Economics of Exchange Rates. Cambridge University Press. pp. 245–64. ISBN 978-0-521-48584-5.
  48. ^ Craig Burnside, Martin Eichenbaum, and Sergio Rebelo (2008), "Currency crisis models", New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd ed.
  49. ^ "The International Finance Multiplier", P. Krugman, October 2008
  50. ^ "Global Economic Integration and Decoupling", Donald L. Kohn, speech at the International Research Forum on Monetary policy, Frankfurt, Germany, 06-26-2008; from website for the Board of Governors for the Federal Reserve System. Retrieved 08-20-2009, June 26, 2008
  51. ^ Nayan Chanda, YaleGlobal Online, orig. from Businessworld February 8, 2008 "Decoupling Demystified"
  52. ^ "The myth of decoupling," Sebastien Walti, February 2009
  53. ^ "The International Finance Multiplier", The Conscience of a Liberal (blog), 10-05-2008. Retrieved 09-20-2009
  54. ^ Andrew Leonard, "Krugman: 'We are all Brazilians now'", "How the World Works", 10-07-2008
  55. ^ "Krugman: The International Finance Multiplier", Mark Thoma, Economist's View, 10-06-2008,
  56. ^ "The geography of finance: after the storm", R O'Brien, A Keith, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, June 2009 2(2): 245–65 doi:10.1093/cjres/rsp015
  57. ^ Japanese fixed income markets: money, bond and interest rate derivatives, Jonathan Batten, Thomas A. Fetherston, Peter G. Szilagyi (eds.) Elsevier Science, November 30, 2006, ISBN 978-0-444-52020-3 p. 137
  58. ^ Ben Bernanke, "Japanese Monetary Policy: a case of self-induced paralysis?", in Japan's financial crisis and its parallels to U.S. experience, Ryōichi Mikitani, Adam Posen (ed), Institute for International Economics, October 2000 ISBN 978-0-88132-289-7 p. 157
  59. ^ "Some Observations on the Return of the Liquidity Trap" Archived September 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Scott Sumner, Cato Journal, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Winter 2002).
  60. ^ Reconstructing Macroeconomics: Structuralist Proposals and Critiques of the Mainstream, Lance Taylor, Harvard University Press, p. 159: "Kregel (2000) points out that there are at least three theories of the liquidity trap in the literature – Keynes own analyses ... Hicks' 1936 and 1937 ... and a view that can be attributed to Fisher in the 1930s and Paul Krugman in latter days"
  61. ^ Paul Krugman. "Paul Krugman's Japan page". Retrieved October 4, 2011.
  62. ^ Krugman, Paul R.; Dominquez, Kathryn M.; Rogoff, Kenneth (1998). "It's Baaack: Japan's Slump and the Return of the Liquidity Trap". Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. 1998 (2): 137–205. doi:10.2307/2534694. JSTOR 2534694.
  63. ^ a b Krugman, Paul (2000), "Thinking About the Liquidity Trap", Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, v.14, no.4, Dec 2000, pp. 221–37.
  64. ^ "Reply to Nelson and Schwartz", Paul Krugman, Journal of Monetary Economics, v. 55, no. 4, pp. 857–60 05-23-2008
  65. ^ Krugman, Paul (1999). "The Return of Depression Economics", pp. 70–77. W. W. Norton, New York ISBN 0-393-04839-X
  66. ^ "Japan's Trap", May 2008. Retrieved 08-22-2009
  67. ^ "Further Notes on Japan's Liquidity Trap", Paul Krugman
  68. ^ Restoring Japan's economic growth, Adam Posen, Petersen Institute, September 1, 1998, ISBN 978-0-88132-262-0 , p. 123,
  69. ^ "What is wrong with Japan?", Nihon Keizai Shinbun, 1997
  70. ^ Krugman, Paul (June 15, 2009). "Stay the Course". The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2009.
  71. ^ "Some Reasons Why a New Crisis Needs a New Paradigm of Economic Thought", Keiichiro Kobayashi, RIETI Report No.108, Research Institute of Economy, Trade & Industry (Japan), 07-31-2009
  72. ^ Robert Skidelsky (2009). Keynes: The Return of the Master. Allen Lane. pp. 47–50, 58. ISBN 978-1-84614-258-1.
  73. ^ Noah Smith (March 21, 2012). "Die the Krugman insurgency fail?". Brad DeLong. Retrieved May 29, 2012.
  74. ^ Henry Farrell and John Quiggin (March 2012). "Consensus, Dissensus and Economic Ideas: The Rise and Fall of Keynesianism During the Economic Crisis" (PDF). The Center for the Study of Development Strategies. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 25, 2013. Retrieved May 29, 2012.
  75. ^ Cochrane, John. "How Did Paul Krugman Get It So Wrong?", Institute of Economic Affairs, 2011.
  76. ^ Paul Krugman and Richard Layard (June 27, 2012). "A Manifesto for Economic Sense". Retrieved July 11, 2012.
  77. ^ David Blanchflower (July 2, 2012). "David Blanchflower: Yet more nails in Osborne's economic coffin". The Independent. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
  78. ^ Katrina vanden Heuvel (July 9, 2012). "Krugman's Manifesto for Economic Common Sense". The Nation. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
  79. ^ Stephen King (chief economist HSBC) (July 9, 2012). "Krugman and Layard suffer from optimism bias". Financial Times. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
  80. ^ Catherine Rampell (October 13, 2008). "Paul Krugman Wins Economics Nobel". Retrieved October 13, 2008.
  81. ^ Prize Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, October 13, 2008, Scientific background on the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2008, "Trade and Geography – Economies of Scale, Differentiated Products and Transport Costs"
  82. ^ Avinash Dixit, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 7, No. 2 (Spring, 1993), pp. 173–88, In Honor of Paul Krugman: Winner of the John Bates Clark Medal, Retrieved March 28, 2007.
  83. ^ a b c The Economist, November 13, 2003, "Paul Krugman, one-handed economist"
  84. ^ "Adam Smith Award". Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
  85. ^ Mother Jones: Paul Krugman Archived December 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., August 7, 2005. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
  86. ^ Paul Krugman Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, 2004. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
  87. ^ "Citation presented by Linda Bell, Associate Professor of Economics". May 28, 2004. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
  88. ^ "Nobel Prize in Economics". Swedish Academy. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
  89. ^ "EPI at 25: Honoring Paul Krugman". Economic Policy Institute. November 1, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  90. ^ "Loeb Award Winners". UCLA Anderson School of Management. June 28, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  91. ^ "Honoris Causa a Paul Krugman" (in Portuguese). Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Archived from the original on August 18, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2012.
  92. ^ "Paul Krugman: Doctor honoris causa by three Portuguese universities". Portuguese American Journal. February 28, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2012.
  93. ^ "Honorary graduate Paul Krugman". University of Toronto. June 14, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2013.
  94. ^ "Economist Professor Paul Krugman receives James Joyce Award from UCD Literary & Historical Society". University College Dublin. January 14, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
  95. ^ "Welcome Professor Krugman as the Sanjaya Lall Visiting Professor of Business and Development". Green Templeton College, Oxford. May 7, 2014. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  96. ^ College, Green Templeton. "Home". Green Templeton College.
  97. ^ "Oxford announces honorary degrees for 2016 | University of Oxford".
  98. ^ Donaldson et al. (May, 2011) "Are Talking Heads Blowing Hot Air? An Analysis of the Accuracy of Forecasts in the Political Media" Hamilton Public Policy Project
  99. ^ "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. November 26, 2012. Archived from the original on November 28, 2012. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  100. ^ "The Great Unraveling: Losing Our Way in the New Century". Powell's Books. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  101. ^ a b Krugman, Paul, Rolling Stone. December 14, 2006, "The Great Wealth Transfer"
  102. ^ a b "Nobelpristagaren i ekonomi 2008: Paul Krugman", speech by Paul Krugman (Retrieved December 26, 2008) 00:43 "The title of The Conscience of a Liberal ... is a reference to a book published almost 50 years ago in the United States called The Conscience of a Conservative by Barry Goldwater. That book is often taken to be the origin, the start, of a movement that ended up dominating U.S. politics that reached its first pinnacle under Ronald Reagan and then reached its full control of the U.S. government for most of the last eight years."
  103. ^ a b c Michael Tomasky, The New York Review of Books, November 22, 2007, "The Partisan"
  104. ^ Krugman, Paul. The Conscience of a Liberal, 2007, W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-06069-1 p. 182
  105. ^ Conscience of a Liberal, p. 102
  106. ^ Conscience of a Liberal, p. 108
  107. ^ October 17, 2007 – Krugman "On Healthcare, Tax Cuts, Social Security, the Mortgage Crisis and Alan Greenspan" Archived November 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, in response to Alan Greenspan's September 24 appearance Archived October 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine with Naomi Klein on Democracy Now!
  108. ^ "Malefactors of Megawealth" David M. Kennedy
  109. ^ "Paul Krugman's Prescription For A 'Depression'". NPR Books. National Public Radio. Retrieved May 9, 2012.
  110. ^ Martin Wolf (May 24, 2012). "Lunch with the FT: Paul Krugman". Financial Times. Retrieved May 29, 2012.
  111. ^ a b Neary, J. Peter (2009). "Putting the 'New' into New Trade Theory: Paul Krugman's Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics" (PDF). Scandinavian Journal of Economics. 111 (2): 217–50. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9442.2009.01562.x.
  112. ^ a b c Hirsh, Michael (March 4, 1996). "A Nobel-Bound Economist Punctures the CW – and Not a Few Big-Name Washington Egos". Newsweek. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
  113. ^ ""China the financial nexus" – Krugman". Retrieved October 4, 2011.
  114. ^ a b c d e f g Confessore, Nicholas (December 2002). "Comparative Advantage". The Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on February 6, 2007. Retrieved February 5, 2007.
  115. ^ New Statesman, February 16, 2004, "NS Profile – Paul Krugman"
  116. ^ "Fresh Dialogues interview with Alison van Diggelen, November 2009". December 9, 2009. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
  117. ^ a b "Fresh Dialogues interview with Alison van Diggelen". December 9, 2009. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
  118. ^ (unattributed) (November 2003). "The one-handed economist". The Economist.
  119. ^ Okrent, Daniel (May 22, 2005). "13 Things I Meant to Write About but Never Did". The New York Times. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
  120. ^ a b c Evan Thomas, Newsweek, April 6, 2009, "Obama's Nobel Headache"
  121. ^ Larissa MacFarquhar (March 1, 2010). "The Deflationist: How Paul Krugman found politics". The New Yorker. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  122. ^ Paul Krugman (September 16, 2001). "Reckonings; Paying the Price". The Conscience of a Liberal. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  123. ^ Paul Krugman (September 11, 2011). "The Years of Shame". The Conscience of a Liberal. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  124. ^ Tim Mak (September 13, 2011). "Paul Krugman defenders attacked by conservative bloggers". The Politico. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  125. ^ Paul Krugman (January 19, 2016). "Weakened at Bernie's". The Conscience of a Liberal. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
  126. ^ Paul Krugman (April 8, 2016). "Sanders Over the Edge". Retrieved April 21, 2017.
  127. ^ "Leprechaun Economics and Neo-Lafferism". New York Times. November 8, 2017.
  128. ^ "Leprechauns of Eastern Europe". New York Times. December 4, 2017.
  129. ^ "The U.S. Has a 'Leprechaun Economy' Effect, Too". Bloomberg. July 19, 2017.
  130. ^ "Housing data reveals return of 'leprechaun economics'". Irish Times. April 21, 2017.
  131. ^ Paul Krugman (February 10, 2017). "When the Fire Comes". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  132. ^ Krugman, Paul (December 1994). "The Myth of Asia's Miracle". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved December 26, 2008.
  133. ^ Van Den Berg, Hendrik; Joshua J. Lewer (2006). International Trade and Economic Growth. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 98–105. ISBN 978-0-7656-1803-0.
  134. ^ Krugman, Paul (September 7, 1998). "Saving Asia: It's Time To Get Radical The IMF plan not only has failed to revive Asia's troubled economies but has worsened the situation. It's now time for some painful medicine". Fortune. Retrieved July 12, 2009.
  135. ^ Landler, Mark (September 4, 1999). "Malaysia Wins Its Economic Gamble". The New York Times. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  136. ^ Kaplan, Ethan; Dani Rodrik (February 2001). "Did the Malaysian Capital Controls Work?". NBER Working Paper (8142). doi:10.3386/w8142.
  137. ^ "Capital Control Freaks: How Malaysia got away with economic heresy", Slate, September 27, 1999. Retrieved 08-25-2009
  138. ^ Krugman, Paul (March 4, 2010). "Malaysian Memories". The New York Times. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
  139. ^ Krugman, Paul (December 4, 2012). "The IMF and Capital Controls". The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
  140. ^ "The Liberalization And Management Of Capital Flows: An Institutional View" November 14, 2012
  141. ^ Krugman, Paul (March 21, 2003). "Who Lost the U.S. Budget?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 25, 2009. Retrieved June 24, 2009.
  142. ^ Dana, Will (March 23, 2003). "Voodoo Economics". Rolling Stone. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
  143. ^ Lehrke, Dylan Lee (October 9, 2003). "Krugman blasts Bush". The Daily of the University of Washington. Archived from the original on October 9, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
  144. ^ a b Krugman, Paul (October 7, 2001). "Fuzzy Math Returns". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
  145. ^ Krugman, Paul (August 2, 2002). "Dubya's Double Dip?". The New York Times. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
  146. ^ Krugman, Paul (May 21, 2016). "Paul Krugman Commencement Speech?". Archived from the original on June 23, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
  147. ^ Krugman, Paul (August 29, 2005). "Greenspan and the Bubble". The New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  148. ^ Krugman, Paul (March 24, 2008). "Financial Crisis Should Be at Center of Election Debate". Spiegel Online. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  149. ^ Krugman, Paul (March 24, 2008). "Taming the Beast". The New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  150. ^ Krugman, Paul (March 29, 2008). "The Gramm connection". The New York Times. Retrieved June 24, 2009.
  151. ^ Lerer, Lisa (March 28, 2008). "McCain guru linked to subprime crisis". Politico. Retrieved June 24, 2009.
  152. ^ Paul Krugman. "Behind the Curve". The New York Times. March 9, 2009.
  153. ^ "Fresh Dialogues interview with Alison van Diggelen, November 2009". November 13, 2009. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
  154. ^ Paul Krugman (March 15, 2010). "Taking on China". The New York Times Company. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
  155. ^ Jeremy Warner (March 19, 2010). "Paul Krugman, the Nobel prize winner who threatens the world". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
  156. ^ Krugman, Paul (April 23, 2010). "Don't cry for Wall Street". The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
  157. ^ Shleifer, Andrei; Vishny, Robert; Gennaioli, Nicola (April 12, 2010). "Financial Innovation and Financial Fragility" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 6, 2010. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
  158. ^ Krugman, Paul (June 28, 2010). "The Third Depression". The New York Times. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
  159. ^ "Why We're in a New Gilded Age by Paul Krugman". May 8, 2014.
  160. ^ Krugman, Paul (October 16, 2009). "Samuel Brittan's recipe for recovery". The New York Times.
  161. ^ Krugman, Paul (June 6, 2015). "Why am I a Keynesian?". The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2015.[permanent dead link]
  162. ^ Krugman, Paul (July 29, 2009). "The lessons of 1979–82". The New York Times.
  163. ^ Krugman, Paul (September 23, 2009). "The freshwater backlash (boring)". The New York Times.
  164. ^ a b Krugman, Paul. (2009-9-2). "How Did Economists Get It So Wrong?". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
  165. ^ Krugman, Paul (August 30, 2011). "Who You Gonna Bet On, Yet Again (Somewhat Wonkish)". Conscience of a Liberal (blog). The New York Times. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
  166. ^ Krugman, Paul. "There's something about macro". MIT. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
  167. ^ Krugman, Paul (June 21, 2011). "Mr. Keynes and the Moderns" (PDF). VOX (originally for Cambridge conference commemorating the 75th anniversary of the publication of The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money). Retrieved November 18, 2011.
  168. ^ Krugman, Paul (May 19, 2009). Actually existing Minsky. The New York Times.
  169. ^ Rezende, Felipe C. (August 18, 2009). "Keynes's Relevance and Krugman's Economics". Archived from the original on November 4, 2017. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  170. ^ Conceicao, Daniel Negreiros (July 19, 2009). "Krugman's New Cross Confirms It: Job Guarantee Policies Are Needed as Macroeconomic Stabilizers". Archived from the original on August 26, 2017. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  171. ^ Mitchell, Bill (July 18, 2009). "Nobel prize winner sounding a trifle modern moneyish".
  172. ^ Eggertsson, Gauti B.; Krugman, Paul (June 14, 2012). "Debt, Deleveraging, and the Liquidity Trap: A Fisher-Minsky-Koo Approach" (PDF). Quarterly Journal of Economics. 127 (3): 1469–513. doi:10.1093/qje/qjs023.
  173. ^ Dale, Leigh; Gilbert, Helen (2007). Economies of representation, 1790–2000: colonialism and commerce. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 200–01. ISBN 978-0-7546-6257-0. " seem to want to shame students into believing that there are no well-grounded arguments against coercing poor countries into free trade. ... This is poor logic, and pernicious insensitivity."
  174. ^ a b "Ricardo's difficult idea". 1996. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
  175. ^ Glasbeek, H. J. (2002). Wealth by stealth: corporate crime, corporate law, and the perversion of democracy. Between The Lines. p. 258. ISBN 978-1-896357-41-6. "As E.P. Thompson once noted, there are always willing experts and opinion leaders, such as Friedman and Krugman, to give a patina of legitimacy to the claims of the powerful ill-concealed cheer-leading . ... "
  176. ^ Dev Gupta, Satya (1997). The political economy of globalization. Springer. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7923-9903-2.
  177. ^ Krugman, Paul R. (1987). "Is Free Trade Passe?". The Journal of Economic Perspectives. 1 (2): 131–44. doi:10.1257/jep.1.2.131. JSTOR 1942985.
  178. ^ Paul Krugman (May 22, 2015). "Trade and Trust". The New York Times. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  179. ^
  180. ^
  181. ^
  182. ^
  183. ^
  184. ^
  185. ^
  186. ^
  187. ^
  188. ^
  189. ^
  190. ^
  191. ^
  192. ^
  193. ^
  194. ^
  195. ^
  196. ^
  197. ^ Reckonings; A Rent Affair, by Paul Krugman, The New York Times, June 7, 2000
  198. ^ Inequality and the City, by Paul Krugman, The New York Times, November 30, 2015
  199. ^ True Blue Americans Archived December 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, by Paul Krugman, The New York Times, May 7, 2002
  200. ^ Book review of Living Wage: What It Is and Why We Need It Paul Krugman, Washington Monthly, September 1, 1998
  201. ^ Driving Under the Influence, by Paul Krugman, The New York Times, June 25, 2000
  202. ^ A Failed Mission Archived December 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, by Paul Krugman, The New York Times, February 4, 2003
  203. ^ Paul Krugman (August 14, 2011). "The Texas Unmiracle". The New York Times.
  204. ^ Reckonings; Pursuing Happiness, by Paul Krugman, The New York Times, March 29, 2000
  205. ^ Reckonings; Blessed Are the Weak, by Paul Krugman, The New York Times, May 3, 2000
  206. ^ The Crisis of Zionism, by Paul Krugman, The New York Times, April 24, 2012
  207. ^ Kaufman, S. Salon July 9, 2016.
  208. ^ Krugman, Paul (November 19, 2007). "Republicans and Race". The New York Times.
  209. ^ Krugman, Paul (August 7, 2009). "The Town Hall Mob". The New York Times.
  210. ^ Amponsah, William (December 3, 2007). "The Conscience of a Liberal: Book Review". Savannah Daily News.
  211. ^ Parini, Jay (March 22, 2008). "Review: The Conscience of a Liberal". The Guardian.
  212. ^ a b Krugman, Paul (June 7, 2009). "Gordon the Unlucky". The New York Times.
  213. ^ Sparrow, Andrew (December 24, 2010). "Thirty new facts about Gordon Brown from Anthony Seldon's book". The Guardian.
  214. ^ Krugman, Paul (October 12, 2008). "Gordon Does Good". The New York Times.
  215. ^ "Why Was Paul Krugman So Wrong?". The Nation. April 1, 2013.
  216. ^ Krugman, Paul (September 29, 2017). "Trump's Deadly Narcissism". The New York Times. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  217. ^ "Robin Wells". Macmillan Learning. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
  218. ^ Krugman, Paul (December 19, 2007). "About my son (blog post)". The New York Times.
  219. ^ MacFarquhar, Larissa (March 1, 2010). "THE DEFLATIONIST: How Paul Krugman found politics". The New Yorker.
  220. ^ Krugman, Paul (January 10, 2003). "Your questions answered". Blog archive. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
  221. ^ Krugman, Paul (November 30, 2015). "Inequality and the City". The New York Times.
  222. ^ a b Krugman, Paul (February 28, 2014). "Changes (Personal/Professional) (blog post)". The New York Times.
  223. ^ "Noted Economist Paul Krugman to Join Graduate Center Faculty in 2015" (Press release). The Graduate Center, CUNY. February 28, 2014.
  224. ^ Krugman, Paul (March 25, 2010). "David Frum, AEI, Heritage And Health Care (blog post)". The New York Times.
  225. ^ Clark, Andrew (May 28, 2011). "Paul Krugman: liberal loner who thinks Obama is spineless and Gordon Brown saved the world". The Guardian.
External links Paul Krugmanat Wikipedia's sister projects Awards Preceded by
Leonid Hurwicz
Eric S. Maskin
Roger B. Myerson Laureate of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics
2008 Succeeded by
Elinor Ostrom
Oliver E. Williamson KeynesiansFounder Neo-Keynesians Post-Keynesians New Keynesians Macroeconomic schools of thought Gerald Loeb Award winners for Columns, Commentary, and EditorialsGerald Loeb Award for Editorials (1970–1972)(1970–1973) Gerald Loeb Award for Columns/Editorial (1973–1975, 1978–1982)(1973–1975) (1978–1979) (1980–1982) Gerald Loeb Award for Columns (1977)(1977) Gerald Loeb Award for Editorial/Commentary (1984)(1984) Gerald Loeb Award for Commentary (1985–2018)(1985–1989) (1990–1999) (2000–2009) (2010–2018) John Bates Clark Medal recipients Laureates of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences1969–1975 1976–2000 2001–present Authority control

Custom Search
Paul Krugman
Paul Krugman Macroeconomics
Paul Krugman Economics
Paul Krugman Microeconomics
Paul Krugman International Economics
Paul Krugman Blog
Paul Krugman Essentials Of Economics
Paul Krugman And Robin Wells Microeconomics 3rd Edition
Paul Krugman Microeconomics 3rd Edition
Paul Krugman. The Return Of Depression Economics And The Crisis Of 2008

Paul Krugman
Paul Krugman Macroeconomics
Paul Krugman Economics
Paul Krugman Microeconomics
Paul Krugman International Economics
Paul Krugman Blog
Paul Krugman Essentials Of Economics
Paul Krugman And Robin Wells Microeconomics 3rd Edition
Paul Krugman Microeconomics 3rd Edition
Paul Krugman. The Return Of Depression Economics And The Crisis Of 2008

Paul Krugman

Project of very low consumption, radiation and bitrate softphones, with the support of the spatial audio, of the frequency shifts and of the ultrasonic communications
Multifunction Audio Filter with Remote Control
More Information
Free the Animation VR

Play to reveal 3D images and 3D models
More Information

WhmSoft Moblog
Copyright (C) 2006-2019 WhmSoft
All Rights Reserved