What Dreams May Come
What Dreams May Come

What Dreams May Come (film)
What Dreams May Come is a 1998 American fantasy drama film, starring Robin Williams and Cuba Gooding Jr. The film is based on the 1978 novel of the same

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What Dreams May ComeTheatrical release posterDirected byVincent WardProduced byStephen Deutsch
Barnet BainScreenplay byRonald BassStory byRichard MathesonBased onWhat Dreams May Come
by Richard MathesonStarring Music byMichael KamenCinematographyEduardo SerraEdited byDavid BrennerProduction
company Interscope CommunicationsDistributed byPolyGram Filmed Entertainment (thru Universal Studios)Release date Running time113 minutesCountryUnited StatesLanguageEnglishBudget$85-90 million[1][2]Box office$71.5 million[3]

What Dreams May Come is a 1998 American fantasy drama film, starring Robin Williams and Cuba Gooding Jr. The film is based on the 1978 novel of the same name by Richard Matheson, and was directed by Vincent Ward. It won the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects and the Art Directors Guild Award for Excellence in Production Design. It was also nominated for the Academy Award for Best Art Direction. The title is from a line in Hamlet's "To be, or not to be" soliloquy.[4]

Contents Plot

While vacationing in Switzerland, pediatrician Chris Nielsen (Robin Williams) meets artist Annie Collins (Annabella Sciorra). They are attracted to each other, and bond as if they had known each other for a long time. They marry and have two children, Ian (Josh Paddock) and Marie (Jessica Brooks Grant). Their idyllic life ends when the children die in a car crash. Life becomes difficult: Annie suffers a mental breakdown, and the couple contemplates divorce, but they manage through their losses.

On the anniversary of the day they decided not to divorce, Chris is also killed in a car crash. Unaware that he is dead, and confused that no one will interact with him, Chris lingers on Earth. He sees Annie's attempts to cope with his loss and attempts to communicate with her, despite advice from a presence that this will only cause her more pain. When his attempts cause more sorrow, he decides to move on.

Chris awakens in Heaven, and learns that his immediate surroundings can be controlled by his imagination. He meets a man (Cuba Gooding Jr.) he recognizes as Albert Lewis, his friend and mentor from his medical residency, and the presence from his time as a "ghost" on Earth. Albert will guide and help in this new afterlife. Albert teaches Chris about his existence in Heaven, and how to shape his little corner, and to travel to others' "dreams." They are surprised when a Blue Jacaranda tree appears unbidden in Chris' surroundings, matching a tree in a new painting by Annie, inspired by Annie's belief that she can communicate with Chris in the afterlife. Albert explains that this is a sign that the couple are truly soul mates. Annie decides that Chris cannot "see" the painting, however, and destroys it. At the same time, Chris sees his version of the tree disintegrate before his eyes.

Chris laments that he can no longer see his wife and soon encounters a woman who he comes to recognize as his daughter Marie, living in an area resembling a diorama that she loved in her lifetime. The two share a tearful reunion.

Meanwhile, Annie is wracked with guilt for the deaths of Chris and their children, believing that she was responsible for the chains of events which led to both car crashes (in reality, both were sheer bad luck), and dies by suicide. Chris, who is initially relieved that her suffering is done, grows angry when he learns that those who die by suicide go to Hell; this is not the result of a judgment made against them, but rather their own tendency to create "nightmare" afterlife worlds based on their pain. Chris is adamant that he will rescue Annie from Hell, despite Albert's insistence that no one has ever succeeded in doing so with someone who died by suicide. Albert agrees to find Chris a "tracker" to help search for Annie's soul.

On the journey to Hell, Chris recalls his son, Ian. Remembering how he'd called him the one man he'd want at his side to brave Hell, Chris realizes that Albert is truly Ian. Ian explains that he chose Albert's appearance because he knew that Chris would listen to Albert without reservation. Before they part, Ian begs Chris to remember how he saved his marriage following Ian and Marie's deaths. Chris then journeys onward with the tracker.

Chris must walk across the field of Faces of the Damned, stepping on their faces as he navigates across it. The damned can be heard talking, including a businesswoman who says she never over-billed her clients. Chris and the tracker arrive at a dark and twisted version of Chris and Annie's house. The tracker then reveals himself as the real Albert and warns Chris that if he stays with Annie for more than a few minutes he may be permanently trapped in Hell, advising that all Chris can reasonably expect is an opportunity for a final farewell to Annie.

Chris enters their now-horrific looking home to find Annie suffering from amnesia, unable to remember her suicide, and visibly tortured by her decrepit surroundings. Unable to stir her memories, the tracker sees Chris give up his quest to save Annie from Hell. But instead of returning to Heaven, Chris chooses to join Annie forever in Hell. As he declares to Annie his intent to stay, his words parallel something he'd said to her as he left her in an institution following the children's deaths, and she regains her memories while Chris is making her nightmare his. Annie, wanting nothing more than to save Chris, ascends to Heaven, taking Chris with her.

Chris and Annie are reunited with their children in Heaven, and all appearances are restored. Chris proposes reincarnation, so he and Annie can experience life together again. The film ends with Chris and Annie meeting again as young children in a situation that parallels their first meeting.


Additionally, director Werner Herzog has a cameo as one of the Faces of the Damned.


Principal photography for What Dreams May Come began in late June 1997. It was shot largely on Fuji Velvia film and is one of few films to have been shot in this manner. The Fuji Velvia film is known among landscape photographers for its vivid color reproduction.[5] The visual effects developments were created by Mass.lllusions in the same R&D group that developed the bullet time visual effects in The Matrix.[6]

Filming locations include places in Marin County, Alameda County, Glacier National Park,[7] and Angel Falls.[8] Part of the "Hell" sequence was filmed on the decrepit hull of the Essex class aircraft carrier USS Oriskany (CV-34) while berthed at Mare Island in Vallejo, California. The ship was later sunk to make an artificial reef on May 17, 2006.[9]

The original prints of the film were lost in a fire at Universal Studios' backlot on June 1, 2008. A worldwide search was launched for a copy, which was found in Europe.[10]

The special edition DVD and the 2011 Blu-ray show an alternate ending — the ending from the novel — in which reincarnation is not a choice, but part of the natural order. Chris and Annie will meet again in their new lives, but Annie must atone for killing herself — her new incarnation will die young, and Chris will spend the remainder of this life as a widower before the two are again reunited in Heaven. The film then goes to Sri Lanka where a woman is giving birth to a girl, presumed to be Annie. In Philadelphia, a boy is born, presumably Chris.


The musical score for What Dreams May Come was composed and conducted by Michael Kamen and produced by James Seymour Brett. Ennio Morricone had completed and recorded a full score for the film but, after editorial changes were made, his score was rejected and Kamen was hired in his place. Short on time, Kamen took the song "Beside You" from his band the New York Rock & Roll Ensemble's 1971 album Roll Over and adapted it as the film's main musical theme.[11] With just over three weeks to write, record, and mix the score, Kamen took a more direct approach. "I was at an extremely profound juncture in my own life at that time, and the film produced a powerful and personal response in me," said Kamen. "I know, despite the mixed response to the film itself, that I accomplished one of my best and most focused scores."[12]

The score was performed by the London Metropolitan Orchestra and recorded at both Air Studios and Abbey Road Studios. A soundtrack album was released on October 13, 1998 by Beyond Records.[13][14]

Differences from the novel This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (September 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The novel has significant differences from the film, in its plot and its vision of the afterlife.

In the novel, there are far more references to Theosophical, New Age and paranormal beliefs.[15] The author Richard Matheson claims in an introductory note that only the characters are fictional, and that most everything else is based on research (the book includes an extensive bibliography). Story elements that do not show up in the film include astral projection, telepathy, a séance, and the term "Summerland" (a name for a simplified Heaven in Theosophy, and for Heaven in general in religions such as Wicca).

The details of Chris's life on Earth differ strongly in the novel. Only Chris and his wife (called Ann) die. Their children, who are grownups rather than youngsters, remain alive, as minor characters. Albert and Leona are the people they appear to be, and the character played by Max Von Sydow does not appear in the book. Albert is Chris's cousin rather than simply a friend. Chris and Ann are rural types rather than the urbanites portrayed in the film, and he is not a pediatrician, nor is she a painter. He is a Hollywood screenwriter, and she has a variety of jobs.

In the book the afterlife imagery is based on natural scenery rather than paintings. The novel's depiction of Hell is considerably more violent than in the film. Chris finds it difficult to move, breathe, or see, and he suffers physical torture at the hands of some inhabitants. He does not encounter ships, thunderstorms, fire, or the sea of human faces that his film counterpart walks upon. Instead, he and Albert climb craggy cliffs and encounter such sights as a swarm of insects that attack people.

Ann is consigned to Hell for just 24 years, not eternity. At the end, which resembles an alternate version[clarification needed] of the film but not the standard version, she escapes from Hell by being reincarnated, because she is not ready for Heaven.


The film was the second highest grossing film at the domestic box office in its opening week and went on to earn $55 million at the North American box office, while grossing a further $16 million worldwide.[3]

Upon its initial release, critical reception for What Dreams May Come was mixed. On aggregating review website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 54%, based on 69 reviews, with an average score of 5.6/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "An insubstantial plot overshadows the beautiful, surreal scenery."[16] Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating based on reviews from top mainstream critics, calculated an average score of 44 out of 100, based on 25 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews."[17]

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times awarded the film three and a half stars out of four, remarking:

“ This is a film that even in its imperfect form shows how movies can imagine the unknown, can lead our imaginations into wonderful places. And it contains heartbreakingly effective performances by Robin Williams and Annabella Sciorra."[18] ”

James Berardinelli of ReelViews gave What Dreams May Come three stars out of four, saying:

“ Many movies have offered representations of heaven and hell, but few with as much conviction and creativity as What Dreams May Come. The plot, which focuses on the sacrifices one man will make for true love, is neither complicated nor original, but, bolstered by the director's incredible visual sense, it becomes an affecting piece of drama.[19] ”

Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly gave the movie a C+, writing, "There's a central contradiction in a fairy tale like this one: the film may preach to the audience about matters of the spirit, but its bejeweled special-effects vision of the afterlife can't help but come off as aggressively literal-minded."[20] Leonard Maltin, in his annual publication TV Movies, gave the film a "BOMB" rating, describing it as being "off-putting gobbledygook."[21]


Award Category Recipient Result Academy Awards Best Visual Effects Nicholas Brooks, Joel Hynek, Kevin Mack, and Stuart Robertson Won Best Art Direction Eugenio Zanetti and Cindy Carr Nominated Art Directors Guild Excellence in Production Design Eugenio Zanetti, Jim Dultz, Tomas Voth and Christian Wintter Won Satellite Awards Best Visual Effects Won See also References
  1. ^ McCarthy, Todd (29 September 1998). "What Dreams May Come". Variety. Retrieved 23 March 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Simon, Stephen. "Information And Application for Stephen Simon Film Mentoring Program". Bringing Back the Old Hollywood. Retrieved 23 March 2018. I've made films with budgets ranging from $500,000 (Indigo) to $90 million (What Dreams May Come)
  3. ^ a b "What Dreams May Come (1998) - Financial Information". The Numbers. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  4. ^ No Sweat Shakespeare, To Be Or Not To Be: Hamlet Soliloquy. Line 11.
  5. ^ What Dreams May Come Movie Review Cinema Blend
  6. ^ Failes, Ian (September 27, 2018). "Painting the Afterlife in WHAT DREAMS MAY COME". VFX Voice. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  7. ^ What Dreams May Come locations. Film In America
  8. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0120889/locations?ref_=tt_dt_dt Filming locations
  9. ^ Williams, Carol J. (May 10, 2006). "Carrier Will Sink to Serve". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
  10. ^ Fires - June 1st 2008, studiotour.com, Universal Studios
  11. ^ WHAT DREAMS MAY COME - "They rejected it because it was too emotional?", Radio Soundtrack f-m
  12. ^ Goldwasser, Dan (September 4, 1999). "Dreams of Giants With Michael Kamen". Soundtrack.Net. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  13. ^ Clemmensen, Christian (October 15, 1998). "Filmtracks: What Dreams May Come (Michael Kamen)". Filmtracks.com. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  14. ^ "What Dreams May Come - Michael Kamen". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  15. ^ Julien R. Fielding, Discovering World Religions At 24 Frames Per Second, published in Journal of Media and Religion Volume 8, Issue 4, Oct. 2009.
  16. ^ "What Dreams May Come (1998)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  17. ^ "What Dreams May Come Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  18. ^ Ebert, Roger. What Dreams May Come review, Chicago Sun-Times, October 2, 1998.
  19. ^ Berardinelli, James. What Dreams May Come review, ReelViews.net, 1998.
  20. ^ Gleiberman, Owen. "Review - What Dreams May Come". www.ew.com. January 1, 2000.
  21. ^ Maltin, Leonard (2014). Leonard Maltin's 2015 Movie Guide. New York: Penguin. ISBN 9780698183612.
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